Extractions: Toby Mendel : Public Service Broadcasting. A comparative Legal Survey . - Kuala Lumpur : UNESCO, Asia Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development, 2000. INTRODUCTION National broadcasters funded out of the public purse have historically formed a vital component of the broadcasting sector in most countries and the rationale for these broadcasters which can offer alternative programming to that provided by the commercial sector remains strong. At the same time, two key issues continue to pose a threat to the success of publicly-funded broadcasters. The first is ongoing attempts in many countries by the governing authorities to exert control over such broadcasters, undermining their independence and the quality of their news and other programming. The other is the ever-present desire of governments to cut budgets, which has resulted in increased pressure on the level of public funding received by these broadcasters, and a consequent search for alternative sources of funding. This study looks at the way in which national, publicly-funded broadcasters are organised and paid for in six countries where support for these broadcasters remains strong, namely Australia, Canada, France, Japan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The focus is on the legal and practical arrangements under which these broadcasters operate, including broadcasting obligations, governance structures and funding arrangements. The study pays particular attention to the ways in which these countries have dealt with the threats noted above, namely how they have guaranteed the editorial independence of these broadcasters, while at the same time ensuring their accountability to the public and providing them with public funds.
About The IFJ Campaign The IFJ and NIPPORO (NHK Union) organised a meeting on public service broadcasting on June 10, 2001 in Tokyo. http://www.save-public-broadcasting.org/docs/campaign.htm
Extractions: The International Federation of Journalists has launched a worldwide campaign to defend public service broadcasting. The IFJ and NIPPORO (NHK Union) organised a meeting on Public Service Broadcasting on June 10, 2001 in Tokyo. Participants were delegates of IFJ member Unions and over 50 representatives of Japanese media workers. The participants of the meeting defined the basis of a worldwide campaign for the defence of public service values in broadcasting (TV, radio and internet). The campaign, backed by more than a hundred delegates to the IFJ's 24th World Congress held in Korea in June, aims to promote public service values, editorial independence, quality and democratic and accountable systems of administration. The IFJ is seeking information and concerns about the future of public service broadcasting from affiliated unions and interested individuals throughout the world. With the rise in globalisation involving large media organisations, there is an increasing threat to the future of public service broadcasting. There is now a real danger of journalism, news and information being pushed aside because media owners will not be getting a financial return - public interest will not have an economic value. We are already seeing low cost, low quality programming because of the increasing influence and ownership by the global organisations. There is also concern that staff numbers in broadcasting are being reduced where the drop in quality content is being introduced. You don't need people producing news and other programmes if you are filling the schedules with ready-made material at a very low cost. The introduction of new technology could have a similar affect in that journalists expected to film and edit as well as carrying out their journalistic role, are finding the pressure too much. There is less quality in journalism and less time to investigate and assess information.
Extractions: Organised by the Dutch Presidency of the EU and the Netherlands Broadcasting Corporation NOS Thank you for the invitation to give voice to the European Parliament and to Europe's citizens. I welcome the opportunity to speak here today alongside my colleague and chairman of the culture committee, Peter Pex. I would like to congratulate the Dutch Presidency for continuing the work of the Irish Culture Ministers' Galway initiative. In organising this conference they are giving due prominence to the debate on Public Service Broadcasting. Today, I would like to highlight the difference between the theory of competition and the reality of the market in broadcasting. Let us begin with the theory: Firstly, we have the recent and increasing protestations from some commercial broadcasters that Public service broadcasters are the recipient of anti-competitive state aid. This, it is said, represents unfair competition in the digital age. We must however refer to European Union competition policy in this respect. Article 92(d) EC states that "aid to promote culture and heritage conservation where such aid does not affect trading conditions and competition in the Community to an extent that is contrary to the common interest" may be considered to be compatible with the common market. The common interest, then, justifies exempting culture from standard competition policy.
Public Service Broadcasting public service broadcasting Enabling broadcasters to play their role effectively Broadcasting is one of the most important mediums through which the right to freedom of expression, i.e. http://www.fxi.org.za/Medialaw/public.htm
Extractions: Broadcasting is one of the most important mediums through which the right to freedom of expression, i.e. to receive and impart information and ideas freely and without intereference, is realised. The role of broadcasting on a continent such as Africa, with its high levels of illiteracy, is critical to the building of a democratic ethos and human rights culture. Toby Mendel, Head of Article 19's Law Programme here examines the principles that should guide the functioning of public service broadcasters. The role of State-funded broadcasters is being re-examined in many countries in light of recent developments such as the growth in the number of private broadcasters, satellite and cable technology, digital television and what has come to be known as technological convergence. Ironically, there is even greater need than ever for public service broadcasting as these market-driven developments have promoted ownership concentration and globalisation with adverse implications for diversity and quality national programming. Silvio Berlusconi single-handedly dominates the private sector in Italy, CNN broadcasts standardised fare around the world while the impact of Rupert Murdoch's far-flung satellite television empire on media pluralism has often been lamented. Public service broadcasting, which may be distinguished from the State-controlled broadcasters that still exist in many countries, can help to maintain diversity in light of these developments and play an important role in fulfilling the public's right to know. Freedom of expression, as guaranteed by Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, includes the right not only to seek and impart information and ideas, but also the right to receive them. This has been held to require States to take positive measures to ensure the existence of an environment, in which a pluralistic media can flourish, providing information from a wide variety of sources to citizens. An independent, adequately funded and accountable public service broadcaster is a crucial component of that environment.
Mass Media: Public Service Broadcasting Traditionally, British broadcasters have been particularly proud of their publicservice broadcasting, which developed under the first Director General of the http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/media/peacock.html
Extractions: Mass media: broadcasting systems Traditionally, British broadcasters have been particularly proud of their public service broadcasting , which developed under the first Director General of the BBC, Lord Reith. The term is difficult to define. One European Commissioner for Audio-visual, Information, Communication and Cultural Affairs said publicly: 'What is public service? I don't know, though it is very important to answer the question.' (Blumler ( )) So, if even he doesn't know, you shouldn't be too worried if you find the notion confusing. It is rather vaguely summarized in the mission to inform, educate and entertain . Certainly, Reith would have seen entertainment as being very definitely in third place. In his view, to the extent that the BBC was intended to entertain, it was also intended to educate listeners and viewers in matters of taste as regards entertainment. The BBC's independence from government was also close to Reith's heart. That and its reputation for 'impartiality' have certainly contributed to making the BBC respected throughout the world. However, there is always the danger that an organization funded by the government and directed by the upper-middle-class is likely to favour the government line. That, (in)famously, is what happened in the 1926 General Strike when Reith argued that the BBC was the people's service and the government was the people's choice, so it followed that the BBC supported the government.
University Of Westminster Text only. public service broadcasting in the Digital Age Wednesday 16 May 2001.The status of our public sector broadcasters has never been more contentious. http://www.wmin.ac.uk/event.asp?ID=127
Extractions: Go to: Guardian Unlimited home UK news World news Archive search Arts Books Business EducationGuardian.co.uk Film Football Jobs Life MediaGuardian.co.uk Money The Observer Online Politics Shopping SocietyGuardian.co.uk Sport Talk Travel Audio Email services Special reports The Guardian The weblog The informer The northerner The wrap Advertising guide Crossword Dating Headline service Syndication services Events / offers Help / contacts Information Newsroom Style guide Travel offers TV listings Weather Web guides Guardian Weekly Money Observer Home Advertising Television Radio ... Jobs Channel 4's chief executive, Michael Jackson, is leaving with a bang, declaring public service broadcasting is dead in the water. In a controversial speech tonight, he will urge broadcasters to use "innovation" as the "new gold standard of British broadcasting". He brands public service broadcasting as "the pointless juju stick of British broadcasting", a term "now drained of all purpose and meaning".
THE EUROPEAN INSTITUE FOR THE MEDIA News of the European Institute for the Media public service broadcastingin Transition a Documentary Reader. At the request of the http://www.eim.org/news.php3?ID=37
THE EUROPEAN INSTITUE FOR THE MEDIA Print Projects. Perspectives of public service broadcasting in Europe.Researchers Runar Woldt, Josephine Dries. Public broadcasters http://www.eim.org/ComPol/Projects/ViewCompol.php3?ID=1
Public Service Broadcasting public service broadcasting. Such abuse of the broadcasting institutions' mandatemade public service broadcasting the subject of frequent political debates. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/P/htmlP/publicservicb/publicserviceb.htm
Extractions: PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Pubic Television: A Program for Action, in which the term "public television" first appeared. By the early 1990s, the groundswell of political and public dissatisfaction with the privileged position of public service broadcasting entities had reached major proportion. Studies were revealing bureaucratic bungling, cost overruns, and the misuse of funds. One commission after another was recommending at least the partial dismantling or reorganization of existing institutions. New measures of accountability demanded more than idealistic rhetoric, and telecommunication policy makers were turning a deaf ear to public service broadcasting advocates. -Robert K. Avery FURTHER READING Avery, R. K., editor. Public Service Broadcasting in a Multichannel Environment: The History and Survival of an Ideal . White Plains, New York: Longman, 1993.
A Sound View Of Public Service Broadcasting A SOUND VIEW OF public service broadcasting. Speech given on Tuesday 29 January 2002at the Broadcast Conference The future of public service broadcasting. http://www.radioauthority.org.uk/newsroom/speeches/archive/A Sound View of Publi
Extractions: Chair of the Radio Authority Speech given on Tuesday 29 January 2002 at the Broadcast Conference The future of public service broadcasting According to the New Statesman a couple of weeks ago "the future has been cancelled" so far as the communications revolution is concerned. I dont agree, although I think we all understand that convergence is happening at a different rate, and more unevenly, than its proponents tried to persuade us was the case a year or so ago. And, as we approach the brave converged new world of OFCOM, I believe that the need to re-think public service broadcasting (Ill define what I mean by it in a moment) is as relevant today as it ever was, if not more so. The changes which are happening demand that we are absolutely clear on this key component of the broadcasting mix. The shareholder pressures on commercial broadcasters (television and radio) are leading irrevocably across the world to ever greater consolidation of ownership, ever greater concentration on those target audiences which advertisers want to buy and/or which can afford high subscription payments, ever greater belief that they are in the business of giving listeners and viewers what they want, and an ever greater sense of justification that whatsoever interests the public is somehow automatically "in the public interest". As a result, the plurality and diversity of broadcasting would diminish in the absence of a strongly funded and self-confident system of public service broadcasting.
Extractions: Price: 20 CHF (Swiss Francs) Table of Contents To add item to your shopping basket click on Add to Cart View or Download Document Format Size Posted E-Bookshop Subscribers English PDF (acrobat) 238.2 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart Word for Windows 7.0 110.5 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart Français PDF (acrobat) 254.2 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart Word for Windows 7.0 127.5 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart Español PDF (acrobat) 228.3 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart Word for Windows 7.0 123.5 kb Oct 28 1998 Add to Cart
Extractions: Bishkek's PSB conference Toby Mendel : Public Service Broadcasting. A comparative Legal Survey. - Kuala Lumpur : UNESCO, Asia Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development, 2000 The Vienna Declaration on Public Service Broadcasting , 22-24 September 1993 UNESCO WebWorld UNESCO and Public Service Broadcasting
Department For Culture, Media And Sport The Government aims to sustain strong public service broadcasting to help underpinquality and ensure that all consumers have access to varied programming http://www.culture.gov.uk/creative/public_service.html
Extractions: 2 December Public service broadcasting measures threatened by free trade agreement A report published today by international trade campaigners, the World Development Movement (WDM), reveals the danger posed to public service broadcasting by a far-reaching, but little understood international trade agreement currently being negotiated at the World Trade Organisation. WDM's report is the first ever survey of the UK's commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and its potential impact on UK services. It is published exactly one month before the end of a DTI consultation on which services the UK will offer for further liberalisation in GATS negotiations starting in April. WDM's Director Barry Coates today said: "The Communications Bill aims to liberalise and deregulate UK broadcasting and media, opening the sector to increased foreign ownership and reducing public service obligations. This will be locked in and made "effectively irreversible" if the UK Government concedes to pressure by other countries and media multinationals to sign-up the broadcasting and communication sectors to the free market rules of GATS. We know that the UK communications and broadcasting sector is a major target for the USA in these negotiations."
Extractions: Public Service Broadcasting. Traditional assumptions about Public Service Broadcasting have been outstripped by events in recent years. No longer can this arena be seen as the sole preserve of R.T.E. As has been demonstrated increasingly by experience, where the commitment exists, independent I.R.T.C.-licensed stations play a significant public service broadcasting role within the State. Not all of R.T.E.'s programming conforms to the public service model. Similarly, many independent stations carry programming that is not purely driven by commercial considerations. In attempting to define public service broadcasting, therefore, it is necessary to look at programme content and intention, rather than at the organisation which operates the station. Public service broadcasting is not necessarily non-commercial. In Ireland, both R.T.E. and I.R.T.C.-licensed stations have frequently shown that public service broadcasting can achieve high listenership figures and commercial success. However, there is a considerable area of broadcasting of a public service nature in which costs are extremely high and where listenership is likely to be specialist or otherwise limited. For instance, radio documentaries fall into the category of programmes which can be problematic to make and also time-consuming, costly and therefore, difficult for programme directors to justify. But the value of any documentary can and should be measured according to a range of other criteria: its historical, archival, educational and inspirational qualities among them.
Remoulding Public Service Broadcasting Canadian Journal of Communication. Remoulding public service broadcastingThe British Experience. public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. http://www.wlu.ca/~wwwpress/jrls/cjc/BackIssues/24.1/hutchis.pap.html
Extractions: Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland David Hutchison is a senior lecturer in media studies in the Department of Language and Media at Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland. E-mail: D.Hutchison@scooter.gcal.ac.uk Abstract: Public service broadcasting has been under pressure in the United Kingdom in recent years. The reasons for this situation are considered, the challenges which have arisen are examined, and an assessment of the current and likely future health of public service broadcasting in Britain is offered. As we conceive it, our responsibility is to carry into the greatest possible number of homes everything that is best in every department of human knowledge, endeavour and achievement, and to avoid the things which are, or may be hurtful. It is occasionally indicated to us that we are apparently setting out to give the public what we think they need and not what they want, but few know what they want, and very few what they need.... In any case it is better to over-estimate the mentality of the public, than to under- estimate it. (Reith, 1924, p. 34) It is difficult to imagine any Director General of the BBC speaking in these terms today, but the Corporation's mission remains in the words of successive Royal Charters the provision of ``sound and television programmes of information, education and entertainment.'' Reith was in practice rather less of an elitist than the pronouncement quoted suggests, and he very shrewdly saw to it that on most days of the week Sunday remained off limits for a stern Presbyterian like the Director General there was a judicious provision of lighter fare alongside more demanding material.
Extractions: A voice for the public : Public service broadcasting in the Mediterranean region Casablanca, 15-16 November 2001 Download full minutes, in French [WORD] FINAL DECLARATION Texte français Journalists and news professionals attending the conference on A Voice for the Public: Public Service Broadcasting in the Mediterranean Region (Casablanca, 15-16 November 2001) have adopted the following declaration: We reiterate the provisions of the Rabat conference on working together with civil society to create a network of journalists in the Mediterranean region with a view to introducing a strategy of change in the media sector; We regret the state monopoly on news media in certain countries in the region and the lack of legal and professional structures to guarantee the economic and political independence of news services; We emphasise that editorial independence, freedom of expression, pluralism of opinion and the independence of public broadcasters are essential principles in a democratic society; We note that criminal legal provisions - and in particular prison sentences - in the area of freedom of expression are an obstacle to the development of independent broadcasting;
Public Service Broadcasting public service broadcasting. Enabling broadcasters to play their roleeffectively. Broadcasting is one of the most important mediums http://fxi.org.za/Medialaw/public.htm