Geometry.Net - the online learning center
Home  - Basic_A - American Samoa Culture Bookstore
Page 4     61-80 of 97    Back | 1  | 2  | 3  | 4  | 5  | Next 20
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

         American Samoa Culture:     more books (21)
  1. Western Samoa and American Samoa: History, culture and communication (Pre-print paper series / East-West Communication Institute, East-West Center) by Ruth E Runeborg, 1980
  2. Siapo: Bark Cloth Art of Samoa (American Samoa Council on Culture, Arts and Humanities Special Publication Number 1) by Mary J. Pritchard, 1984
  3. AMERICAN SAMOA: An entry from Macmillan Reference USA's <i>Countries and Their Cultures</i> by LOWELL D. HOLMES, ELLEN RHOADS HOLMES, 2001
  4. Samoans: Polynesia, Samoan Islands, Samoa, American Samoa, Lapita, Austronesia, Sabre Strickson- Pua, Nesian Mystik
  5. American Samoan Culture: Samoans, Miss Island Queen Pageant, Flag of American Samoa, .As, Amerika Samoa, Beach Fale
  6. Culture of Samoa: Samoa, Religion in Samoa, Sport in Samoa, Sport in American Samoa, Architecture of Samoa, History of Samoa, Music of Samoa, Rugby Union in Samoa, Beach Fale, Savai'i.
  7. Commercial feasibility of giant clam mariculture in American Samoa: February through October 1994 : project update by John McConnaughey, 1994
  8. Large-scale production of the top minnows (P̲o̲e̲c̲i̲l̲i̲a̲ m̲e̲x̲i̲c̲a̲n̲a̲) in American Samoa and the testing of their efficiency as ... / Pacific Tuna Development Foundation) by Philippe Vergne, 1978
  9. Testing topminnows (Poecilia mexicana) as live bait while trolling for tunas in American Samoa (Technical bulletin / Pacific Tuna Development Foundation) by James F Lambert, 1979
  10. Dimensions of mental functioning in American Samoa: (assessment of intellectual dimensions in a given cultural context) (Applied Anthropology Documentation Project) by Joe R Harding, 1972
  11. Culture change, stress and mental health in the two Samoas by Scott J Whitney, 1984
  12. The effect of the Samoan value system on a Palagi [i.e. Papalagi] wife's adjustment to marriage and culture by Susie Seui, 1980
  13. Pacific concern: Perpetuation of the spirit of culture ... a concern for the '80s by Trudie Iuli Chun, 1983
  14. Samoan Village: Then and Now (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology) by Lowell D. Holmes, Ellen Rhoads Holmes, 1992-01

61. South Pacific Luxury Vacations, Cruises, And Tours Guide. South
of living to closer approximate that of the american mainland also caused the deteriorationof native culture and customs. american samoa has developed into a
American Samoa Vacations - American Samoa Hotels - American Samoa Resorts - American Samoa luxury Cruises - American Samoa Travel
Romantic American Samoa Vacations, Weddings and Honeymoons
Virtuoso, American Samoa Vacation Consultants
Experience the Essence of True Luxury in the American Samoa and our Concierge Service
Other Places in South Pacific
Austral Islands
Cook Islands

Easter Island
Vanuatu Islands

American Samoa: Overview
Following the partition of the Samoan Islands in 1900, East Samoa fell under the jurisdiction of the American Ministry of the Navy. Since 1951, it has been administered by the US department of the Interior. In the 1960s, large sums of money from the USA flowed into the island state to finance the building of schools, streets, houses, two tuna fish processing plants and a hospital. Illiteracy declined and an excellent system of health care developed. At the same time, the rise in the standard of living to closer approximate that of the American mainland also caused the deterioration of native culture and customs.
American Samoa has developed into a shopping paradise for the relatively poorer Western Samoans who cross over to the US islands to shop. Clothing is especially cheap. The people of American Samoa are so dependent on their higher standard of living that when given a chance for reunification with Western Samoa in 1966, they voted to remain a territory of the United States. Today, some 45,000 inhabitants live in American Samoa. Agriculture and the fishing industry have progressed to the point that they now supply local needs and produce a surplus for export. Nonetheless, many native inhabitants are dependent upon money from expatriate relatives, or from US government financial help.

62. The People Of Samoa By Samoa Koria - Human & Civil Rights / In Motion Magazine
the samoan culture. the 'Ava. OUR UNIQUE FACT From 1978 1982. there were moresamoans residing in the United States (approx. 50.000) than in american samoa
The People of Samoa
by Samoa Koria,
San Diego, California
In 1995, the Pacific Islander community of San Diego held its first major community festival - more than 60,000 people came to the two-day festival, July 22nd and 23rd.
Organizing to overcome a perceived inviability of Pacific Islander people in San Diego, Chamorros, people of the Cook Islands, Fijians, Guamanians, Hawaiians, Maoris, people of the Marianas, Marshallese, people of the Federated States of Micronesia, Samoans, the Tokelau, Tongans, and others came together to put on this historic event.
With the theme of Hokule'a-Ho'oku'i I Ka Pakipika (Bridging the Pacific), the festival was a vivid expression of the Pacific Islander people's history, culture, arts, crafts and cooking. Central to the festival was the visit to San Diego of the Hokule'a ship (photo above) - a symbol of exploration among Pacific Islanders.
The festival received a lot of support in San Diego city and county and has lead to steps towards Pacific Islander empowerment including the establishment of various new organizations and the placing of Pacific Islanders on city and county commissions.
After the success of this first festival the planning of the second festival is well under way. The following article about the Samoan people was written by Samoa Koria a member of the education committee of the 1995 festival and was chair of the 1996 festival.

63. Tourism American Samoa -Links
american samoa Power Authority. american samoa Council on culture, Arts Humanities.american samoa Telecommunications Authority. ANZ Amerika samoa Bank.
Our Links to link to us in text: <a href=""></a> for image links please download the following to your hard drive and upload to your site ASG ON-LINE - new!
American Samoa
I sland Magic - new! AS Community College American Samoa Power Authority American Samoa Telecommunications Authority ANZ Amerika Samoa Bank ... MAOTA FONO - ASG Legislature - new! Miss American Samoa, Inc. - new! National Park Of American Samoa Ofu and Olosega Islands Pago Airport Inn
Evalani's Motu O Fiafiaga
... Tropic Isle Designs please report deadlinks to:

64. TOURISM- American Samoa - Language And Customs
Much of the culture is based on welcoming travelers to cities and dwindling beachspace, samoa and it's american samoa has a tradition of warmth and geniality
" Fa'asamoa " , an oft-repeated phrase in the islands , means the Samoan way - the way of our ancestors. Fa'asamoa has kept Samoans strongly nationalistic, and suspicious to changes that might threaten the traditional structure of their way of life. In recent times, however, fa'asamoa has been able to bend allowing its people to withstand and absorb the ways of foreign traders, missionaries, and military forces. Today, fa'asamoa is facing its greatest challenge, as a new generation is brought up on foreign taught theories of individualism and personal freedom, which threaten the old traditions. A very basic ingredient in Samoa life is the aiga (the family). At the head of each aiga is the matai, a position of rank and authority. photo: marlene tuitele Much of the Samoan social system is based on status, such as whose fale has the highest roof. The extent of the roof on one's fales rises above the other fales in the village depends not only on the status of the owner, but also intertwines with the elaborate social structure that governs the Samoan way of life. One of the attractions of Polynesia is its diversity. Native peoples of the Pacific are of similar origin with the related languages, customs, and cultures, yet, each is different.

65. Images Of Samoan Culture, Education, And Art
PEC2002 Images of Pacific culture, Education, Art. Follow the link below to samplea gallery of student art from american samoa. american samoa Student Art.

66. DINO - Language: Englisch - Regional - Oceania - American Samoa - Society And Cu
american samoa Society and culture Society and culture, Sprache/Language. Categories,
Suche Profi-Suche Katalog Video ... Produkte Suchen: Web-Seiten Video Audio Bilder Produkte Schon gewusst? Hier suchen Sie in 2 Milliarden Webseiten. Live-Suche: Was suchen andere Dino-Besucher?
You are here: DINO Language Englisch Regional ... American Samoa Society and Culture Society and Culture Sprache/Language
Categories Forums
Personal Pages
Related Categories DINO - Language: Englisch - Regional - Oceania - Samoa - Society and Culture
DINO - Language: Englisch - Regional - Oceania - Society and Culture
Websites Pacific GenWeb Samoa - Genealogy and local history for Western Samoa and American Samoa.
[Verwandte Websites] Sooalo Mao - Contains links to commercial and home page sites in Samoa.
[Verwandte Websites] This site is based on the Open Directory Project (ODP) Last update: 24. Dec. 2002, 03:37:16 o'clock This categorie needs an Editor. Help build the largest human-edited directory of the web: Become an Editor Services AKTUELLE Nachrichten Topthemen Wirtschaft Deutschland Sport ... Kalender DOMAIN NOCH FREI?

67. IWon - Travel Guide - History & Culture
iWon Travel. 5 iWon 6 Travel 3 Oceania 3 american samoa History culture, Powered by. HISTORY and culture History culture. History.,20310,Oceania-332,00.html
iWon Travel Oceania American Samoa Powered by HISTORY and CULTURE
There is still some debate about where the Polynesians who first colonised Samoa actually came from, though conventional wisdom suggests people arrived from the East Indies, the Malay Peninsula or the Phillipines. The Samoans themselves are far from conventional on this issue however: other Polynesians might have come from Asia, but Samoans, they say, come from Samoa. They believe themselves to be the cradle of Polynesian culture,the race of people created by the god Tagaloa while he was cooking up the world. In fact the Samoan legend of the beginning of the world is startlingly similar to that told in the Bible; a fact that assisted the later transition to Christianity. Carbon testing on the remnants of a village on the island of Upolu (now in Independent Samoa) date the site from about 1000 BC. It's actually a testament to the Samoans' easy-going nature that the missionaries who arrived in the early 19th century, brandishing their Bibles and threats of everlasting hell and damnation, weren't killed immediately. Instead there were wholesale conversions, explained by the fact that Christianity and the old Samoan beliefs were not disimiliar and that the god Nafanua had - in a curious move by a deity - predicted the coming of a newer, better, stronger religion. The firepower and obvious wealth of the palagi (Europeans, or 'sky bursters' as they were known) was obvious and the enthusiastic embracing of Christianity may have had more to do with a pragmatic approach to the affairs of god and men than it did to blind faith. Spreading the Good News of the Lord early in the 19th century was haphazard at best, with various independent zealots working the islands. This changed in 1836 when John Williams and Charles Barff became the first two men to take up official missionary positions in Samoa. Williams converted a large number of Samoans before ending up as main course at a traditional Melanesian feast. But despite these occasional hiccups, the missionaries' influence was considerable and even today Samoa and nearby islands are known as 'the Bible belt of the Pacific'.

68. Western Samoa - Page 1
Although I believe that many aspects of culture have not significantly changed since theeasternmost tip of Upolu as one flies toward american samoa, one sees
Late in 1968 I went to Western Samoa to spend a year there photographing the people and their culture and doing anthropological research. My main residence was with a Samoan family I had met several years before. When I say "family," I use the term to mean something more than a nuclear family and something considerably less than an aiga or extended family. In fact, there were usually about 25 people in this living unit. They stayed primarily in one house in Leone, a rural, village-like setting on the outskirts of Apia, Western Samoa's capital. During that year, I ventured out and stayed in a number of other areas as well, including the island of Manono and Fa'a'la Village in Paulauli (Savai'i) and both Fasito'otai and Falealili on Upolu. After that year, I returned on other occasions to spend three months in the same areas, as well as six or seven times more to spend anywhere from a few days to a week or two. Whenever I stayed in Samoa, I usually kept my camera with me. I never knew what I might see and what photographic opportunities might appear, so I tried to remain ready. The photographs in this collection are a few of several thousand that I took.

69. UNESCO Thesaurus: Alphabetical List
history NT1 North american history american samoa MT 7.15 groupings FR samoa américaineSP samoa americana BT1 Amerindian cultures MT 3.05 culture FR culture
UNESCO Thesaurus: alphabetical list
Allegory - Animal feeding
Allegory USE Poetry Alliances
MT 6.20 International relations FR Alliance SP Alianza Foreign relations International relations RT Diplomacy RT Foreign policy
Allocation of frequencies
MT 5.40 Information technology (software) FR Attribution de fréquences SP Atribución de frecuencias Radio engineering Broadcasting technology RT Broadcasting RT Radio waves
Allowances USE Grants Alphabets
MT 3.30 Linguistics FR Alphabète SP Alfabeto UF Letters (alphabet) Writing systems RT Transliteration
Altaic languages
MT 3.35 Languages FR Langue altaïque SP Lengua altaica UF Turkic languages Eurasian and North Asian languages Asian languages Azerbaijani Kazakh ... Uzbek
Alternative development USE Self reliance Alternative education
MT 1.10 Educational policy FR Éducation alternative SP Educación alternativa SN General term for schemes which offer an alternative to traditional institutional education or for movements which reject the notion of formal schooling. UF Anticurriculum movement, Deschooling, Educational alternatives Educational policy RT Curriculum RT Educational experiments RT Educational systems
Alternative energy sources USE Renewable energy sources Alternative technology USE Appropriate technology Amazonia
MT 7.35 Geographic groupings

70. Samoa Field School
american samoa is a territory of the United States and islands in the independentcountry of Western samoa. colonists, with their distinctive culture known as
LOCATION: American Samoa, West Polynesia, South Pacific Islands INSTRUCTOR
Dr. Jeffrey T. Clark
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
North Dakota State University COURSE DESCRIPTION: ANTHROPOLOGY 495, FIELD EXPERIENCE: ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD SCHOOL, AMERICAN SAMOA. An archaeological field school will be conducted in June, 1997, that will involve excavations at two or three archaeological sites in American Samoa, in the South Pacific. American Samoa is a territory of the United States and consists of seven islands a short distance south of the equator. The Samoan Archipelago also includes four primary islands in the independent country of Western Samoa. The Samoan chain is located on the western edge of Polynesia and the islands were first settled around 3000 years ago by seafaring migrants from the west who were the first to occupy the Fiji-West Polynesia region. From these early colonists, with their distinctive culture known as Lapita, Polynesian culture evolved and eventually spread throughout the Polynesian triangle. The course will be conducted over a three week period between June 2 and 23. Current plans are to test one or two sites on the island of Ofu, and one additional site on Tutuila Island. The final selection of the sites to be excavated must await an on-site assessment of the educational and research potential of each site, as well as the acquisition of permissions from land holders.

71. South Pacific Travel Forums - Message Boards, Photo Galleries, Trip Reports, Map
american samoa Visitor's Fale dedicated to only american samoa. Sectionson work, culture, education, health, politics and travel. Pacific.htm

Travel ... Forums Caribbean Travel Forums HOME Caribbean Anguilla Aruba ... Hait i • Hawaii Honduras Jamaica Martinique ... LINKS The forums for the South Pacific have been relocated to a site of their own. Click below to go there.
SOUTH PACIFIC HOME Caribbean Anguilla Aruba ... Hait i • Hawaii Honduras Jamaica Martinique ... LINKS south pacific, tahiti and fiji travel forums - message boards, trip reports, photo galleries, maps and cams with which to plan your trip to the south pacific, tahiti and fiji

72. American Samoa - Links To Online Legal Documents
Curfews, culture, and Custom in american samoa An Analytical Map for Applying theUS Constitution to US Territories, by Daniel E. Hall, in volume 2 of the Asia
Dan MacMeekin Attorney at Law Washington, DC, USA
Island Links Island Legal Documents Online Islands of the Pacific U.S. Islands
American Samoa
Revised Constitution of American Samoa from Congressman Eni F.H. Faleomaveaga, American Samoa's Delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives. Other historical documents, laws, and deeds on the political relationship between the United States and American Samoa, also from Congressman Faleomaveaga. Decisions of the High Court of American Samoa, from the Pacific Law Materials collection of the University of the South Pacific Law School. This page was under construction when last visited and contained only a single 1988 decision. United States laws primarily affecting American Samoa, collected in title 48 of the United States Code, from the Legal Information Institute at the Cornell Law School. U.S. law on American Samoa's Delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives, from the Legal Information Institute at the Cornell Law School. Territorial Submerged Lands Act : United States law conveying submerged lands to American Samoa, from the Legal Information Institute at the Cornell Law School.

73. Atlas: American Samoa
Daily Almanac Women's History º World United States History Gov't Biography SportsArts Ent. Business Society culture Health Science. american samoa.

Watch your office LIVE!...24-7

Terrific savings on Toys, Cameras , Videos and much more..

From Amateur Photography to In Depth News..mags from around the world!

All Infoplease All Almanacs General Entertainment Sports Biographies Dictionary Encyclopedia Infoplease Home Almanacs Atlas Dictionary ...
Fact Monster

Kids' reference

Fun facts

Newsletter You've got info! Help Site Map Visit related sites from: Family Education Network American Samoa American Samoa Profile More Geographic Information
  • Country Profiles
  • Flags
  • World Geography
  • World Statistics ... Map Index Search Infoplease Info search tips Search Biographies Bio search tips About Us Contact Us Link to Infoplease ... Privacy
  • 74. Listings Of The World Regional Oceania American Samoa Society
    This category contains a list of subcategories for society and culture siteslocated in american samoa. Search, Complete Directory.

    75. Ministry Of Foreign Affairs And Trade - Pacific Division - Who's Who In The Paci
    Abe U. Malae. american samoa Telecommunications Authority. Aleki Sene. Secretaryof Agriculture, Nga Mataio. Secretary of culture, Sonny Williams.
    Pacific Division Who's Who Tel: Fax:
    American Samoa
    Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Republic of the Fiji Islands ... South Pacific Organisations
    Who's Who in the Pacific As at September 2002) The Pacific Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade produces this updated list of political leaders and senior officials in Pacific Island countries. Enquiries about it may be addressed to the Management Support Officer, Pacific Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Wellington. AMERICAN SAMOA Elected Officials Governor Hon Tauese Sunia Lieutenant-Governor Hon Togiola Tulafono Delegate to US Congress Faleomavaega Eni Hunkin President of the Senate Lutu Fuimaono Speaker of the House of Representatives Matagi R McMoore Appointed Officials Chief Justice Michael Kruse Attorney General, Department of Legal Affairs

    76. Sea Grant Extension Service Accomplishments -- Index
    MASSIP. QUEST. american samoa Coastal Zone Management Compliance TrainingProgram. Environmental Facility. Red Tilapia Trial culture Demonstration.
    Pacific Extension Agent Network
    Regional Aquaculture Extension Agent Palau Sea Grant Extension Agent Environmental Education Efforts Coastal Resource Management Extension Program for the FSM Sustainable Coastal Development and Mitigation of Coastal Hazards ... Coastal Resource Management Partnership in American Samoa
    Coastal Resource Management
    Ecotourism Site and Trail Design Workshop Pohnpei, FSM Amasowa Village Planning Prototype - Am. Samoa Coastal Res. Management Case Study Sand and Aggregate Dredging Guidelines and Legislation for Pohnpei State ... Wetlands Education Program of the American Samoa Coastal Management Program
    Environmental Education
    Operation Pathfinder-3 Institute Grantsmanship Workshop for the Pacific Island Region MASSIP QUEST ... Extension Techniques Training for Pacific Island Counterparts
    Pearl Oyster Nursery and Giant Clam Holding Facility Red Tilapia Trial Culture Demonstration Improvement of the Production and Profitability of Freshwater Prawn Development of Striped Mullet Hatchery Protocols ... Commercial Sponge Aquaculture Extension Training

    77. Refs-pacific
    html american samoa info american samoa Tourist Bureaus american samoa.Sports ams therePoly Cafe samoa Real Estate info A samoa Links culture, Media, etc
    Note: Inclusion does NOT necessarily mean endorsement -
    Also: If you find a link from here that isn't working right,
    please let us know the details so we can correct the problem.
    Go to Referral TOPICS
    Referrals by nation:
    Pacific - by nations
    American Samoa Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Easter Island Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Guam Hawaii Kiribati Marquesas Micronesia Island Nauru New Zealand Niue Northern Mariana Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Samoa Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Island Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Fatuna Islands Go to Referral TOPICS Fiji BULA Website fiji forum aquatrek - "adventure specialists" Bula Forum ... Wantok wwwboard

    Return to top of Country list
    Go to Referral TOPICS Hawaii Astronomical Society of Hawaii Bishop Museum Camp Aloha Car Rentals - from under $19/day ... Hawaii Research and Technology Hawaii Red Cross Hawaii State Constitution Hawaii Visitor Bureau Guide Hawaii Volcanoes National Park ... Honolulu Star-Bulletin (Newspaper) InterLink Hawaii Internet Radio Hawaii Ironman Triathlon World Championship Island Breeze Luau ... YWAM - Maui Return to top of Country list Go to Referral TOPICS Micronesia air_photos_of_micronesia.htm

    78. Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary - American Samoa
    influences, the samoans take pride in their two thousandyear-old culture (fa'a Thepeople of samoa are bilingual. american samoa has a 97 percent literacy rate
    Fagatele Bay
    National Marine Sanctuary
    American Samoa
    Location: American Samoa is in the Pacific ocean about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand. It is 14 degrees south of the Equator and just east of the International Date Line. Size: American Samoa has a total area of 199 square kilometers (76 square miles), roughly about the size of Washington D.C. The population is approximately 60,000. Landscape: American Samoa consists of 5 inhabited volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, plus two coral atolls. Pago Pago, on the island of Tutuila is one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean. Climate: History: American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States, obtained by treaty with local chiefs in 1900. People: The Samoans represent the largest population of Polynesian people. Despite exposure to outside influences, the Samoans take pride in their two thousand-year-old culture (fa'a samoa, the Samoan Way) and have preserved it successfully. Daily life still revolves around cultural traditions. The people of Samoa are bilingual. English is used mainly in school and in business situations and Samoan is spoken in the home and among friends. American Samoa has a 97 percent literacy rate. Economy: The government and the tuna canning industry employ the majority of American Samoans. Washington provides most of the operating budget of the territorial government. Together, the Starkist and Samoa Packing tuna canneries pack and can 95% of American Samoa's exports.

    79. American Samoa -
    american samoa Directory South Pacific Directory ** Featured Site **. Computers Internet (0), News Media (5), Society culture (0). Samoa

    80. A Delicate Balance Among Plants, Pollinators, And People Back To
    Balick, M., and P. Cox. 1996. Plants, people, and culture The science of ethnobotany. Internetgateway to samoa, especially american samoa.
    A Delicate Balance Among Plants, Pollinators, and People Back to Map Page February, 2000: American Samoa
    P. tonganus,

    Pollination and fertilization.
    Freycinetia The American Samoan Islands are a group of seven islands, five volcanic and two atolls, in the South Pacific between the Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand. Three of those islandsOfu, Olosega, and Taucomprise the Manua island group, where the Manuan culture is closely linked to a vine the locals call 'ie'ie. The vine, Freycinetia reineckei, is in the Pandanaceae family. Members of this family are typically lianas, which are woody climbing vines, and dioecious, meaning that the male pollen-bearing anther and the female pistil are located on separate plants. The people of the Manua islands use the roots of the vines to weave fish traps called 'enu. The roots are used because they can withstand repeated submersion in seawater. The traps catch a small fish called I'a sina, which migrates to the islands several times a year. Local culture demonstrates the close relationship between the 'ie'ie vine and the peoples of Manua through fishing techniques, songs about fish-trap weaving and fish migration, and other cultural practices. Because the vine has become so scarce on the islands, there are presently fewer than five elders who know how to weave the fish traps. During a recent field trip to the Manua islands, ethnobotanists filmed one of the Manuans weaving a fish trap in order to document and preserve the artform. Although hurricanes and other natural disasters sometimes take their toll on population distributions, the activities of humans have influenced this particular plant's decline.

    A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

    Page 4     61-80 of 97    Back | 1  | 2  | 3  | 4  | 5  | Next 20

    free hit counter