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  1. Arthritis - The Botanical Solution: Nature's Answer to Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Gout and Other Forms of Arthritis by Casey Adams PhD, 2009-10-23

21. B Cells And T Cells In Autoimmunity
may well be important in ankylosing spondylitis (see ankylosing spondylitis webpage)but led in recent time to the suggestion that some autoimmune diseases are
B cells and T cells in autoimmunity: 2002
Immunologists are currently in the middle of a debate about which cells are responsible for autoimmunity, and, in particular the relative importance of B cells and T cells. This page explains how our research group at UCL looks at it in 2002. It is chiefly intended for those with some scientific knowledge but is written as simply as possible.
The general view of a normal immune response is that it initially involves T cells recognising a molecule as foreign. These T cells are divided into cytotoxic (TC) and helper (TH).
TC cells kill infected cells directly. There is not much evidence that anti-self TC cells ever cause problems, although anti-graft TC cells take part when a transplanted organ is rejected. TC cells may well be important in ankylosing spondylitis (see ankylosing spondylitis webpage) but there is no clear evidence that they are anti-self.
TH cells can both set up a defensive reaction directly and encourage B cells to make antibody to a foreign molecule. These two activities are often dubbed TH1 and TH2. Immune responses to microbes may show predominance of TH1 or TH2 features. This has led in recent time to the suggestion that some autoimmune diseases are "TH1 diseases" and some are "TH2 diseases". As will be discussed later this seems to be an entirely unhelpful approach. Looking at the evidence from autoimmune disease it becomes clear that something quite unlike a normal immune response is going on.
Some of the key differences between normal and autoimmune responses are as follows:

22. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis - Kid's Planet Back Pain...
The type of JRA that affects the spine is called ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Sometimesit is triggered by a bacterial infection or an autoimmune problem.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) (Juvenile rue-ma-toyed Arthritis)
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) (ankle-oo-sing spondie-lie-tiss)
When most people hear the word Arthritis they think of elderly folks - Grandma and Grandpa. Although many adults and older people will develop arthritis, it is not very common in children. Juvenile Arthritis (JA) is a term used to categorize the different types of arthritis affecting children. The most common type of JA is Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). The type of JRA that affects the spine is called Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). JRA is diagnosed in children under 16 years of age whose arthritis persist for longer than six weeks. What causes JRA or AS? The exact cause or causes are not understood. Sometimes it is triggered by a bacterial infection or an autoimmune problem. An autoimmune disorder can cause the body to rebel against itself. How does the disease start?

23. Pediatric Arthritis & Other Rheumatic Diseases - Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
some type of autoimmune disease (a condition in which the body's own defenses beginto attack the body's cells). Treatment for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis


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Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
What is juvenile ankylosing spondylitis?
Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine and the sites where the muscles, tendons, and ligaments are attached to bone. "Ankylosing" means stiff or rigid, "spondyl" means spine, and "itis" refers to inflammation. The disease causes inflammation of the spine and large joints, resulting in stiffness and pain. The disease may result in erosion at the joint between the spine and the hip bone (the sacroiliac joint), and the formation of bony bridges between vertebrae in the spine, fusing those bones. In addition, bones in the chest may fuse. JAS is considered to be a multifactorial condition. Multifactorial inheritance means that "many factors" are involved in causing a health problem. The factors are usually both genetic and environmental, where a combination of genes from both parents, in addition to unknown environmental factors, produce the trait or condition. Often one gender (either males or females) is affected more frequently than the other in multifactorial traits. Multifactorial traits do recur in families because they are partly caused by genes. A group of genes on chromosome 6 code for HLA antigens play a major role in susceptibility and resistance to disease. Specific HLA antigens influence the development of many common disorders. Some of these disorders, such as JAS, are autoimmune related and inherited in a multifactorial manner. When a child has a specific HLA antigen type associated with the disease, he/she is thought to have an increased chance to develop the disorder. The HLA antigen associated with JAS is called B27. Children with the B27 HLA antigen are thought to have an increased chance (or "genetic susceptibility") to develop JAS; however, it is important to understand that a child without this antigen may also develop JAS. This means HLA antigen testing is not diagnostic or accurate for prediction of the condition. Males are affected with JAS three times more often than females.

24. Alan Ebringer: Publications
the CYP2D6 gene increase susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis Human MolecularGenetics 9 15631566 1999 Ebringer A BSE as an autoimmune disease Creutzfeldt
Department of Life Sciences
Alan Ebringer

Publications Selected Publications:
1999 Tiwana H, Wilson C, Alvarez A, Abuknesha R, Bansal S, Ebringer A Cross-reactivity between the rheumatoid arthritis associated motif EQKRAA and structurally related sequences found in Proteus mirabilis Infection and Immunity
1999 Tiwana H, Wilson C, Pirt S J, Cartmell W B, Ebringer A Autoantibodies to brain components and antibodies to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus are present in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Infection and Immunity
Ebringer A, Pirt J, Wilson C, Thorpe C, Cunningham P, Ettelaie C Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: is it an autoimmune disease due to bacteria showing molecular mimicry with brain antigens? Environmental Health Perspectives
1998 Blankenberg-Sprenkels Sabine, Fielder M, Feltkamp TEW, Tiwana H, Wilson C, Ebringer A Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Dutch patients with ankylosing spondylitis and acute anterior uveitis and to Proteus mirabilis in rheumatoid arthritis Journal of Rheumatology Further Publications:
A Molecular mimicry, mad cows and arthritis Science Spectra 19 46-53 2000 Ebringer A, Tiwana H, Wilson C Is rheumatoid arthritis a form of reactive athritis?

25. Alan Ebringer: Research
A Antibody responses to gut bacteria in ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis inbovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) supports the autoimmune theory.
Department of Life Sciences
Alan Ebringer

Related References:
and Wilson (1996) The use of a low starch diet in the treatment of patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Rheumatol Vol.15. Suppl.2. Pg:62-66.
Tani et al. (1997) Antibodies to Klebsiella, Proteus and HLA-B27 peptides in Japanese patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatol Vol 24. Pg:109-114. CROHN'S DISEASE
Related References:

Tiwana et al. (1997) Antibody responses to gut bacteria in AS, RA, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Rheum Internat Vol.17. Pg:11-16. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
Biochemical studies demonstrated that RA patients had antibodies to both EQRRAA/ESRRAL sequences.
Further molecular studies identified a second similarity sequence IRRET, present in Proteus urease which showed molecular mimicry with the LRREI sequence found in type XI collagen, a common component of hyaline cartilage. Since erosions of hyaline cartilage are frequently found in RA patients, especially in the small joints of the hands and feet, this could explain the localization of the pathological lesions in this disease to these sites. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RA is an autoimmune reactive arthritis following infection of the upper urinary tract by Proteus mirabilis microbes.

26. What Causes Ankylosing Spondylitis?
ankylosing spondylitis may be triggered by certain types of bacterial or viral infectionsthat by the body's own immune system is called an autoimmune disease.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Place mouse pointer over this symbol for definition. What Is Ankylosing Spondylitis?
What Causes Ankylosing Spondylitis?

What Are The Symptoms Of Ankylosing Spondylitis?

How Is The Diagnosis Made?
Additional Sources Of Information

Other helpful websites: Yahoo! Health

What Causes Ankylosing Spondylitis? The specific cause of ankylosing spondylitis is unknown, but genetic factors seem to play a role.
  • About 95% of people who have ankylosing spondylitis also have a genetic marker known as human leukocyte antigen-B27 (HLA-B27). About eight people in 100 among American Caucasians are born with the HLA-B27 gene. The gene is much less common among African Americans.
Genetic markers are protein molecules found on the surfaces of cells. The HLA markers enable the body's immune system to distinguish between "self" and "other." Ankylosing spondylitis may be triggered by certain types of bacterial or viral infections that activate an immune response that does not shut off after the infection is healed. The immune system then attacks the body's own tissue. A disorder caused by the body's own immune system is called an autoimmune disease. Is Ankylosing Spondylitis Inherited?

27. Ankylosing Spondylitis -- Product Suggestions And Kits
and joint tenderness, supress the production of inflamatory compounds, and inhibitthe autoimmune reaction that is at issue in ankylosing spondylitis.
alert("Javascript source not found."); AS-Kit
Over 100 Nutrients that focus on Ankylosing Spondylitis

Product Suggestions and Kits
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SmallCart(null,null,"thcolor=blue,thtcolor=white"); Quality ! Adequate quantities, balanced ratios, nutrient purity, and pharmaceutical grade production are qualities we review for each product we carry.
Value ! You'll also enjoy our simple value-giving size selections, instead of having to shop through the aisle of a mega-health food store or plow through some mega-supplement website store offering 30 versions and 8 sizes of every nutrient you can imagine.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Home Page AS-Kit
Total Toddy
provides vitamin C, vitamin A, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, l-glutathione, pantothenic acid, copper, niacin, boron, calcium and magnesium, free-form amino acids (to supply protein needed for tissue repair), manganese, folic acid (protects myelin surrounding nerves), and germanium which are all necessary nutrients to fight against ankylosing spondylitis. (One bottle provides a 30 day supply.)
(click for Nutrient Details)

EFA Plus contains Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids which can favorably improve morning stiffness and joint tenderness, supress the production of inflamatory compounds, and inhibit the autoimmune reaction that is at issue in ankylosing spondylitis. (One bottle provides a 30 day supply.)

28. Ankylosing Spondylitis ankylosing spondylitis. See also RheumatoidArthritis. There are about 500,000 cases. autoimmune problem.
Table of Contents
atural H ealth N otebook .com
Ankylosing Spondylitis
See also Rheumatoid Arthritis AS is a form of arthritis which produces back pain and stiffness due to inflammation along the spine. It can damage cartilage separating the vertebra and lead to the development of bony tissue which makes the spine progressively rigid. It can be disabling. AS affects men about 2.5 times as often as women. It usually develops between the ages of 20-40. There are about 500,000 cases.
Autoimmune problem
AS may be an autoimmune disorder. It is often misdiagnosed as other kinds of ordinary back pain.
Nutritional Treatments
Proteolytic enzymes have anti-inflammatory properties. Proteolytic enzymes can be an important alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. OPC - oligomeric procyanidins are potent antioxidants.
Medical Treatments
Cervical fusion surgery which used to be a routine therapy is now regarded as medically useless. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories
Low dose antibiotic therapy
The information on

29. NEJM: Articles On Rheumatic Disease -- Arthritis, Carpal Tunnel, And Autoimmune
as rheumatoid arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and autoimmune diseases and Treatmentof ankylosing spondylitis by Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Gorman

The Rheumatic Disease collection covers topics such as rheumatoid arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and autoimmune diseases and includes research articles, case reports, reviews, and editorial commentary.
Collections Home
Related CME Exams
Related Chapters in Harrison's: Ch. 320: Approach to Articular and Musculoskeletal Disorders
1-20 (of 78 results) Show: All articles Original Articles Review Articles Special Articles Editorials Clinical Implications of Basic Research Clinical Practice Clinical Problem-Solving Health Policy Reports Legal Issues in Medicine Molecular Medicine Occasional Notes Perspective Sounding Board Special Reports Most recent content (13 Feb 2003):
Caro I., Zembowicz A.
Full Text

N Engl J Med 2003; 348:630-637, Feb 13, 2003. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital Earlier content (since Feb 1996):
Yurchak P. M., Deshpande V.
Full Text
N Engl J Med 2003; 348:243-249, Jan 16, 2003. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital Celecoxib versus Diclofenac and Omeprazole in Reducing the Risk of Recurrent Ulcer Bleeding in Patients with Arthritis Chan F. K.L., Hung L. C.T., Suen B. Y., Wu J. C.Y., Lee K. C., Leung V. K.S., Hui A. J., To K. F., Leung W. K., Wong V. W.S., Chung S.C. S., Sung J. J.Y.

30. NEJM: Articles On Allergy And Immunology -- Monoclonal Antibodies And Autoimmune
The Effect of Infections on Susceptibility to autoimmune and Allergic Treatmentof ankylosing spondylitis by Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Gorman JD

31. Interleukin 10 Polymorphisms In Ankylosing Spondylitis
promoter region have been implicated in many autoimmune diseases, including susceptibilityto and clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a

32. Arthritis: Health And Medical Information About Arthritis And Other Arthritic Co
An in depth look at ankylosing spondylitis which is a systemic rheumatic disease. A look at what it Category Health Conditions and Diseases ankylosing spondylitis...... autoimmune diseases occur when the body tissues are mistakenly attacked Read thisdoctor produced article on ankylosing spondylitis which includes discussion
MedicineNet Home FocusOn Arthritis FocusOn Arthritis
Arthritis Health Information
Welcome to Focus On Arthritis. Here you will find valuable arthritis information produced by doctors including the latest health news, medications, and featured articles. I hope you find this information useful.

33. Arthritis Library—Ankylosing Spondylitis
ankylosing spondylitis is more common among whites than other races and is a linkbetween intestinal bacteria or inflammation and the autoimmune activity (in

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Ankylosing spondylitis What Is It? The most serious complication is spinal fracture that can result in quadriplegia; however, most patients suffer no serious disability despite the pain and are able to continue working. The disease may get progressively worse, stabilize, or go into remission at any point. About 25 to 30 percent of AS patients are affected by inflammation and scarring of structures within the eye, and a few patients may develop an abnormality of the aortic valve in the heart or scarring of lung tissue. Ankylosing spondylitis is more common among whites than other races and is three times more prevalent in men than women. What Causes It? o The cause of AS is unknown, though hereditary factors appear to play a role. There is also evidence suggesting a link between intestinal bacteria or inflammation and the autoimmune activity (in which the body's defenses against disease attack healthy tissue) involved in the mechanism of joint deterioration. Prevention There is no known way to prevent AS.

34. Reports - Conference Summary - Ankylosing Spondylitis Research: HLA-B27 And Beyo
of the conference was to review current work in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and crossreactwith autologous articular antigens and induce autoimmune arthritis.

Osteoarthritis Initiative Press Releases Upcoming Meetings ... Reports Search NIAMS
Scientific Workshops, Conferences, and Committees Reports Conference Summary Ankylosing Spondylitis Research: HLA-B27 and Beyond
Sept 1-2, 1998 Chair: Joel D. Taurog, M.D.
Sponsored by: The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the Spondylitis Association of America
Prepared by: Reva C. Lawrence, M.P.H. The conference, Ankylosing Spondylitis Research: HLA-B27 and Beyond, was held at Lister Hill Auditorium on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland on Sept 1-2, 1998. The purpose of the conference was to review current work in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related fields; to get critical input from experts in current work; to promote new ideas and approaches to the study of AS; and to provide an opportunity to foster new collaborations and sharing of resources and information. One of the major goals of the conference was to have a highly interactive meeting. The conference was divided into four half-day sessions, each devoted to one of four main themes pertinent to AS: (i) clinical, genetic, epidemiologic and radiographic features of AS; (ii) HLA-B27 and immunopathogenesis of AS; (iii) bone, cartilage, and the problems of ankylosis and osteoporosis; and (iv) the association between inflammatory bowel disease and AS, and the potential role of bacteria.

35. Ankylosing Spondylitis
ankylosing spondylitis. An autoimmune disease known to be associated with tissuetype HLA B27, affecting facet joints between vertebrae; joints become inflamed
Ankylosing spondylitis An Autoimmune disease known to be associated with tissue type HLA B27, affecting facet joints between vertebrae; joints become inflamed, then stiff, effectively fusing vertebrae together, causing spine to become increasingly rigid. Condition usually starts in sacroiliac joint (joint between sacrum and ilium of pelvis) with low backache and morning stiffness; if stiffness progresses up spine, joints between ribs and spine may be affected, causing chest pain or breathing difficulties; if upper spine is affected, jaw and movement and even eyes may be affected. Orthodox treatment is physiotherapy, steroids or other anti-inflammatory drugs, and in severe cases surgery. Homeopathy offers constitutional treatment and, in the early stages, the remedy below. Specific remedy to be taken 3 times daily for up to 5 days
  • Pain around sacroiliac joint, aggravated by walking and stooping Aesculus 30c
Self-help Take Calcium Fluor . 3 times daily, and do some form of daily exercise - swimming is especially good. Deep breathing for several minutes each day will help to keep the joints between your spine and ribs mobile. Use a hard mattress, and sleep on your front without a pillow, rather than on your back or side; that way your spine can relax into its natural curve. Avoid prolonged sitting, especially driving; if you have a sedentary job, get up and walk about every 30 minutes or so. You should also do as little bending and lifting as possible. If you smoke, try to stop. Try the arthritis diet.

36. Autoimmune Disease
of all autoimmune diseases is Rheumatoid arthritis; other examples are Systematiclupus erythematosus, myasthenia gravis, ankylosing spondylitis, polyarteritis
Autoimmune disease This occurs when, for a variety of reasons, body identifies certain of its own cells as non-self and attacks them as if they were hostile invaders. Most common of all autoimmune diseases is Rheumatoid arthritis ; other examples are Systematic lupus erythematosus , myasthenia gravis, Ankylosing spondylitis , polyarteritis nodosa, temporal arteritis, and haemolytic and pernicious Anaemia . Change in immune response can be triggered off by almost any virus, by certain bacteria ( Streptococcus , for example), by certain drugs (methyldopa, for example, used to treat raised blood pressure), or by the presence in the bloodstream of cells which are not normally in circulation. Although what goes wrong with ‘self’ and ‘non-self’ recognition mechanism is not entirely understood, it seems that the body actually produces a small number of self-hostile lymphocytes which, under normal circumstances, are continually policed and destroyed by other lymphocytes; the ‘triggers’ mentioned above may subvert this process, allowing self-hostile lymphocyte numbers to increase. Some autoimmune diseases correct themselves after a number of years. Orthodox treatment is usually palliative; homeopathy also treats the symptoms, but most homeopaths try to promote health at a more fundamental level, giving advice on diet and nutrition, prescribing vitamin and mineral supplements, recommending various measures to eliminate body toxins, and identifying and eliminating allergens (see

37. 1Up Health > Uveitis > Causes, Incidence, And Risk Factors Of Uveitis (Anterior
is often called iritis. The inflammation may be associated with autoimmune diseasessuch as rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis, but most cases
1Up Health Uveitis Alternative Medicine Clinical Trials ... Health Topics A-Z Search 1Up Health Uveitis Information Uveitis Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors Alternative names : Anterior uveitis, Chorioretinitis, Chroiditis, Iritis, Pars planitis, Posterior uveitis Definition : An inflammation of the uveal tract which includes the iris ciliary body , and the choroid of the eye.
Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors
Uveitis affects the uvea , the layer between the sclera and the retina , which also includes the iris , the ciliary body , and the choroid . The uvea is very vascular and provides most of the blood supply to the retina. Causes of uveitis can include autoimmunity, infection, or toxin exposure. The cause often remains unknown.
The most common form of uveitis is anterior uveitis, which involves inflammation of the iris. This condition is often called "iritis." The inflammation may be associated with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis , but most cases have no other diseases associated. The disorder may affect only one eye and is most common in young and middle-aged people. A history of an autoimmune disease is a risk factor. Pars planitis is inflammation of the pars plana, a narrow area of the choroid in between the iris and the choroid. This usually occurs in young men and is not associated with any other disease. It is usually mild in severity.

38. 1Up Health > HLA-B27 Antigen > Why Is The Test Performed? (Human Leukocyte Antig
since they are more common in certain autoimmune diseases. For example, HLAB27is found in 80 to 90% of people with ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter's
1Up Health HLA-B27 antigen Alternative Medicine Clinical Trials ... Health Topics A-Z Search 1Up Health HLA-B27 antigen Information HLA-B27 antigen : Why is the Test Performed? Alternative names : Human leukocyte antigen B27 Definition : A blood test to detects the presence of HLA-B27 on lymphocytes (see also Histocompatibility antigens test). In the past, this test was performed using serum that specifically reacts with HLA-B27 on the cells (known as serologic tissue typing). Newer methods are now available that use genetic testing to identify the type of HLA-B27 in a particular individual. The HLA-B27 gene is designated as HLA-B*2701, HLA-B*2702, etc.
Why is the Test Performed?
The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antigens are glycoproteins present in the cell membranes of all nucleated cells, and in especially high concentrations in leukocytes. HLA antigens are the major histocompatibility antigens for tissue recognition. They are especially important in considering any type of tissue transplant, for example, kidney transplant or bone marrow transplant
Many HLA antigens exist, but some are of special interest since they are more common in certain

39. Neue Seite 5
of HLAB27 with autoimmune diseases is well known and a topic of research for along time. About 90 % of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), about 50
Induction of Arthritis and Uveitis in Lewis-Rats with Peptides derived from HLA-B27 PD Dr. rer. nat Gerhild Wildner The statistical association of HLA-B27 with autoimmune diseases is well known and a topic of research for a long time. About 90 % of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), about 50% of patients with reactive arthritis and 40% of patients with anterior uveitis are HLA-B27 . Ankylosing spondylitis as well as uveitis can appear as isolated diseases, however, about 40% of patients with spondylarthropathies concomitantly develop uveitis. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the pathogenesis of HLA-B27 associated diseases, especially for AS. A serological crossreactivity of HLA-B27 with enterobacteria, such as Klebsiella, was described, as well as the presentation of homologous peptides from E. coli and Klebsiella by HLA-B27. Molecular mimicry of HLA-B27 and enterobacterial antigens as well as presentation of bacterial antigens by HLA-B27 might be play a role for the pathogenesis of HLA-B27-associated autoimmune diseases. We, however, propose a role of HLA-B27 in autoimmune diseases, which could also explain the organ-specificity of the autoaggressive immune response, namely mimicry of MHC-antigen and tissue-specific autoantigen. Some years ago we described a possible mechanism for the pathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis by antigenic mimicry of a peptide from retinal S-Antigen and a peptide from disease-associated HLA-B antigens (1). In this case, a certain peptide from the sequence of the HLA-B-a-chain will be presented to uveitogenic CD4

40. Florida State University College Of Medicine Digital Library
document. American autoimmune Related Diseases Association Homepage Medical InformationList of documents ankylosing spondylitis Access document. HealthSouth
Patient/Family Resources by Topic: Rheumatology
Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient/Family Resources
Pediatrics Spanish Miscellaneous See also:

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