Extractions: Corals, brightly colored marine animals when alive, have lived in the sea as individuals and in colonies for about 475 million years. As each animal secretes an external skeleton, corals are prominent reef-building organisms. They are predatory even though they are attached and cannot move around. Tentacles armed with stinging cells are used to capture prey. More than 400 million years ago many reefs existed in the seas that covered this region. Petroleum occurs in fossil reefs and in rocks structurally affected by reefs. Reef areas can be used for storing natural gas. And in Indiana, reefs are sources of excellent aggregate and high purity limestone. Thus geologists study ancient reefs just as they have studied corals for more than a century. Our Hoosier State Beneath Us: Paleontology
Hodges, L. T. --- Fossil Binding In Modern And Ancient Reefs FOSSIL BINDING IN MODERN AND ancient reefs Lance T. Hodges Department of Pharmacology and Physiology Loma Linda University An extended period of time is necessary for organisms to build a modern reef. Are these ancient reefs true reefs that took a long time to develop? Journal of paleontology 6011471158. Pasley, D. 1972. http://www.grisda.org/origins/14084.htm
Extractions: IN A FEW WORDS REACTION An extended period of time is necessary for organisms to build a modern reef. The same would seem to apply to ancient reefs described in the geologic record of the past. Are these ancient reefs true reefs that took a long time to develop? We shall consider some comparisons between modern and ancient reefs. A. Great Lakes Fossil Reefs The geological literature states that fossil reefs are found in many parts of the world. Many reefs are reported from the Paleozoic era which includes the Silurian and Devonian periods. The fossil reefs of the Great Lakes region in Silurian and Devonian rocks have been studied fairly intensively for about 60 years. These Great Lakes reefs are composed of a central mound or core of massive dolostone (Silurian) or limestone (Devonian), surrounded by flank beds which dip away from the central core. The cores may be a few feet to many hundreds of feet across. Parts of such reef complexes can be observed in limestone quarries, roadcuts, and outcrops. When the average person thinks of a reef, he envisions a beautiful, colorful, underwater scene with rock-like coral and algal growth, fish, and other marine plants and animals. He might then expect that corals and other calcareous rock-forming organisms would be essential and important parts of the fossil reefs which now are found elevated on dry land, and assumed to have grown in the ocean. This expectation is in fact the case for "modern" fossil reefs now found in such places as the Florida Keys, Jamaica, and Barbados. But what of the fossil reefs of the Great Lakes region? Are they composed largely of a framework of corals and other calcareous binding fossils?
Roth, A. A. --- Fossil Reefs And Time Hodges LT. 1987. Fossil binding in modern and ancient reefs. Origins 148491. HodgesLT, Roth AA. 1986. Journal of paleontology 601147-1158. Hoffman P. 1973. http://www.grisda.org/origins/22086.htm
Extractions: Geoscience Research Institute Origins WHAT THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT Ancient fossil reefs found within Earth's sedimentary rocks are considered to be a challenge to the biblical concept of creation. Their presence is regarded as favoring models which propose that life developed gradually over many millions of years. The problem for the biblical model is that an abundance of time is required to grow a reef and the hundreds of fossil reefs found would require so much time to develop that they cannot be accommodated into the biblical time framework of a recent creation a few thousand years ago. Do these fossil reefs really negate the biblical account of beginnings? There are alternative interpretations that do not require long ages. For instance, these "reefs" may not be real reefs. There are serious questions about the authenticity of many fossil reefs, because they differ significantly from present reefs. Another possibility is that some fossil reefs could have been formed between the time of creation and the flood described in the Bible, and were subsequently buried by that world-wide catastrophe. Both alternatives seem plausible. INTRODUCTION Pilots of ships spend considerable time worrying about rocky structures called reefs which lie at or just below the surface of the ocean. These reefs are especially common in warm tropical seas, where coral, algae and associated organisms slowly build these insidious structures which have caused many a ship to founder. Reefs, sometimes called coral reefs, come in many sizes and shapes and represent some of our most complex marine ecological systems.
Cpm\PaleoSci\links as you hold the bizarre, ancient creature. The sun beats some sandy beaches resting on coral reefs. There are no Quarries operate in these ancient reefs (which are now on http://www.paleosoc.org/links.html
Extractions: Numerous resources exist on the net for learning more about the history of life on earth. Here are some of them: I Want to Be a Paleontologist! an online brochure from the Paleontological Research Institution. I want to collect dinosaurs! Information on field opportunities, as well as other paleontological links, can be found on Russ Jacobson's Earthnet Info Server. Tell me more about evolution! Talk.origins is a Usenet newsgroup devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins. Most discussions in the newsgroup center on the creation/evolution controversy, but other topics of discussion include the origin of life, geology, biology, catastrophism, cosmology and theology. Their archive provides mainstream scientific responses to the many frequently asked questions (FAQs) and frequently rebutted assertions that appear in talk.origins. The PaleoNet Pages are an on-line clearinghouse for paleontological information. Features of the PaleoNet Pages include: information and on-line subscription/unsubscription instructions with e-mail links to all PaleoNet listservers; access to PaleoNet Archives, PaleoNet FTP Site, the PaleoNet Gopher and the PaleoNet Forum (an experiment in the creation of an electronic paleontological journal. Also links to: other on-line paleontological resources, a collection of public-domain images of paleontological objects/subjects, an on-line listing of positions for professional paleontologists, and lots of other things!
Claudia Johnson of scleractinian corals and ancient rudist bivalves in require information integratedfrom paleontology, geology and Evolution of Ecosystems; reefs and Global http://www.indiana.edu/~geosci/people/faculty/johnson.html
Extractions: writeEmail('claudia','indiana.edu','E-mail'); Complete Curriculum vitae Geobiology Research Page The focus of my research is to evaluate the processes driving evolution in the tropics. For my research endeavors I use the tropical reef ecosystem as the empirical, non-taxonomic, quantitative database that I analyze using statistical methods. I then synthesize patterns and processes affecting reef evolution and demise, and evaluate the biotic changes in the context of the tropical ocean-climate system. Questions driving my research inititatives are the following: Why are there biotic replacements of one group by another in tropical ecosystems? What are the rates and magnitudes of the replacements, and what are the processes involved? Will a similar biotic replacement occur in our future reef ecosystem as we move toward a "greenhouse" state? My research is funded by the following grants: NSF EAR 0224868, 7/1/2002-6/30/2003: Sequence stratigraphy and paleocommunity analysis of an Oligocene reef tract, Lares Limestone, Puerto Rico
Extractions: Glen J. Kuban, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ArchNet-Archaeology Resources Sea-monster of Shark? by Glen Kuban - Addresses claims that a modern "plesiosaur" carcass was netted off the coast of New Zealand in 1977. Enquiring minds want to know. Ben Roesch's Cryptozoology Page - Devoted to the search for unconfirmed animals, including living dinosaurs. Ben is perhaps the world's most knowledgeable teenage cryptozoologist. PaleoChat - A real-time chat room devoted to Paleontology, Paleoanthropology, and Evolutionary Biology. Computational Paleontology - Devoted to the application of mathematical models, simulations, and computer graphics in paleontology. Geologic artifact tours Morphometrics at SUNY Stony Brook The Jurassic Reef Park - By Reinhold Leinfelder, Stuttgart, Gernamy. Compares modern and Ancient reefs. Reefs - The Reef Group at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. A HREF="http://www.geo.arizona.edu/ceam/"> Taphonomy of invertebrates
Facies Models information on both the sedimentology and paleontology of reefs. The model itself has been between modern reefs, especially Caribbean reefs, and ancient reefs is difficult because http://www.geology.iupui.edu/classes/g130/reefs/fm.htm
Extractions: A reef, rising above the sea floor, is an entity of its own making - a sedimentary system within itself. The numerous, large calcium carbonate secreting organisms stand upon the remains of their ancestors and are surrounded and often buried by the skeletal remains of the many small organisms that once lived on, beneath, and between them. Because they are built by organisms, fossil reefs ( Fig. 1 ) are storehouses of paleontological information and modern reefs are natural laboratories for the study of benthic marine ecology. Also, fossil reefs buried in the subsurface contain a disproportionately large amount of our oil and gas reserves compared to other types of sedimentary deposits. For these reasons, reefs have been studied in detail by paleontologists and sedimentologists, perhaps more intensely than any other single sedimentary deposit, yet from two very different viewpoints. This paper is an integration of these two viewpoints. I shall concentrate less on the familiar trinity of back-reef, reef, and fore-reef, but more on the complex facies of the reef proper. Since the first edition of Facies Models, there has been much new information on both the sedimentology and paleontology of reefs. The model itself has been presented elsewhere (James, 1983) and amplified using numerous examples from the modern and fossil record. In this present version the model remains unchanged but many of the underlying concepts and implications that flow from it have been revised and/or enlarged.
PALEONTOLOGY The founder of the evolution paleontology VO.Kovalevsky, emphasizing the other organisms,sphinctozoans participated in building of ancient reefs existed in http://www.fegi.ru/FEGI/museum/paleo_e.htm
Extractions: The museum of the FEGI keeps the monographic collection of Triassic ammonoids ( Sample 3 ), collected by a doctor of geological-mineralogical sciences Yu.D.Zakharov for years on Russky Island, coasts of Amursky and Ussuriisky bays, and in Artemovka River basin. The collection is represented by 102 species of 66 genera. Findings of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ammonoids in the Far East specify the global correlations of Permian-Triassic deposits and thereby contribute to the development of subdivided stratigraphic schemes important for search-surveying works. A new species of ammonoids (Timorites markevichi Yu.Zakharov) was found in Permian deposits in Vladivostok surroundings, in 1986 by a researcher of the Institute Dr. P.V.Markevich. It is only the third site on the territory of the former Soviet Union, where Permian cephalopod of this genus appeared. Ectococh-lian fossil cephalopods - ammonoids - existed during 200 million years and died about 67 million years ago (in ancient times they were considered the horns of heathen god Ammon, that explains their name). The founder of the evolution paleontology V.O.Kovalevsky, emphasizing the significance of this fossil animal group for the development of the geochronological scale, called figuratively the ammonoids minute hand of geological clock.
ISGS Paleontology Links of mathematical models, simulation, computer graphics and computers in general inpaleontology. on What are the general features of modern and ancient reefs? http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/earthsci/paleo.htm
Extractions: Table of Contents FAQ Frequently asked questions about paleontology and fossil collecting. FOSSILS IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR , W. D. Boyce, Provincial Paleontologist, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Mines and Energy. The province of Newfoundland and Labrador is world famous for its fossils and has long been favored by collectors and researchers. Fossil News - Journal of Amateur Paleontology. Fossil News a journal dedicated to the activities of amateur paleontologists and fossil enthusiasts. Info about journal and online articles from past issues that are of interest to amateur paleontologists.
GeoNews December 1996 Ancient Sea Rocks explore what was once an ancient sea floor experts on Silurian geology and paleontology,they travel National Petroleum Corporation, studies how reefs are formed http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/isgsroot/news/geonews/dec96/ancientr.html
Extractions: Illinois State Geological Survey They have come to Illinois to explore what was once an ancient sea floor. The attraction? A chance to learn what the midwestern United States was like during the Silurian Period about 400 million years ago, and to take home fossils of animals that flourished long before the age of the dinosaur. The fossil seekers from England, eastern Europe, and China have more than a casual interest. All experts on Silurian geology and paleontology, they travel the world to study Silurian-aged rocks and fossils. Geologists Donald Mikulic of the ISGS and Joanne Kluessendorf from the University of Illinois are guiding the paleontologists and sedimentologists on a comprehensive tour of the Silurian System in the central United States. The small international contingent is exploring such famous Silurian sites as the Thornton Reef, Waldron Shale, and Niagara Escarpment in Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin. "New discoveries have been made in this area," says Mikulic. Studies on conodonts (tiny toothlike fossils) were conducted by ISGS geologist Rodney Norby and sedimentological work was performed by Mikulic and Kluessendorf. "On this field trip," continues Mikulic, who organized the tour and raised funds to subsidize some participants' fees, "we are highlighting these recent studies, as well as past research on Silurian rocks and fossils in Illinois and surrounding states.
George Stanley's UM Page paleontology of modern and ancient reefs, University of Montana.Category Science Earth Sciences Paleontologists Invertebrate in scope and deal with invertebrate paleontology, paleoecology and paleogeographywith specialization on modern and ancient reefs, especially those of the http://www.cs.umt.edu/GEOLOGY/FAC/stanley.html
Extractions: Ph.D. The University of Kansas Research Interests Courses Taught Current Activities My research and teaching are international in scope and deal with invertebrate paleontology, paleoecology and paleogeography with specialization on modern and ancient reefs, especially those of the early Mesozoic. I am busy working with students on several paleontological projects: NSF-sponsored project on reef evolution and recoveries from mass extinctions in Cordilleran in reef of early Mesozoic age. Stratigraphic geology and paleontology of northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
American Scientist - Johnson Keywords paleontology, Cretaceous, bivalves, coral reefs. she integrated her databaseon reefs with computer extinction, Johnson has studied ancient and modern http://americanscientist.org/articles/02articles/Johnson.html
Extractions: During the warm Cretaceous period, when dinosaurs roamed the continents, oddly shaped mollusks called rudists dominated the Earths shallow tropical seas, where they build massive reefs. The rudists reign lasted nearly until the end of the Cretaceous, just prior to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The author investigates whether the shifting climate and sea level at the time may have led to the rudists demise. Claudia Johnson is an assistant professor of geological sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Colorado, Boulder, in 1993 and was a post-doctoral investigator at Pennsylvania State University, where she integrated her database on reefs with computer models of past oceanic circulation. Specializing in reef evolution and extinction, Johnson has studied ancient and modern reef ecosystems in many parts of the world. She is currently investigating the persistence of reef ecosystems over 500 million years and the biological laws governing their latitudinal diversity. Address: Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, 1001 East 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-1405. Internet:
Geology Virtual WWW Library - Geology Links to More Information paleontology and Fossil Resources Links List. Universityof Newcastle Jurassic Reef Park - Introduction to ancient reefs The KT http://www.geologyone.com/geologylinks.htm
Extractions: Reefgroup Munich-Stuttgart from the Institute of Paleontology and Historical Geology, University of Munich, and the Institute of Geology and Paleontology, University of Stuttgart (IGPS), Germany : Modern and Ancient reefs, reef research, fotos, models, literature, events, news, Jurassic Reef Park, Links etc.
Extractions: Alpine Jurassic working group Compiled by Dr Michael Rasser, a palaeontologist at Geologische Bundesanstalt, Vienna, this site aims to "present and support the work of geologists and paleontologists studying the Alpine Jurassic". The site includes a searchable literature database (currently containing 1134 records), descriptions of ongoing projects, a directory of people in the field and related links. Paleoecology; Paleontology/Jurassic; Catalogues / Paleontological Museum, University of Oslo A series of very detailed catalogues of fossil and mineral collections at the Paleontological Museum, University of Oslo in Norway and from other collections studied by the Museum's staff. The catalogues cover the Conrad Møller collection of Cenozoic mammals from Uruguay, fossils and geological material from Novaya Zemlya (USSR), Jurassic/Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks from Andøya (northern Norway), trilobites figured in Friedrich Schmidts, Revision der ostbaltischen silurischen Trilobiten (1881-1907)". They all provide extensive information and images but the latter is particularly well presented and detailed. All the information is in English. Mammalia; Trilobita; Mammals, Fossil; Trilobites; Animals, Fossil; Paleontology; Arachnomorpha;
Extractions: BUGS coleopteran ecology package : an interpretative tool for insect ecology and palaeoentomology This site, from the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory at the University of Umea, offers BUGS, a freely downloadable entomological and palaeoentomological database. The database has been compiled using Microsoft Access as part of an ongoing project to provide habitat and distribution data on the North European beetle fauna and its Quaternary fossil record. The site also provides background information on the project and how to use the database. Other resources include QBIB, a bibliography of 1,500 references relating to Quaternary insects, and links to related sites. Paleoentomology/Quaternary; Entomology; Paleoentomology; Insects, Fossil; Climatic reconstruction through beetle proxy temperature data : from BUGS to MCR, the next stage These pages are based on a poster presented by Dr Phil Buckland at the Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa conference held in Aix-en-Provence, France, in August 2001. The site describes a project in the Environmental Archaeology Lab at Umea University, Sweden, which aims to reconstruct past climates using fossil beetle data. References, diagrams and images are provided. A note on the site warns that there may be display problems for Internet Explorer users. Paleoecology; Beetles, Fossil; Paleoclimatology; Paleoentomology;
Geologysite.htm ** University of California at Berkeley, Museum of paleontology; Trilobite Junction Reefmadness Offers an overview of modern and ancient reefs. Hanson Email http://www.salemstate.edu/~lhanson/hotsites/sedimentary_paleo.htm
Extractions: University of California at Berkeley Museum of Paleontology Trilobite Junction A Guide to the (8) Orders of Trilobites, maintained by Sam Gon III Folk's The Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks : Published Online by The Walter Geology Library Duke University's extensive photo library ( Part 1 and Part 2 ) of sedimentary structures Quiz time! SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publications Worth Publisher's Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks GERM Global Subducted Sediment: Geochemical database Web Resources for Sedimentary Geologists Lecture notes: Journal of Sedimentary Research Reef madness : Offers an overview of modern and ancient reefs
Extractions: About the Authors Chapter 21. Redwater and Ed Klovan The presence of tropical reefs a mile beneath the frigid plains of central Alberta was an intriguing and lucrative novelty for petroleum geologists, but it was almost too preposterous for the general public to accept Section of core from the Upper Devonian Redwater Reef. University of Alberta Collections. Photo by BDEC (c). In 1948 a large oil-bearing reef was discovered under the town of Redwater, but this reef consisted of original limestone, not dolostone. Drill cores of this reef might disclose evidence of its ancient ecology, but paleoecology was yet an unformed discipline and such work had to await another decade when an Albertan went to graduate school in New York City. Ed Klovan grew up at Lake Wabamun outside Edmonton. After an undergraduate degree in geology from the University of Alberta, he began graduate work at New Yorks Columbia University in 1957. Columbia then was home to two of the brightest researchers in the fledgling field of paleoecology Norman Newell and John Imbrie, both of whom had a deep interest in modern reef ecology. Imbrie suggested to Klovan that he prepare a class seminar on the paleoecology of the Devonian reefs of central Alberta. By then hundreds of wells had been drilled into Leduc reefs, but Klovans library research was stymied because virtually nothing had been published on their nature and paleoecology. In failing to find a seminar topic, he had identified a thesis topic.
Kike's Geo Links Links to More Information paleontology and Fossil Resources Links List The Paleo GeophysicalUnion Jurassic Reef Park - Introduction to ancient reefs The KT http://www.geo.uu.nl/~kikeb/geolinks.shtml