Profile Of The Beja People Of Sudan, Eritrea And Egypt They are the indigenous people of this area, and we All the beja peoples, by our more conservative estimates, number revival in Arabia and northeastern africa. Most beja are not http://www.geocities.com/orvillejenkins/profiles/beja.html
Extractions: Population NARRATIVE PROFILE Location : The name Beja is applied to a grouping of Muslim peoples speaking dialects of a Cushitic language called Beja, and living in Sudan, Eritrea and Egypt. They are traditionally pastoral people whose territory covers some 110,000 square miles in the extreme northeast of Sudan. History : Many scholars believe the Beja to be derived from early Egyptians because of their language and physical features. They are the indigenous people of this area, and we first know of them in historical references in the Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt. Over the centuries, they had contact and some influence from Greeks, Romans, Arabs and Turks. A few Beja became Christians in the sixth century. The southern Beja were part of the Christian Kingdom of Axum centered in what is now southern Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. Although never completely conquered by a foreign power, the Beja in the 15th century were absorbed into Islam by marriages and trading contacts with nearby Arab tribes. In the seventeenth century they expanded farther south seeking better pastures and conquering other peoples along the way. By the 18th century, the Hadendowa Beja were the dominant people of eastern Sudan.
Issue Paper B3 Edit and Find may help in locating desired links. If links dont work you can try copying and pasting into Netscape or Explorer Browser. RACIAL and/or ETHNIC (Big file loading) com/ ipka/ A0855617. tr/ english/ BGKAFKAS/ bukaf_ abhazya. http://www.nubasurvival.com/conferences/kampala1/b3.htm
Extractions: An impartial and independent organisation dedicated to promoting the cause of the Nuba People of Sudan. HOME BOOKS CONFERENCES FILMS ... SEARCH STEERING COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE TRANSITION IN SUDAN ISSUE PAPER B-3 THE MARGINALISED AREAS OF THE NORTHERN SUDAN AND THE QUESTION OF SELF-DETERMINATION. This paper is based on research by Suleiman Musa Rahhal. Overview The North-South conflict of the Sudan is one of the longest conflicts in Africa and likely to continue into the next century. More recently, the marginalised people in the North joined the armed struggle; creating another conflict in the North, a "North-North" conflict between centre and periphery. The Government in Khartoum and some opposition members within the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) tend to play this down. Northern Sudan is a land of minorities. From the outside it may appear to be a land of Arabs, but closer scrutiny shows a patchwork of literally hundreds of different groups, some of them practically invisible to anyone except the most socially sensitive observer. Today there are eight major groups of marginalised people in the North, including: the Nuba, the South Blue Nile people, the Beja, Darfur, the Nubians, the Baggara, Fallata and Southern/Western displaced peoples settled around major towns and cities. All of these have a different standing with regard to the claim for self-determination. However, because of scope of this paper we will discuss four main groups of marginalised people, all of whom have resorted to armed struggle. These are:
Extractions: BAGA (Guinee) H+K Gallery - About the Baga Tribe - An enormous head with beak nose and horseshoe ears (typical of the work of west Atlantic tribes), the whole heavily scarified, is cantilevered on a long neck. The huge breasts are carved in one with the shoulders and it is worn on the head of the dancer, whose body is hidden under a raffia costume, so that the head and breasts are all that is visible of the carving
Extractions: Social Action Office Brian McDonough, Director ARMEd (Anti-Racist Media Education Group), OPIRG-Toronto Freda Augustine Nancy Augustine Vivienne Beisel Graduate teaching fellow, College of Law, University of Saskatchewan Tanya Beja Craig Benjamin Claude Berthiaume Member of the National Council of Development and Peace Angie Best Department of Geography, Trent University
Sudan Population proud, and aloof even toward other beja and very more widely dispersed throughoutWest africa, may have The indigenous peoples of the south are blacks, whereas http://www.geocities.com/forsudan/poulation.html
Extractions: Ethnic Group The Muslim Arabs Arabs are the largest single category among the Muslim peoples consisted of those speaking some form of Arabic. Excluded were a small number of Arabic speakers originating in Egypt and professing Coptic Christianity. In 1983 the people identified as Arabs constituted nearly 40 percent of the total Sudanese population and nearly 55 percent of the population of the northern provinces. In some of these provinces (Al Khartum, Ash Shamali, Al Awsat), they were overwhelmingly dominant. In others (Kurdufan, Darfur), they were less so but made up a majority. By 1990 Ash Sharqi State was probably largely Arab. It should be emphasized, however, that the acquisition of Arabic as a second language did not necessarily lead to the assumption of Arab identity. Despite common language, religion, and self-identification, Arabs did not constitute a cohesive group. They were highly differentiated in their modes of livelihood and ways of life. Besides the major distinction dividing Arabs into sedentary and nomadic, there was an old tradition that assigned them to tribes, each said to have a common ancestor. The two largest of the supratribal categories in the early 1990s were the Juhayna and the Jaali (or Jaalayin). The Juhayna category consisted of tribes considered nomadic, although many had become fully settled. The Jaali encompassed the riverine, sedentary peoples from Dunqulah to just north of Khartoum and members of this group who had moved elsewhere. Some of its groups had become sedentary only in the twentieth century. Sudanese saw the Jaali as primarily indigenous peoples who were gradually arabized. Sudanese thought the Juhayna were less mixed, although some Juhayna groups had become more diverse by absorbing indigenous peoples. The Baqqara, for example, who moved south and west and encountered the Negroid peoples of those areas were scarcely to be distinguished from them.
Kush, Meroe And Nubia A short history of the area from Paleolithic times to the 15th century; from Sudan A Country Study, Category Society History By Time Period Ancient africa Nubia with only brief interruptions, governed relations between the two peoples for more Insome instances, as among the beja, the indigenous people absorbed http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Sudan.html
Extractions: Kush, Meroe, and Nubia [Excerpted from Sudan : A Country Study. Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1991] Archaeological excavation of sites on the Nile above Aswan has confirmed human habitation in the river valley during the Paleolithic period that spanned more than 60,000 years of Sudanese history. By the eighth millennium B.C., people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mud-brick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. Contact with Egypt probably occurred at a formative stage in the culture's development because of the steady movement of population along the Nile River. Skeletal remains suggest a blending of negroid and Mediterranean populations during the Neolithic period (eighth to third millenia B.C.) that has remained relatively stable until the present, despite gradual infiltration by other elements. Northern Sudan's earliest historical record comes from Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream from the first cataract, called Cush, as "wretched." For more than 2,000 years after the Old Kingdom (ca. 2700-2180 B.C.), Egyptian political and economic activities determined the course of the central Nile region's history. Even during intermediate periods when Egyptian political power in Cush waned, Egypt exerted a profound cultural and religious influence on the Cushite people.
CARIBBEAN LITERATURE KWABENA EVOKES africa'S POWER Issues addressed include Sustainable Development,indigenous peoples, Original Island the dragon * texts of the kayla beja. http://ethnonet.gold.ac.uk/illustrations/ch4illustrations/414ekwabene/books.html
Extractions: ....Kwabena whose latest book of poems was recently published had spent quality time in KUSH, now part of Sudan, some years ago. He writes with feelings in the title poem evoking memories of 'mighty warriors humbled' by the Kushites and speaks feelingly of reclaiming '..the lost, stolen legacy of pristine ages'....." GEORGE ALLEYNE
Background Notes Archive - Africa Kordofan and Darfur; the Hamitic beja in the Here the Sudanese practice mainly indigenous,traditional beliefs the DUP and the Sudanese peoples Liberation Army http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/bgnotes/af/sudan9506.html
Sudan On The Internet improve awareness and understanding between the peoples of the of the Darfur region,the beja, the people on topics such as Potential of indigenous wild foods http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/sudan.html
Art And Society In West Africa of these world religions, the practice of indigenous rites has European heraldryand emblems such as the beja Cross of africa The art of the negro peoples. http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~emendons/art.html
Extractions: Chapter Six Art in West Africa This chapter looks at art as it was created in the context of community life, an artistic form linked closely with spirituality. It also analyzes art subsidized by royals and describes how that art reflects a certain political economy. Art forms changed as states developed in West Africa, but it also changed with the arrival of Europeans. These changes are discussed as well as how African art has influenced European artists. West Africa stands high in art production. Such European artists as Vlaminck, Braque, Derain, Picasso and Modigliani (see Photo 6.1) were influenced by African art forms, as anyone familiar with their works can see. Since human beings make non-utilitarian things and perform music and dances that do not seem to produce an economic payoff, we might ask why. In West Africa, we cannot begin to answer this question without a knowledge of the social and religious context in which art was created, performed and displayed. West African artwork is usually a symbolic statement of social significance. It is often associated with secret societies. Many of their masks were used to instruct initiates and relate to various social responsibilities, such as fighting fires and making peace. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHafrica.html
ACORD E-newsletter No4 of Coping Mechanisms of the beja tribe in protecting traditional knowledge particularlythat of indigenous peoples. in sustainable development b) africa Maps http://www.acord.org.uk/e-news/No4/Newsl.htm
Country Profiles: Sub-Saharan Africa populations of Christian and indigenous peoples who practice significant populationsof Arab, beja, and foreigners. population that practices indigenous beliefs http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/442/453175/profiles.html
Extractions: Country Profiles: Sub-Saharan Africa Angola Angola is a poor country in west central Africa of about 1.25 million sq. km (about twice the size of Texas). One part of Angola, Calinda, is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC). It has a narrow coastal plain that rises abruptly to a vast interior plateau. It has a semiarid climate but heavy rainfall can cause flooding on the plateau. Angola's population is just over 11 million people. However, Angola's average life expectancy is only a little over 48 years. Angola also has a very high infant mortality rate. Most Angolans are from indigenous ethnic groups. About half of the population follows indigenous beliefs and, of the rest, nearly 40% are Catholic. The official language is Portuguese, but Bantu and other African languages are also spoken. Angola has experienced several years of civil war. Currently the government is trying to transition to a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system. The government also includes a unicameral legislature and a supreme court. In view of continued civil unrest, the level of progress toward a multiparty democracy cannot be determined. The capital is Luanda. Civil war has also had a detrimental effect on the economy. Despite its abundant natural resources, Angola's output per capita is among the world's lowest. About 85% of the population is employed in subsistence agriculture. Angola has significant petroleum and mineral resources but developing this is still somewhat hampered by civil unrest. The large numbers of mines that still remain have had a negative impact on farming, forcing Angola to import much of its food needs. By far, Angola's largest export is crude oil (90%), and the U.S. accounts for 65% of the export trade. Angola's main imports include machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts, medicines, food, textiles, and clothing. Besides the U.S., its trading partners include Portugal, the EU, China, and South Africa.
Extractions: Sudan Sudan The Muslim Peoples Arabs In the early 1990s, the largest single category among the Muslim peoples consisted of those speaking some form of Arabic. Excluded were a small number of Arabic speakers originating in Egypt and professing Coptic Christianity. In 1983 the people identified as Arabs constituted nearly 40 percent of the total Sudanese population and nearly 55 percent of the population of the northern provinces. In some of these provinces (Al Khartum, Ash Shamali, Al Awsat), they were overwhelmingly dominant. In others (Kurdufan, Darfur), they were less so but made up a majority. By 1990 Ash Sharqi State was probably largely Arab. It should be emphasized, however, that the acquisition of Arabic as a second language did not necessarily lead to the assumption of Arab identity. Despite common language, religion, and self-identification, Arabs did not constitute a cohesive group. They were highly differentiated in their modes of livelihood and ways of life. Besides the major distinction dividing Arabs into sedentary and nomadic, there was an old tradition that assigned them to tribes, each said to have a common ancestor. The two largest of the supratribal categories in the early 1990s were the Juhayna and the Jaali (or Jaalayin). The Juhayna category consisted of tribes considered nomadic, although many had become fully settled. The Jaali encompassed the riverine, sedentary peoples from Dunqulah to just north of Khartoum and members of this group who had moved elsewhere. Some of its groups had become sedentary only in the twentieth century. Sudanese saw the Jaali as primarily indigenous peoples who were gradually arabized. Sudanese thought the Juhayna were less mixed, although some Juhayna groups had become more diverse by absorbing indigenous peoples. The Baqqara, for example, who moved south and west and encountered the Negroid peoples of those areas were scarcely to be distinguished from them.
Extractions: Sudan Sudan Southern Communities In preindependence Sudan, most southern communities were small, except for the large conglomerate of Nilotes, Dinka, and Nuer who dominated the Bahr al Ghazal and the Aali an Nil provinces and the Azande people of Al Istiwai Province. During the condominium, the colonial administration imposed stronger local authority on the communities. It made local leaders chiefs or headmen and gave them executive and judicial powerstempered by local councils, usually of eldersto administer their people, under the scrutiny of a British district commissioner. As in the north, the relatively fluid relationships and boundaries among southern Sudanese became more stabilized. There is no systematic record of how independence, civil war, and famine have affected the social order of southern peoples. The gradual incorporation of southerners into the national systemif only as migrant laborers and as local craftpeopleand increased opportunities for education have, however, affected social arrangements, ideas of status, and political views. An educated elite had emerged in the south, and in 1991, some members of this elite were important politicians and administrators at the regional and national levels; however, other members had emigrated to escape northern discrimination. How the newer elite was linked to the older one was not clear. Secular chieftainships had been mostly gifts of the colonial authorities, but the sons of chiefs took advantage of their positions to get a Western education and to create family ties among local and regional elites.
Horn Of Africa In much of the region, indigenous customs remain an important Its Muslim peoplesdo no speak Arabic and never Some, like the beja in Sudan and Djibouti, have http://www.law.emory.edu/IFL/region/hornofafrica.html
Extractions: Horn of Africa Links to legal datasheets for countries in this region. Ethiopia I Somalia I Sudan I eastern Chad Horn of Africa The Region and its History Muslim Arab traders and settlers began pushing south from Egypt into northern Sudan in the seventh century. They settled into the area and began intermarrying with the local population The Muslim traders who came to the region were generally wealthy, and marrying into their families carried with it a great deal of prestige. Over time Islam and the Arabic language also became firmly established in the north. However, Islam spread quite slowly into the interior of the Sudan, only reaching the western and central regions around the fifteenth century. In the nineteenth century, Sudan fell under the colonial domination of Egypt and Britain. It gained independence in 1954.
Institutt For Sosialantropologi - 1997 indigenous peoples, Environment and Development. The state, civil society and indigenouspeop les theories of sickness and misfortune among the Hadandowa beja. http://www.fou.uib.no/publ/97kort/99.html
Institutt For Sosialantropologi - 1997 Tidskr indigenous peoples, Environment and Development. The state, civil societyand indigenous peop les. and misfortune among the Hadandowa beja Serie dr http://www.fou.uib.no/publ/97full/99.html
ANTHROPOLOGY BOOKS From RAY BOAS, BOOKSELLER on the political life of Ecuador's indigenous peoples., (Order No as Points of Entryinto beja Cultural Knowledge AMONG TRIBAL AND THIRDWORLD peoples, Harper http://www.rayboasbookseller.com/anthro.htm
Extractions: Here are 59 anthropology titles that are in stock at Ray Boas, Bookseller in New Preston, Connecticut, on July 6, 2002. Please note the inventory number in ( ) just before the price to aid in ordering . To answer the question that may have come to you, yes, Franz Boas (the Father of Modern Anthropology) is my great-grandfather. Unfortunately, he died before I was born, but my father has related many recollections of his grandfather to me. Thank you, RAY 1. NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF ABORIGINAL AMERICAN CULTURE HISTORY, Anthropological Soc. of Wash, Washington, DC, (1971) 2nd ptg, 135pp, very good, light blue cloth, red pencil underlining on 11 pages, First published in 1955., (Order No: 16231 ), $15.00 2. ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARCHEOLOGY IN THE AMERICAS, Anthropological Society, Washington, DC, (1971) 2nd ptg, 151pp, very good, red cloth, red underlining dozen+ pages, (Order No: 17205 ), $15.00 5. Bernal, Victoria, CULTIVATING WORKERS: PEASANTS AND CAPITALISM IN A SUDANESE VILLAGE, Columbia University Press, New York, (1991) 1st ptg, 224pp, fine w/fine dustjacket (hardcover), This case study of the village of Wad al Abbas in the Blue Nile Province of Sudan challenges traditional assumptions about peasants, proletarianization, and agricultural development in the third world. Through an in-depth look at how farming households in the village of Wad al Abbas survive, the book provides insight into transformations that are taking place worldwide., (Order No: 29971 ), $20.00 9. Bryk, Felix, VOODOO-EROS: ETHNOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE SEX-LIFE OF THE AFRICAN ABORIGINES, United Book Guild, NY, 1964, ill., 251pp, vg w/g dj, Originally published in 1933 in a limited edition sold only to physicians and adult students of sexology and anthropology., (Order No: 4608 ), $27.50
Extractions: Browse: General Information Actors People Gazetteer ... Dictionary A. C. GIBBS A C Gibbs was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Oregon from 1862 until 1866. A. G. CURTIN A G Curtin was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Pennsylvania from 1861 until 1867. A. G. SORLIE A G Sorlie was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of North Dakota from 1925 until 1928. A. H. L. FIZEAU A H L Fizeau was a French physicist. He was born in 1819 at Paris and died in 1896. In 1847, working with J B L Foucault, he showed that infrared radiation has the same properties as visible light, that is it is reflected, refracted and is capable of forming interference patterns. Then in 1849 he measured the speed of light using a toothed wheel to interrupt the light. A. H. ROBERTS A H Roberts was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Tennessee from 1919 until 1921. A. HARRY MOORE A Harry Moore was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey from 1926 until 1929.