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  1. Sea Dogs: Privateers, Plunder and Piracy in the Elizabethan Age by Neville Williams, 1975-10-23
  2. Sir Walter Raleigh: Being a True and Vivid Account of the Life and Times of the Explorer, Soldier, Scholar, Poet, and Courtier--The Controversial Hero of the Elizabethan Age by Raleigh Trevelyan, 2004-10-01

61. Shakespeare Biography
The Elizabethan age, then, was an age of Discovery of scientific knowledge, and theexploration of human Nevertheless, the elizabethans also recognized that the
Complete List of Enotes: Antony and Cleopatra As You Like It Awakening, The Beowulf Brave New World Canterbury Tales, The Coriolanus Crucible, The Dante's Inferno Farewell to Arms, A For Whom the Bell Tolls Frankenstein Grapes of Wrath, The Great Expectations Great Gatsby, The Hamlet Heart of Darkness Hemingway's Short Stories Henry IV, Part I Huckleberry Finn Iliad, The Jane Eyre Julius Caesar King Lear Lord of the Flies, The Macbeth Merchant of Venice Midsummer Night's Dream Moby Dick Much Ado About Nothing Odyssey, The Oedipus Trilogy, The Of Mice and Men Old Man and the Sea, The Othello Poe's Poetry Poe's Short Stories Pride and Prejudice Richard III Romeo and Juliet Scarlet Letter, The Sonnets Sun Also Rises, The Tale of Two Cities, A Tempest, The The Catcher in the Rye To Kill a Mockingbird Twelfth Night Wuthering Heights Shakespeare Home Shakespeare Plays Shakespeare's Sonnets Shakespeare Essays ... Shakespeare Quotes
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See Also: Shakespeare Biography
Essay on Shakespeare's Life and Times
Shakespeare Timeline

A timeline of Shakespeare's life.

62. [EMLS SI 9 (January, 2002):4.1-11 Impostors, Monsters, And Spies: What Rogue Lit
is easy for our scienceimmersed age to misread investigative reporting, and in explorationliterature, pamphlets most accessibly where elizabethans fret about

Impostors, Monsters, and Spies: What Rogue Literature Can Tell us about Early Modern Subjectivity
Linda Woodbridge
Pennsylvania State University
Woodbridge, Linda. "Imposters, Monsters, and Spies: What Rogue Literature Can Tell us about Early Modern Subjectivity." Early Modern Literary Studies
  • In his rogue warning A Caveat for Common Cursetors
    Another notable feature of Harman's story about Nicholas Jennings is the unmasking of an impostor. Jennings is not only a phony epileptic, he is even a phony vagrantas Harman eventually discovers, Jennings actually owns a home! That the unmasking of imposture, the shining of a bright light onto occulted identities and hidden practices, is a crucial trope in the period says much about subjectivity. Many theorists have noted in the early modern period a changing subjectivity, a new interiority. Puritans saw God by their own inner light, diary-keeping flourished, household architecture began evolving private rooms. People had secret inner selves to protect, as never before. I think this new subjectivity is intimately connected with the age's preoccupation with imposture.
    The genre in which Harman wrote, which posterity has dubbed rogue literature, consisted of warnings to the public against petty crimes and tricks of street people, mainly in a comic vein, with a thin veneer of moralizing. The promise of disclosure animates the whole genre. Robert Greene and other "cony-catching" writers claim to have infiltrated the criminal underworld to disclose its secrets to a vulnerable, non-streetwise public, and Ben Jonson's
  • 63. Books
    Northumberland (1973) Davies, DW, elizabethans Errant (1967 Guido, Antwerp in theAge of Reformation Prins, eds., American Beginnings exploration, Culture, and
    Books Consulted
    Face Down Mystery Series

    Note: General Bibliography link is at the bottom. Books listed for one novel are also used for the others. Most books listed here, with the exception of National Trust and English Heritage guidebooks, should be available in the U.S. through inter-library-loans. Ask your local librarian. Book One
    Face Down in the Marrow-Bone Pie
    Ardagh, John, Cultural Atlas of France
    Chalkin, C.W., Seventeenth Century Kent
    Church, Richard, Kent
    Clark, Peter, English Provincial Society from the Reformation to the Revolution: Religion, Politics and Society in Kent 1500-1640
    Coudy, Julian, ed., The Huguenot Wars
    Crouch, Marcus, Kent
    Febvre, Lucien, Life in Medieval France
    Fedden, Katharine, Manor Life in Old France from the Journal of the Sire de Gouberville for the years 1549-1562 Haigh, Christopher, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire Haynes, Alan, Invisible Power: The Elizabethan Secret Service 1570-1603 Plowden, Alison, Elizabethan Secret Service Somerville, Robert

    64. The Classical Phase-The Axial Age And The Eonic Effect
    different from what we had thought from the idea of the 'Axial age'. a spectrumof possibilities, almost a shot gun approach to evolutionary exploration.
    Appendix 2 Home World History
    And The Eonic Effect

    Civilization, Darwinism, and Theories of Evolution
    By John Landon
    The Book
    The Classical Phase An Eonic Model of World History Our eonic sequence is at its clearest here in its middle phase, the spectacular era whose structure is something different from what we had thought from the idea of the 'Axial Age'. The question of the history of Israel is so beautifully clarified that we are almost amazed. Please keep in mind however that this account is of eonic sequence, and teleological theology is not a proper interpretation. This is a discrete phase whose evidence is of directionality, and this splits in five just here. Also keep in mind that we have demonstrated a non-random pattern taken in the large. The relative contingency of the detail is often an entirely different question. Note the way multiple potentials and contradictions appear in parallel, from Confucius versus 'Lao Tse' (the man in quotation marks), to Buddhism versus monotheism, to religion versus Greek humanism, to Greek democracy and Greek science. One might consider Heraclitus who is a hybrid being halfway between Indian sage and Pre-Socratic scientist, to see how our system is invoking a spectrum of possibilities, almost a shot gun approach to evolutionary exploration. Note that our treatment of Isreal post-selects the outcome, the original phase should really refer to the whole Middle East where a confusion of empires muddies the much clearer picture visible in the case of Greece. Israel is one outcome of this chaotic area, but so is the Persian Empire, and this will move in parallel, to some extent to be an independent influence in the coming of the much later Islam.

    65. Bibliography
    The elizabethans and the Irish. Atlantic crossings social politics in a progressiveage. The English Atlantic, 16751740 An exploration of Communication and
    Partial Bibliography of Atlantic History
    Altman, Ida, and James Horn, eds. 1991. To Make America: European Emigration in the Early Modern Period. Berkeley: University of California Press. Andrews, K. R., and N. P. Canny. 1978. The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic and America, 1480-1650 . Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Anstey, R. 1975. The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition . London: Macmillan. Bach, Rebecca Ann. 2000. Colonial Transformations: The Cultural Production of the New Atlantic World, 1580-1640 . London: St. Martins Press. Bailyn, Bernard. 1992. Ideological Origins of the American Revolution . Cambridge, MA: Harvard. Bailyn, Bernard, and Philip D. eds Morgan. 1991. Strangers Within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Bastide, Roger. 1978. The African religions of Brazil: toward a sociology of the interpenetration of civilizations . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Brewer, John. 1988.

    66. THE IRANIAN: Shapespeare And Persia, Reza Sami Gorgan Roodi
    the view point of the elizabethans, especially after were people in the Elizabethanage, like Sir This materialistic side of America's exploration is echoed in
    Literature Support
    Write for
    Editorial policy

    Garden vs. Wilderness

    What is the American Dream? October 24, 2002
    The Iranian America, from the view point of many young Iranians, is the land of dreams. The people in our country, along with people of many other underpriviledged nationalities and developing countries, cherish the dream that America is the land of golden opportunities and that it is, in the words of Benjamin Franklin, the place "where fowls fly about ready roasted crying, 'Come! Eat me'." To these people, the American Dream signifies a vision of people as consumers, and the American story is the story of an inveterate struggle to embody this dream in the institutions of American life. Traditionally, we think of the American Dream as owning a home and having a happy family, with some undefined financial success often referred to as "comfortable and high-standard living". The dream aspect of the American Dream, however, connotes a traditional and national vision, despite some of the mundane aspects of the dream as it is often defined. Immigrants in particular have seen America as a promised land, with the dream as an integral part of this vision. On the other hand, some see the American Dream as an unfulfillable vision, especially those whose race, ethnicity or gender the mainstream uses as an excuse for excluding them from dreaming. Others see it as relentlessly competitive and material and ruthless.

    67. §6. Northern Studies: Hickes’s "Thesaurus". X. The Literary Influence Of The M
    Volume X. The age of Johnson. Here, it may be objected that this kind of explorationwas nothing new from all the ends of the earth; that elizabethans range as
    Select Search All All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer American Heritage Coll. Dictionary Roget's Thesauri Roget's II: Thesaurus Roget's Int'l Thesaurus Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference Cambridge History The Age of Johnson The Literary Influence of the Middle Ages Thesaurus Temple and The Death-Song of Ragnar Five Runic Pieces
    The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes
    Volume X. The Age of Johnson.

    68. Classic Reprint
    grammar school students before the age of 16 eyesight are often statements of howElizabethans saw the Shakespeare's exploration of the subject utilizes a range
    The Art of the Figure (Excerpts)
    Arthur Mortensen
    from The Art of the Figure, not for commercial or any other distribution
    without the permission of Arthur Mortensen.
    Of late there has been so much energy expended on the subject of meter that facets of equal or greater importance to writing verse or prose have been ignored. As one way of turning to another subject, let me opine that most writing for or against meter for the last twenty years has seemed off the mark. Meter is not quantum physics; meter and variations from it are heard (or not). As such, learning how to use it is done by listening to metrical poetry. Nothing can substitute for that. Further, meter, much as the measure in music, is not how we define poetry and its sound, but how we control expression in a way that's impossible (and even undesirable) in writing intended for the eye instead of the ear. As an aside, in music, the measure allows a composer to balance durations (phrasing, single tones, the lengths of a theme or variation, of a section at a particular tempo, etc.), whether for equalities or inequalities. Yet this doesn't force a composer to write themes or variations of a measure's length. Duration is about time in a sequence which may extend measure to measure; and, while the perception of time is subjective, notation of where its seconds fall allows us to create a sense of time's velocity (or lack of it) in a way that artless improvising never can. What follows is a compressed version of a book, still in the works, called

    69. Keats
    his own is to him a new voyage of exploration. this inheritance of the Elizabethanage rediscovered in a allusions in Spenser and the other great elizabethans.
    by Paul Elmer More
    Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold,
    And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;
    Round many western islands have I been
    Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.
    Oft of one wide expanse had I been told
    That deep-brow'd Homer ruled as his demesne;
    Yet did I never breathe its pure serene
    Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:
    Then felt I like some watcher of the skies
    When a new planet swims into his ken,
    Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes He stared at the Pacificand all his men Look'd at each other with a wild surmise Silent, upon a peak in Darien. It is the sonnet that to most people probably comes first to mind when Keats is named and his destiny remembered. There is about it the golden flush and wonder of youthit was written in his twentieth yearand one catches in it also, or seems to catch, a certain quickness of breath which forebodes the rapture so soon quenched. The inspiration of unsoiled nature and of England's clear-voiced early singers is here mingled as in no other of our poets. And especially this inheritance of the Elizabethan age rediscovered in a later century will have a new significance to any one who has just gone through the poems in the volume edited by Mr. E. de Selincourt.[1] It is scarcely necessary to add that this spontaneity in a mind so untrained as Keats's often fell into license and barbarism. From the days of the first reviewers his ill-formed compound terms and his other solecisms have, and quite rightly, been ridiculed and repudiated. Sometimes, indeed, his super-grammatical creations have a strange quality of genius that rebukes criticism to modesty. Thus in the familiar lines:

    70. UNT Libraries: Subject Guides, Dance And Theatre Resources On The Internet
    Institute for the exploration of Virtual Realities This theatre of Spain's GoldenAge with links to Shakespeare and the elizabethans Professor Murphy's helpful

    Subject Guides Menu
    Dance Subject Guide Theatre Subject Guide
    Dance and Theatre Resources on the Internet
    DANCE CyberDance: Ballet on the Net
    A collection of over 3500 links to ballet and modern dance resources.
    Dance Links
    A site with links to ballet and modern dance companies, schools, organizations, newsgroups, publications, etc.
    The dance section of the WWW Virtual Library, an attempt at a comprehensive collection of links to dance-related resources.
    Dance Center
    A general mega site to thousands of dance-related resources.
    Historical Dance on the Internet
    Provides links to the history of dance since the Renaissance. Dance Quotes from Various Genres An amusing site that includes quotations about dance from a variety of sources.

    71. The Tudor Project - Resources - Booklists
    Shuter, Jane, Life in Tudor Times exploration Overseas (Heinemann Nicoll, A, TheElizabethans ( Cambridge, 1957). Palliser, DM, The age of Elizabeth 15471603
    Further Reading
    Children's Books: Balkwill, Richard, Food and Feasts in Tudor Times (Wayland, 1995) Burns, Peggy, History Makers: Tudors and Stuarts (Wayland, 1994) Carter, Mary, Past into Present 2: 1400-1700 (Collins, 1989) Castor, Harriet, Elizabeth I (Watts, 1996) Chrisp, Peter, A Tudor Kitchen (Heinemann, 1997) Chrisp, Peter, A Tudor School (Heinemann, 1997) Coote, Roger, Beginning History: Tudor Sailors (Wayland, 1989) Cox, Angela, Elizabethan Gentlemen (Cambridge, 1982) Fry, Plantagenet S., Kings and Queens (Covent Garden, 1998) Guy, John, Great Leaders: Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada (Ticktock, 1997) Guy, John, Millennium Series: Kings and Queens. 1399 - 1603 (Ticktock, 1997) Guy, John, Tudor and Stuart Life (Addax Retail, 1995) Hebditch, Felicity, Britain through the Ages (Evans, 1995) Hebditch, Felicity, The Tudors (Evans, 1995) Hill, Maureen, Headstart: Tudors and Stuarts - Two Dynasties Explained (Caxton, 1998)

    72. | Table Of Contents | The American Historical Review, Volume 72, Issue 3. | The
    Ancient. George E. Mylonas. Mycenae and the Mycenaean age. Reviewed by EmmettL. Bennett, Jr. 935. David Beers Quinn. The elizabethans and the Irish.
    Vol. 72, No. 3 April 1967 Previous Index of JSTOR Issues Next
    April 1967
    Table of Contents
    The following links will direct you to the complete back run of issues of the American Historical Review in JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to the digital preservation of scholarly journals. If you are affiliated with a participating institution and have access to your campus network, you may have access to full-text content in JSTOR. Individual users and non-affiliated institutions can still view complete tables of content here.
    Volume Information
    Front Matter Guillaume Bude and the First Historical School of Law By Donald R. Kelley Ex parte McCardle: Judicial Impotency? The Supreme Court and Reconstruction Reconsidered By Stanley I. Kutler Economic Growth, Capital Investment, and the Roman Catholic Church in Nineteenth-Century Ireland By Emmet Larkin The Impact of Christian Science on the American Churches, 1880-1910 By Raymond J. Cunningham The Conversion of Myths into Political Power: The Case of the Nazi Party, 1925-1926 By Dietrich Orlow
    Reviews of Books
    June Goodfield The Discovery of Time Reviewed by Thomas S. Kuhn

    73. William Shakespeare
    Jonson noted, He was not of an age, but for Use the handout and your website explorationto create a Emulate the imaginative spirit of the elizabethans in the & Homework/English-Languag Arts-Reading/Erickso
    AP English
    Mrs. Erickson
    The England of William Shakespeare's time was the result of several generations of general upheaval. By the year of Shakespeare's birth in 1564, England had undergone major revisions in religion as a result of the Reformation. By 1564, the social structure, known as feudalism, had gradually been shattered, providing greater mobility for the masses of common people. Copernicus had determined a new center of the universe, and the human mind had reached out to new frontiers of thought. By 1564, the Renaissance, begun in Italy, had spread northward throughout Europe, reaching England's shores with tremendous impact. Change was the keyword, as increased intellectual activity produced new discoveries, explorations, and inventions, including the printing press. After her coronation in 1558, Elizabeth I achieved peace and unity in England, creating more time for intellectual pursuits, which the Queen heartily endorsed. A new interest in literature provided fertile ground for the development of drama, and the construction of the first theater, aptly named The Theater, in 1576. This provided recognition of drama as a permanent and respectable art form. Into this scene strode the gifted and talented William Shakespeare, who was in a unique position of being the right individual in the right place at the right time. His appearance in this climate, rich in humanistic and intellectual pursuits, caused an impact that has been felt by the world for almost 400 years. As Shakespeare's contemporary, Ben Jonson noted, "He was not of an age, but for all time."

    74. Latest News - Shakespeare & Co. - The Berkshires
    hell of terrorism that takes an age of innocence intellectual leaders in an intensiveexploration of moral Party like elizabethans The Silver Season Gala on
    Media Contact: Elizabeth Aspenlieder
    (413) 637-1199 ext. 110

    News updates and downloadable photo library
    March 4, 2002
    The Silver Anniversary season in Lenox, planned by Packer and Artistic Associates Dan McCleary and Michael Hammond, expands to May 3 - November 24, increases performances and available seats, incorporates a new theatre, introduces a new academic programming arm on the property, celebrates the anniversaries of two acclaimed Berkshire writers, and brings three world premieres to the stage. The paradoxical struggle of world leaders
    The season kicks off with the world premiere of William Gibson's new play, Golda's Balcony, featuring Annette Miller (Ruth Steiner in last year's Collected Stories) as Israel's passionate Prime Minister Golda Meir. Mr. Gibson, playwright of The Miracle Worker, Two for the Seesaw, and Monday After the Miracle, has spent the last five months revising the script with the Company through a series of invited readings at Spring Lawn Theatre, which is where the play will run through August 25. The 90-minute play, performed without intermission and directed by Daniel Gidron, follows Meir through the days preceding the 1973 Yom Kippur War in her negotiations with her Middle East neighbors, U.S. Secretary of State Kissinger, and the memories of her own extraordinary life as peaceful mother and wife, and now a leader presiding over a national secret of mass destruction.

    75. Didaskalia - Journal
    was well known to the Greeks and elizabethans, though it between two Ice Ages or theage of a a normal tidy exposition, but in long exploration and experiment

    Journal Volume 5
    Issue 3
    Issue 1
    TANTALUS John Barton in Conversation with Michael Kustow and Everyone Present King's College London, 18 May 2001 MK (Michael Kustow): Well, how to even begin, John, to pull together all of the things we've heard today? How to match up to nearly twenty years of your thinking about the Greeks and this story and working on it? I've been on it a mere five years with you, and this is a pretty emotional moment, I think, for everybody: tomorrow is the end of what started twenty years ago. Tomorrow is the last ever performance of this production of John's play, and I suspect the last performance, dear John, in your lifetime of this text. So this is a very key moment. (And I'm really grateful to you, Judith, for allowing us to have this moment.) I want to talk theatre facts as much as I can. John, the title of this session is: 'What is Tantalus about?' I'll tell you what I think it's about, and then you can disagree. I think it's about your attempt to mix myth and history. Myth versus history, as the great Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides almost always talked about. But also where myth and history are both the truth. I think that's partly what it's about.

    76. History
    the impact of colonization and exploration on Europe impact of modern Europe in theage of multinational music, film, and TV from New elizabethans to Thatcher's
    Professor Howard L. Malchow, Chair; Modern Britain, Europe
    Professor Virginia G. Drachman, Arthur Jr. and Lenore Stern Chair in American History; Women in the U.S., medicine and society in the U.S., modern U.S.
    Professor Leila Fawaz, Issam M. Fares Chair in Lebanese and Eastern Mediterranean Studies, Middle East
    Professor Ayesha Jalal, South Asia, the Muslim world
    Professor Pierre H. Laurent, Modern Europe, France, transatlantic diplomatic history
    Professor George J. Marcopoulos, Southeastern Europe, Byzantine history, and European diplomatic history
    Professor Steven P. Marrone, Medieval, early modern Europe
    Professor Daniel Mulholland, Russia and modern Germany
    Professor Martin J. Sherwin, Walter S. Dickson Professor of English and American History; Recent U.S. and foreign policy
    Professor Howard M. Solomon, Early modern Europe, gender and sexuality
    Professor Reed Ueda, Industrial and urban U.S. history, immigration Professor Peter Winn, Latin America Associate Professor Gerald Gill, African-American and recent U.S. history, U.S. South since 1865 Associate Professor Gary P. Leupp

    77. Theology Today - Vol 39, No. 1 - April 1982 - ARTICLE - Prince Hamlet And The Pr
    In the Elizabethan age, in somewhat the same way son's response to it, so that Elizabethanswould have A full exploration of the ethical problems and related
    27 - Prince Hamlet and the Protestant Confessional Prince Hamlet and the Protestant Confessional
    By Roland Mushat Frye Shakespeare's dramatization of Hamlet's verbal assault upon his guilty mother, and his efforts to bring her to repentance, are a fine example of how the 'priesthood of all believers' was expected to operate at the end of the first Protestant century. Elizabethan audiences would have agreed with Hamlet's own assessment of his behavior, that he was being "cruel only to be kind." This muchmisunderstood scene is thus, in addition to its poetic and dramatic greatness, interesting for the insight it provides into the "patoral" psychology recommended for the laity by leaders of the English Reformation. Hamlet's jeremiad against his mother during their private interview at the end of the third act of the tragedy has seemed intensely puzzling and even distasteful to many modern audiences and readers. Upbraiding Gertrude in the strongest terms, the Prince struggles to bring her to a recognition of her sin and to repentance. This scene is one of the most theologically interesting and significant in our literature, yet its point is usually missed. Today, when we have a far more restricted sense of incest than was current in Shakespeare's time, and also with a weakening of the Christian doctrine of repentance and of the Reformation's emphasis on the "priestly" duties of the laity, we may be more perplexed than enlightened by Shakespeare's dramatized encounter between mother and son.

    78. Index Page
    time English influence expanded tremendously world exploration took place The agehe lived in was full of Like most elizabethans the Bible was, for him, just
    Free Web site hosting -
    Return to Index Page
    Was Shakespeare a Christian? By Richard Gunther Shakespeare's early life and influences. It has long interested me as to where Shakespeare stood regarding the Christian faith. It seems reasonable that, if he had a particular view of Christianity, he would tend to express it somewhere - perhaps in his writings? If, for example, he was a Catholic, he might insert into one of his plays something about Mary, or the Mass, or the Pope. If he was a nihilist, he might 'let it slip' that he not see any point to life; if he was a transcendentalist, he might consider the unseen world as the true reality; and if he was a humanist he might see natural justice and injustice in this life only, as the sum total of human existence. But, as far as I know, in all 37 of his plays and in all his sonnets and other works, there is not a single clear statement either way. This actually tells us a lot. The very fact that he says nothing, tells us that he probably had no deeply held convictions either for or against the Christian faith. This may be a premature assessment, so before we decide things too soon, let us look briefly at the influences on Shakespeare's life from his childhood up.

    79. Greenwood Publishing Group
    The age of the World; The Agincourt War; The Aging American; The Agrarian The Elizabethansand America. The Exploding Metropolis; The exploration of New Zealand.

    80. Renaissance Forum: V2no1 (Spring 1997): Richard Danson Brown
    literature readily available to elizabethans would include importance than the exhaustiveexploration of imagined And lanterne unto late succeeding age, To see
    A 'goodlie bridge' between the Old and the New:
    the transformation of complaint in Spenser's The Ruines of Time
  • Spenser's The Ruines of Time has been unjustly neglected. Ostensibly an elegy for Leicester and Sidney, the poem uses their deaths much as Milton was to use the death of Edward King in Lycidas as an opportunity to discuss poetry and the rôle of the poet. Though Spenser uses complaint to bewail the death of Sidney, his poem is not a conventional lament for great men despite his claims in the Dedication to the Countess of Pembroke that it was 'speciallie intended to the renowming' of the Dudley family 'and to the eternizing of some of the chiefe of them late deceased'.
  • The differences between Spenser's treatment of Sidney's death and that of his contemporaries can be illustrated by 'The Funeral Songs of that honourable gentleman, Sir Philip Sidney, Knight' set by Byrd and published in his Psalms, Sonnets, and Songs of Sadness and Piety (1588). Though this poem's quantitative metre is unusual, its lament is stylised and relatively predictable. It aims to amplify our sense of the loss of Sidney by the staccato iteration of its lament: 'SIDNEY is dead!'; 'SIDNEY, the sprite heroic!'; 'Come to me grief, for ever!' (Bullen n.d., 22-23) The poet's grief leads directly to the plaintive text whose goal is simply to move its listener to acknowledge the justice of its 'plaint'.
  • By contrast
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