MOST Ethno-Net Publication: Anthropology Of Africa Anthropology of africa and the Challenges of the Third Millennium like the Yoruba, Edo, fante were able to organize of the various indigenous african peoples into modern states, http://www.ethnonet-africa.org/pubs/p95modo.htm
Extractions: Ethnicity denotes an extreme consciousness of and loyalty to a particular linguistic and cultural group unidentified with any other group (Udoh 1998:38). Such groups usually possess myth of origin, traceable to an epical ancestor or ancestress. With a strong ruling house such ethnic groups like the Yoruba, Edo, Fante were able to organize themselves into Empire or Kingdoms, conquering and incorporating other lesser ethnic groups as vassals. With the coming of colonial masters, treaties were signed with such kingdoms wherever they existed; especially during the 17th and 18th centuries (Bradbury et al 1965; Igbafe 1972). Origin of ethnicity in Africa Ethnicity in post-colonial Africa is principally a response to the new social structure the indigenous people found themselves in during the colonial era and at independence. The cultural upbringing is seriously at variance with the social processes of the modern era. Bohannan (1957) speaks of the philosophy of limited good among the Tiv of Nigeria. All goods are communally owned and so the possession of a good by one person is the loss of that good by another. This concept is applicable to every tribe in most circumstances. Ethnic discrimination has its root in the favouritism shown to kin group members as could be seen from the principle of segmentary opposition among the Tiv of Nigeria (Bohannan 1969) or Nuer of Southern Sudan (Evans-Pritchard 1940).
Calvin's Semester In Ghana - Courses of the peoples of West africa. Excursions to sites such as slave forts, the fante homeland, and The interaction among african indigenous religions, Islam, and Christianity will http://www.calvin.edu/academic/off-campus/ghana/course.htm
VADA - Volkeren Peoples Tribes E - F EASTERN PUNJABI (India). indigenous peoples in ECUADOR EDOMITES. EFE (Afrika africa). EJAGHAM EKOI (Nigeria, FANG (Gabon, Kameroen - Cameroon). fante (Ghana). FEZZAN BEDOUIN http://www.vada.nl/volkenef.htm
A portugal military flags south africa army flags asafo asafo company flags(fante people, ghana aymara south american indigenous peoples azad hind http://www.flags-by-swi.com/fotw/flags/keyworda.html
Extractions: azores (portugal) aaland 'finnish' flag of the aaland islands (finland) 'swedish' flag for aaland islands (finland) aaland islands (finland) triband for the aaland islands (finland) aappalaaroq greenland (denmark) aargau aargau canton (switzerland) communes of aargau canton (switzerland) aarhus denmark - aarhus abauj borsod - abauj - zemplen county (hungary) abemama.kiribati kingdom of abemama (kiribati) abkhazia abkhazia aborige south australia (australia) aboriginals aboriginal flags (australia) official status of aboriginal and torres strait islander flags aboriginal australian proposed flags abrantes abrantes (portugal) abruzzi abruzzi (italy) abruzzo abruzzi (italy) abu dhabi abu dhabi united arab emirates abu zaby abu dhabi abundance assyrian universal alliance academy army military academy (united states) acadiana acadiana (louisiana, united states) acadia acadia french canadians acca israeli municipalities acco israeli municipalities aceh indonesia - princely states overseas governors (the netherlands) acorns pre-soviet omsk region flags, 1716-1917 (russia)
Extractions: Àv@ý > K ¾ > > Zd;ßOÕ? > ~ ? Ðv@ý ? L ½ ? O@ ÀP@ ? òÒMbXå? ? ? @ þÿÿÿB C D E F G H þÿÿÿýÿÿÿþÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿR o o t E n t r y ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ À F °ýU@Áþÿÿÿ W o r k b o o k ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ
Extractions: Ghana Ghana Unavailable Figure 2. Asante Expansion and Major European Fortresses in the Eighteenth Century Source: Based on information from Daryll Forde and P. M. Kaberry, eds., West African Kingdoms in the Nineteenth Century , London, 1967, 208; and Ivor G. Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century , London, 1975, 19. By the end of the sixteenth century, most ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the early Bronze Age (ca. 4000 B.C.), but these societies, based on fishing in the extensive lagoons and rivers, left few traces. Archeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. Oral history and other sources suggest that the ancestors of some of Ghana's residents entered this area at least as early as the tenth century A.D. and that migration from the north and east continued thereafter. These migrations resulted in part from the formation and disintegration of a series of large states in the western Sudan (the region north of modern Ghana drained by the Niger River). Prominent among these Sudanic states was the Soninke kingdom of Ghana. Strictly speaking
Extractions: Source: The Library of Congress Country Studies Unavailable Figure 2. Asante Expansion and Major European Fortresses in the Eighteenth Century Source: Based on information from Daryll Forde and P. M. Kaberry, eds., West African Kingdoms in the Nineteenth Century , London, 1967, 208; and Ivor G. Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century , London, 1975, 19. By the end of the sixteenth century, most ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the early Bronze Age (ca. 4000 B.C.), but these societies, based on fishing in the extensive lagoons and rivers, left few traces. Archeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. Oral history and other sources suggest that the ancestors of some of Ghana's residents entered this area at least as early as the tenth century A.D. and that migration from the north and east continued thereafter. These migrations resulted in part from the formation and disintegration of a series of large states in the western Sudan (the region north of modern Ghana drained by the Niger River). Prominent among these Sudanic states was the Soninke kingdom of Ghana. Strictly speaking
Religion In Ghana - Precolonial Period with merchants and rulers of North africa and the Mediterranean many of the indigenous peoples of the northern half the coastal fante, GaAdangbe, and Ewe peoples, as well as http://atheism.about.com/library/world/AJ/bl_GhanaPreColonial.htm
Extractions: By the end of the sixteenth century, most ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the early Bronze Age (ca. 4000 B.C.), but these societies, based on fishing in the extensive lagoons and rivers, left few traces. Archeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. Oral history and other sources suggest that the ancestors of some of Ghana's residents entered this area at least as early as the tenth century A.D. and that migration from the north and east continued thereafter
FAF - Preamble indigenous Legal Systems. Continue from Previous. Christensen, James Boyd. TheRole of Proverbs in fante Culture. africa, July; Vol. ed. peoples of africa. http://www.freeafrica.org/indigenous_legal2.html
Extractions: Indigenous Legal Systems Continue from Previous Moving down to southern Africa, one finds what Bohannan (1968) considers to be Africa's finest: Indeed, Africa is one of the homes of advanced legal institutions. Perhaps the most famous of these institutions are the courts still found among the Bantu states of the southern third of the continent (p. 199). In these states, the local or provincial chief was one of number of judges on a large and inclusive bench. The bench included representatives of all important social groups of the community. The judges formed a regular and pronounced hierarchy, and were seated in a row or an arc. The provincial chief sat in the middle; at his immediate right was the second most senior person and at his left the third most senior, and so on until the whole court was deployed in a row. Litigants stood or sat in certain areas. There were assigned places for witnesses and for the community as an audience. The court sessions were held out of doors, but there was a building to be repaired to in case of inclement weather. There was, in all cases a known and demanded decorum and order of proceedings. The plaintiff first made his case. The defendant would then respond. Witnesses would be called. After the testimony had been heard, the most junior member of the bench would pronounce judgment. His sentence would be followed by his immediate senior, who might disagree and add new perspectives. The third most junior man followed until they arrived at the middle where the head chief sat. After weighing all the evidence, and the sentences and opinions of his junior judges, he would pronounce his final judgment.
EmpAthos Nation more or less, chosen from the indigenous chiefs and the fante, the unity of the fantefell apart augmented by cultural assimilation of subject peoples and the http://www.geocities.com/cjmasonm/Africa/afempire.html
Extractions: Caveat Site Map Imperial Africa Imperial African States that we know about mostly developed along the Sahel ("Corridor") which was the major trade route between East and West Africa. The Sahel "shore" was seen as a "coastline" on the great expanse of the Sahara Desert. Crossing the Sahara was very much like navigating the oceans in that there were few permanent features that one could follow, and one's direction was generally determined by stellar navigation. Towns in the northern Sahel were, therefore, considered trading ports, just as a town on an ocean coast might have been. Empires that developed in the southern interior of the continent are not as well documented, and while they very likely did develop, as in the case of Great Zimbabwe, almost nothing is known about them. The oldest and longest lasting of African cultures presented here is Ethiopia (originally called Abyssinia by the Romans), which developed out of Judeo-Christian Axum, and maintained it's national character to the present day despite Islamic intrusion beginning in the sixth and seventh centuries, and the Italian invasion in the late 1930's ending in 1941. When Egypt fell to Rome, Axum had already become the major trading port on the Red Sea, bringing in goods from India and southern and western Africa, and forming a hub of exchange with those regions and the Mediterranean. Early in the Christian era, Axum had extended it's influence from the Horn of Africa to the northern edge of the Abyssinian Plateau and well inland.
Articles in West africa, and so corrupted its indigenous society were never considered inferiorto other peoples, the slaves a boy born on Friday (Twi, Ewe, fante, and Ga http://www.marcusgarvey.com/1865ch2.htm
Extractions: In addition to acting as an important stimulus to European development, black slavery provided a feasible solution to the European dilemma of how to exploit the rich natural resources of the New World in the shortest time possible and at a maximum profit. Black Africans proved better able to survive the rigors of slavery than the native American Indians because they had already acquired a greater immunity to European diseases through long years of contact with Europeans prior to 1500 and because they were more accustomed in West Africa to an organized system of plantation labor. The lack of any desire on the part of Africans to migrate voluntarily to the New World compelled slave dealers to resort to coercive methods for the forced removal of millions of black slaves. Although this interpretation was clearly more critical of than apologetic for imperialism, the European remained at the center of history. Not only did he control the course of his own history for greedy ends but he was equally the determinant of African destiny. Indeed the African emerged as little more than a pawn in the hands of white capitalists. This white perspective was evident despite the fact that historians acknowledged the inability of the Europeans, except in the Congo, to penetrate the African interior until the nineteenth century and the necessity for slave dealers to trade on African terms.
NEW ACQUISITIONS - AFRICAN STUDIES africa's indigenous peoples 'First peoples' or 'Marginalized minorities africanCourt on Human and peoples' Rights an of the Ewe, Dagbamba, fante, and Ga http://www.lib.duke.edu/ias/NewBooks/African/December_2002.htm
The Ga-Dangme People:A Historical Sketch III contacts with the rest of west africa and beyond two separate detachments of troopsthe fante and their challenge on the culture of indigenous peoples and the http://members.tripod.com/tettey/Gapart3.htm
Extractions: LECTURE IV THE FORGING OF NEW GA-DANGME UNITY AND THE KATAMANSO WAR To lead the Gá-Dangme you need the courage of Okaikoi and the sagacity of great high priests. It is a task in selflessness and courage. In all things be bold and fearless,seeking above all to ensure the security and happiness of the people. Like a good tree the strong nation requires continual pruning and reform. The good leader sleeps not for an hour, constantly seeking the interests of his people In this Lecture we examine the factors that led to the emergence of the Gá-Dangme as major players in the political scene of the Gold Coast; look at the principal reasons for the Katamanso War. Accra started to emerge from its short eclipse; the short reign of Ofori Tibo saw the the re-stabilisation of Gá-Dangme politics. The emergence of Tetteh Ahinakwa or Momotse and Okaidja as King of Accra and chief of Gbese respectively led to a reform movement which tried to cleanse the city of corruption and re-establish its politics on a sounder footing. Princes Tetteh Ahinakwa and Okaidja had been ransomed to the Dutch and had gained considerable Western education; they were therefore in a relatively good position to stand back from Gá society and objectively analyse its failures and difficulties. However, once they acceeded to office they lacked a reform party to carry out their reformist programme in the various Gá-Dangme quarters and towns. Attempts to involve the manbii or citizens were not entirely successful.
Extractions: THE DIOCESE OF SO TOMÉ LOWER GUINEA 3.1 São Tomé island The diocese of São Tomé was founded in 1534. It included the island of São Tomé with the other islands and coastland from Cape Palmas to Cape Agulhas, except that Congo and Angola were separated in 1596 to make the diocese of São Salvador. The Portuguese discovered São Tomé in 1470 and settled it with colonists and slaves. Franciscans were present at the beginning, and by 1494 African priests trained in Lisbon were sent to the island. Augustinians came early in the 16th century and remained until 1594, returning at a later time. The first bishop, Diogo Ortiz de Vilhegas (1534-40), was a diocesan priest. He never came to his diocese and was transferred to Ceuta. His successor, the Dominican Bernardo da Cruz, never came either because less than a year after his appointment he was made rector of the University of Comimbra in Portugal. Nevertheless he retained his title to São Tomé and another Dominican, João Baptista, was appointed his auxiliary in 1542. João Baptista, however, was to reside in Congo to succeed the late auxiliary Bishop Henrique, while a vicar general looked after São Tomé. Bernardo da Cruz finally resigned as bishop of São Tomé in 1553 and the next year Gaspar Cão, an Augustinian, was appointed and took up residence on the island. Gaspar Cão had many disputes with the governor of the island. Complaints led the Pope to order an ecclesiastical trial in which the Bishop was acquitted of the charges against him.
Report On The Implementation Of The Plan Of with those groups (women, indigenous peoples, children, migrants RIGHTS, AS OF DECEMBER1998 africa Adja Afrikaans Ditammari English Ewe/Eve fante Fon French http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.1999.87.En?OpenDocum
Annex 1: General Bibliography The Languages of the Akan peoples . for adjectives in fante . In AnsuKyeremateng,K. (ed.), 1998, Perspectives on indigenous Communication in africa, Vol. http://www.akan.org/akan_cd/ALIAKAN/course/U-references-p11.html
Extractions: 0. General, classification Bendor-Samuel, John T. (ed.), 1989. The Niger-Congo Languages . New York: Academic Press. Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1892. Die Sprachen Afrikas. Christaller page Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1986. "The Languages of the Akan Peoples". Research Review . New Series vol. 2/1. 1-22. The Languages of Ghana . pp. 50-90; Akan: pp. 50-76. Greenberg, Joseph H., 1966. The Languages of Africa . Den Haag: Mouton. Grimes, Barbara F. (ed.), 1996. Ethnologue. Languages of the World vol. 1-3 (incl. Language Name Index and Language Family Index). Ethnologue on-line Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther (ed.), 1988. The Languages of Ghana . New York: Kegan Paul. Stewart, John M., 1971. "Niger-Congo, Kwa". In: Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.) Current Trends in Linguistics . Vol. 7: Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa. Stewart, John M., 1976. "Towards Volta-Congo Reconstruction" (= Presentation at the Rijksuniversiteit in Leiden, 8.10.1976). Leiden: Universitaire Pers.
Environmental Law Programme Espinosa, IUCN's Policy Advisor on indigenous peoples also took Judges Symposium,Johannesburg, South africa on 19 Anni Lukács and Alexandra fante, from the http://www.iucn.org/themes/law/index2.html
Portrait Of A Liberation Scholar What happened to the indigenous people of the Caribbean? of the migration patternsof the peoples of africa The Ashanti and the fante social order and world http://www.nbufront.org/html/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/ArticlesEssays/LiberationSc
Extractions: Portrait of a Liberation Scholar By John Henrik Clarke Almost from the beginning as a child I started to raise essential questions inside myself about the things I observed, and about the things people declared "true" and literally dared me to question. These who would impose the "truth" on me had no control over me when I was alone. I would question their truth and keep my conclusions to myself. I did not argue with them about what I thought or felt because I never gold them. I lived inside myself seemingly forever and hoped for the day when I could speak my mind. Essential Questioning The earliest and most persistent question that came to my mind while growing up in a strict Baptist household and a very religious family was why do we use God to excuse so many man-made things, so much man-made misery? People in my family, community and race attribute to God a lot of things which are ungodly, and then claim that God will straighten them out in the by-and-by. We seem not to want to understand that God did not mess things up in the first place. We have made a folklore out of this limited view of God and out of God-dependency as a spiritual necessity when we gave up on ourselves or others. We say that we have done all you can for them and then leave them alone. God will fix it by-and-by. Why must God fix something that God did not initiate and did not cause? What kind of God is this, or, more precisely, what kind of faith is this? I believe that if God was merciful enough to give you a brain, two functioning hands, and two legs where you put one in front of the other, then God has given you the facility to take care of yourself, to be responsible for your actions and for what happens to you. This is as self-evident to me as abilities to taste and to distinguish between a flower and an ear of corn. We use God as an excuse for not taking responsibility for our lives. This was not an anti-God argument. We have drawn the wrong conclusions from religion. Instead of being a source of liberation, our religions have become psychological traps. It is ironic that people have to leave religion as it was (and still is) practiced in order to understand and appreciate its meaning and to enjoy its benefits.
An Anarchist Account Of Ghana and the genocide of the indigenous peoples created huge the most powerful of theindigenous states, was of the towns of the coastal fante people, possesses a http://struggle.ws/africa/accounts/chekov/ghana.html
Extractions: The Methodist depot made the greatest pretence at being a general bookshop. The religious section took up only about half the stock. They also had a large biography section and an extensive 'general reading' section. However on close inspection there did seem to be a certain slant in title selection. Accounts of the lives of about 6 different members of the Wesley family made up a large part of the biography shelf and I don't think it was any coincidence that all 3 branches which we visited, in Accra, Cape Coast and Kumasi, stocked large numbers of 'God loves communists too', a real-life account of how the author had been a member of a lefty group in England in the 1970's until God came to her, she saw that she was doing the devil's work and left to join some wierd christian sect where she has found spiritual bliss. The presbyterian book depot was even worse. 90% of the books were purely religious and the one small shelf labelled 'novels' contained such classics as 'Our police friends' by the PR department of the Ghana police force. Challenge books - "for the best in christian reading" managed to make the other two look like enlightened bastions of rational thought. While the other two were scruffy and musty, this was a slick affair, full of clean-cut young men in suits. The books were glossy, shiny and new. Apart from a few textbooks the entire stock was religious. There were biographies of obscure American faith healers and preachers whom I had never heard of, self-help titles responding to various crises one might have and children's books designed to teach morality to the young. The whole place reeked of American money, come from one of the unspeakably evil born-again sects which dream of spreading their tentacles of ignorance, prejeduce and superstition all over the world.