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         Antarctica Exploration:     more books (100)
  1. The Silence Calling: Australians in Antarctica 1947-97 by Tim Bowden, 1997-09
  2. Beyond the Barrier: The Story of Byrd's First Expedition to Antarctica (Bluejacket Books) by Eugene Rodgers, 1997-03
  3. The voyage of the Huron and the Huntress: The American sealers and the discovery of the continent of Antarctica ([Publication) by Edouard A Stackpole, 1955
  4. Antarctica Unveiled: Scott's First Expedition and the Quest for the Unknown Continent by David E. Yelverton, 2000-10-01
  5. The Last Wilderness: 80 Days in Antarctica by Paul Brown, 1991-09
  6. Icebound in Antarctica by David Lewis, Mimi George, 1988-04-06
  7. Oceanography of the Ross Sea: Antarctica
  8. Little America,Aerial Exploration in the Antarcticthe Flight to the South Pole by Rear Admiral USN Richard E. Byrd, 1930
  9. Animals Robert Scott Saw: An Adventure in Antarctica by Sandra Markle, 2008-03-26
  10. Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, 2003-08-01
  11. Ann And Liv Cross Antarctica by Ann Bancroft, Liv Arnesen, 2003-09-17
  12. Antarctica by Editors of Reader's Digest, 1990-10-01
  13. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship by Committee on Principles of Environmental Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments, National Research Council, 2007-07-12
  14. The Entire Earth and Sky: Views on Antarctica by Leslie Carol Roberts, 2008-10-01

41. Antarctic Aerial Exploration
From the early 20th century to the present day, aircraft have playedan important role in antarctica's exploration. Scientists and
Map of a portion of Antarctica, showing routes of Richard Byrd's explorations by airplane, sledge, and tractor outward from Little America during his first (1928-1930) and second (1933-1935) Antarctic expeditions.
Telegram from Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd to the Bureau of Navigation acknowledging his promotion to the rank of Rear Admiral for his first flight over the South Pole (November 29, 1929) as Part of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition.
Citation for the award of the Navy Cross to Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd for his heroism in making the first flight over the South Pole on November 29, 1929.
The Southern Cross probably somewhere in Australia or New Zealand, in the 1930s.
Photo shows the Curtiss Condor T-32 William Horlick during the second Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933-1935.
Antarctic Aerial Exploration
Of all the places on the face of the Earth, Antarctica has proven to be the most challenging for aviators to explore because of its extreme environment. The seventh continent, which is approximately 5 million square miles (12.9 million square kilometers), or roughly 1 1/2 times the area of the United States, is the coldest, harshest, emptiest, and most remote place on Earth. The annual mean temperature at the South Pole is approximately -56 degrees F (-49 degrees C), and the region's gale force winds make aerial exploration extremely difficult. Antarctica is a complete landmass covered by ice. It also consists of large rocky mountain ranges that climb well over 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). Despite Antarctica's extreme challenges, many aviators have achieved fame and satisfied their curiosity while exploring the region. In the process, they have made several record-setting flights and helped advance scientific research significantly.

42. Antarctic Treaty Documents - Exploration
Benjamin Morrell, A Narrative of Four Voyages 182231, 1832 Systematic scientificexploration of antarctica only began around the turn of this century.







Captain James Cook
History of Antarctic Exploration
By Jack A. Bobo Terra Australis Incognita The intention of the Voyage has in every respect been fully Answered, the Southern Hemisphere sufficiently explored and a final end put to the searching after a Southern Continent, which has at times ingrossed the attention of some of the Maritime Powers for near two Centuries past and the Geographers of all ages. That there may be a Continent or large tract of land near the Poles, I will not deny, on the contrary I am of the opinion there is...
    Journals of Captain James Cook, 21 February 1775
The early history of Antarctica is filled with controversy and competition. Indeed, the controversy began early with the question of the continent's discovery. In 1820 the American captain, Nathaniel Palmer, claimed to have sighted the Antarctic continent. The Soviet Union disputed the primacy of this claim, asserting that the Russian, Thaddeus von Bellinghausen, deserved that distinction. Neither actually stepped foot on the continent. And then there is Mr. Edward Bransfield of the Royal Navy who has an equally colorable claim to the title... Alan Gurney summarizes the controversy in his book "Below the Convergence Voyages Toward Antarctica1699-1839": "The Palmer adherents claim the honor for him. And are then gently reminded that Bransfield in the Williams sighted the Antarctic Peninsula ten months before their claims for the young sealer... The Russians counter with a checkmate move and claim the game won with Bellinghausen's sighting of the Finibul Ice Shelf a few days before Branfield's sighting of Trinity Land."

43. Other Research Articles
exploration of volcanoes and rocks in Japan, China and antarctica. pp. explorationof volcanoes and rocks in Japan, China and antarctica. pp.
Other Research Articles Osanai, Y., Toyoshima, T. and Komatsu, M., 1982. Constitution of the Hidaka metamorphic belt; its metamorphism and structure. Tectonics of Paired Metamorphic Belts (ed. I. Hara), pp. 11-17, Tanishi print, Hiroshima.
Komatsu, M., Osanai, Y. and Toyoshima, T., 1989. Pressure-temperature- deformation history of the Hidaka metamorphic belt. Earth Monthly, 11, 239-244.**
Osanai, Y., Komatsu, M. and Owada, M., 1989. Granilite-facies metamorphism and anatexis in the Hidaka metamorphic belt. Earth Monthly, 11, 245-251.**
Owada, M. and Osanai, Y., 1989. Evolution of granitic rocks in the Hidaka metamorphic belt. Earth Monthly, 11, 252-257.**
Ueno, T., Hironaka, A. and Osanai, Y., 1990. Mineralogical study on the ceramic wares part 1. Bull. Fukuoka Univ. Educ. ser. 3, 39, 155-165.*
Osanai, Y., Owada, M. and Kawasaki, T., 1990. Melting experiments for pelitic granulites from the Hidaka metamorphic belt -a preliminary study-. Earth Monthly, 12, 487-492.**
Osanai, Y., Takahashi, Y., Shiraishi, K., Owada, M., Ishizuka, H., Tainosho, Y., Tsuchiya, N., Sakiyama, T. and Matsumoto, Y., 1992. Original rock constitution of basic metamorphic rocks from the S¿r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. Exploration of volcanoes and rocks in Japan, China and Antarctica. pp. 523-532, Yamaguchi University.**
Tainosho, Y., Takahashi, Y., Osanai, Y., Tsuchiya, N., Sakiyama, T. and Owada, M., 1992. Ammonium content and trace elements behavior in granitic rocks in the S¿r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. Exploration of volcanoes and rocks in Japan, China and Antarctica. pp. 515-522, Yamaguchi University.**

44. Scott's Exploration Of Antarctica
Robert Scott's. exploration of antarctica. Robert Falcon Scott wasborn on June 6, 1868, into a family with a strong naval heritage.
Robert Scott's
Exploration of Antarctica
Robert Falcon Scott was born on June 6, 1868, into a family with a strong naval heritage. He joined his first seagoing ship at the age of thirteen and served as a naval apprentice for two years. He attended the Royal Naval College in March of 1888 where he was among the top of the class. He quickly worked his way through the ranks of the British navy because of his determination and intelligence. After serving in the Pacific and briefly in the Mediterranean, Scott was appointed to the H.M.S. Majestic where he first met several of the future crew members on the first trip to Antarctica. While serving aboard the Majestic, he met Clements Markham who was president of the Royal Geographic Society. Markham was responsible for the funds behind the first expedition and encouraged Scott to apply for the leadership position. The expedition was to be a joint effort between Markham's Royal Geographic Society and the Royal Society of Britain. Scott was appointed the leader of the Discovery expedition on May 25, 1900 after some bickering between Markham and the Royal Society over whom to appoint.
It was decided that a whaling ship should be used in order to break through the ice pack and take on rough seas. On August 16, 1901, the Discovery left For New Zealand, where she was supplied and overhauled before her long trip to the Antarctic Circle.

45. Robert Falcon Scott's Exploration Of Antarctica
Robert Falcon Scott’s. exploration of antarctica. Robert Falcon Scott was a Britishnaval officer who led the first serious attempt to reach the South Pole.
Robert Falcon Scott’s
Exploration of Antarctica
Robert Falcon Scott was a British naval officer who led the first serious attempt to reach the South Pole. He also headed a second expedition to reach the destination point because his goal was to be the first to reach the South Pole. This naval officer’s career as an Antarctic explorer began with the financial help of the RGS and the Royal Society. Scott made his first expedition in 1902; however, problems such as dog sled difficulties and a deprivation of food forced him to turn back. Scott made two trips to Antarctica, each time facing extreme food shortages and weather disasters. Robert Scott pressed through these difficulties while attempting to be the first to reach the pole. Scott daily dreamed of being the first to reach the southern tip of the world. The first time he traveled to Antarctica, he was forced to turn back. In 1909 he received news that Shackleton, a competitor, got within 97 miles of the Pole. With this in mind, Scott announced that he would return to Antarctica for a “scientific expedition”, although his main reason was to reach the southern tip of the world. This expedition began on November 26, 1910, as the Terra Nova set sail from Port Lyttleton, New Zealand. The group set out to reach the geographical region which no man had ever reached. Aboard the ship were: 65 men, 33 dogs and 19 ponies, none of which made it out alive. This expedition would have covered a round-trip of 1766 miles from the base camp to the South Pole, all of which would have to be traveled one step at a time.

46. Weddell Sea Exploration
Antarctic Peninsula; Spirit of Shackleton antarctica to South Georgia Island; StudentsOn Ice 2001; Subantarctic Odyssey; Weddell Sea exploration List your Tour.
Search News Messages Resources ... About Weddell Sea Exploration Available Options Tour Info
  • Across the Circle Antarctica Antarctica Adventure Antarctic Discoveries ...

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    Weddell Sea Exploration
    Operators Aurora Expeditions
    Vessel Name Polar Pioneer.
    Dates 25 Jan to 5 Feb 2002; 25 Jan to 5 Feb 2003.
    Destinations South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Sound, Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego.
    Price Range US$ 3,990 - US$ 6,490.
    Port / City Ushaia, Argentina.
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    47. Stages Of Antarctic Exploration
    successful use of aircraft, heavier than air, in antarctica was made in this period,a development which greatly facilitated inland exploration and mapping.
    Search News Messages Resources ... About Stages of Antarctic Exploration Available Options Belgium's Role
    Historic Stages

    Chapter by Chapter

    Further Reading
    Stages of Antarctic Exploration
    Contributed by Robert Headland ( Scott Polar Research Institute
    Several stages inthe progressive process of the exploration of, and other human activities in, far southern regions have been proposed from a variety of opinions. For many purposes these form a useful classification, although overlap occurs between most such divisions. Below are concise notes on some of the stages of exploration which may usefully be distinguished for Antarctic regions. The names applied indicated the predominant theme only which may obfuscate many other activities; the dates are generalisations - there are no 'watertight compartments' in the historical continuum. Several other authors have proposed schemes like this but which differ in emphasis and divisions. This one is thusto be considered as an essentially personal analysis and commentary.
    Terra Australis (until 1780~)
    The early period consisted mainly of explorations and voyages penetrating to far southern regions. A consequence of this is the progressive reduction of the hypothetical 'Terra Australis', with its separation from Australia. Charts of the Antarctic progressively showed less land as speculations were steadily disproved. Investigation of archives held in the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, several Latin-American countries and elsewhere may reveal more far southern voyages in these times. This period may be regarded as concluding with the voyages of James Cook and Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec.

    48. Heroes Of Polar Exploration - Antarctica Cup 2005
    d. View Previous News Articles . HEROES OF POLAR exploration. Throughheroic effort most of antarctica was charted though never conquered.
    d HEROES OF POLAR EXPLORATION The Antarctic remained virtually unexplored until early in the twentieth century. Explorers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries sailed in frail vessels into the hardest environment on earth. Through heroic effort most of Antarctica was charted - though never conquered. The names of the following expedition leaders and their home countries are forever engraved in Antarctic history. (Who will be the twenty-first century sailors to represent their country and tackle the Antarctic seas and engrave their names in ocean racing history through participation in the Antarctica Cup?)

    Douglas Mawson (1911 - 1914) J
    ohn King Davis (1907 - 1930)
    Sir George Hubert Wilkins (1928 - 1929) NEW ZEALAND
    Sir Edmund Hillary (1957 - 1958) JAPAN
    Nobu Shirase (1910 - 1912) NETHERLANDS
    Wilhelm Schouten (1615) (named Cape Horn)
    Jan Schouten (1615)
    Abel Janszoon Tasman (1642) ENGLAND /BRITAIN
    James Cook (1772 -1775) James Weddell (1822 - 1824) John Biscoe (1831) James Clark Ross (1839 - 1843) George Strong Nares (1872 - 1876) Robert Falcon Scott ( 1901 - 1904; 1910 - 1912)

    49. Explorations
    UN 1001 antarctica. exploration Reports, 2000. Franklin Cook, by Mark Poniatowski;Douglas Mawson, by Brent Dankert; The Endurance Expedition, by Brandon Tenner;
    UN 1001: Antarctica
    Exploration Reports, 2000
    Exploration Reports, 2001
    Back to title page

    50. Antarctica, Discovery And Exploration
    the project the collections biographies multimedia research uses.antarctica, Discovery and exploration. untitled (1902); Looking
    the project the collections biographies multimedia ... research uses
    Antarctica, Discovery and Exploration
  • untitled Looking vertically aloft from M Truck, Anderson, Cuthbertson, Wilton Gregg, Macmurchie on MT yard bending MT, 27.11.02 Bruce and Cuthbertson by DWW, 27.11.02 ...
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    51. Antarctica, Discovery And Exploration
    the project the collections biographies multimedia researchuses. antarctica, Discovery and exploration. 28.04.03 Stern of
    the project the collections biographies multimedia ... research uses
    Antarctica, Discovery and Exploration
  • 28.04.03 Stern of Scotia, April 28 1903 28.04.03, An attentive audience 28.04.03, An attentive audience Birds and penguins ... Next
  • 52. Bancroft Arnesen Expedition
    Photo from Bancroft Arneson Expedition. Used with permission. Girl Scouts are involvedwith the expedition to learn more about antarctica and exploration.


    Find a Council


    Girl Scouts USA
    ... Contact Us... Girl Scouts Celebrate Exploration! BANCROFT ARNESEN EXPEDITION ACROSS ANTARCTICA These pages contain many exciting exploration activities. A printed booklet is available through your council for this participation patch. However, you can do the very same activities here...we suggest that you keep a journal of your "cyber-expedition" and other information you might find about Antarctica online and in other media. After you have read the Bancroft Arnesen Expedition Facts below, choose six of the following nine sections: clothing, nutrition, first-aid, sleep, mental fitness, physical fitness, geography, goal setting, and technology. Complete all of the activities in each of the six chosen sections with your troop/group or on your own to earn the Girl Scouts/Bancroft Arnesen Explorer Patch. Bancroft Arnesen Expedition Facts Who are Bancroft and Arnesen?
    Liv and Ann check out a map together.

    53. Antarctica: History Of Exploration
    antarctica History of exploration. Early Expeditions. Although therewas for centuries a tradition that another land lay south of
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    Antarctica: History of Exploration
    Early Expeditions
    Although there was for centuries a tradition that another land lay south of the known world, attempts to find it were defeated by the ice. Antarctica's frigid nature was revealed by the second voyage (1772-75) of the English explorer Capt. James Cook . He did not see the continent as he circumnavigated the world, but he was the first to cross the Antarctic Circle. British and U.S. seal hunters followed him to South Georgia, an island in the S Atlantic. In 1819 the British mariner William Smith discovered the South Shetland Islands. Returning in 1820, he and James Bransfield of the British navy explored and roughly mapped the Shetlands and part of the shore of the Antarctic Peninsula. Searching for rookeries, sealers explored the coastal and offshore regions of the Antarctic Peninsula. Most notable were the British captains James Weddell, George Powell, and Robert Fildes and the Americans Nathaniel B. Palmer, Benjamin Pendleton, Robert Johnson, and John Davis. Davis made the first landing on the antarctic continent (Feb. 7, 1821) at Hughes Bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. First to spend the winter in Antarctica, on King George Island in 1821, were 11 men from the wrecked British vessel Lord Mellville.
  • 54. Origins: Antarctica: Prologue
    There’s no agreement on who first laid eyes on antarctica, but the socalled heroic era of Antarctic exploration began in the early 1900s, when Robert
    The History of Antarctic Exploration There’s no agreement on who first laid eyes on Antarctica, but the so-called "heroic era" of Antarctic exploration began in the early 1900s, when Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton led several high-profile expeditions into the heart of the continent. Discoveries made on these journeys helped establish Antarctica as scientific territory, and paved the way for the thousands of scientists, journalists, artists, and even tourists who have followed. The links below will take you on a variety of journeys through early travels to the Last Continent. General history: Antarctica Online
    History Tales of early exploration, whale hunting, seal and whale hunting, and human impact, right up to the present The History of Antarctic Exploration
    From a set of study guides produced by the University of Minnesota Department of Geology and Geophysics About Shackleton: Shackleton's Antarctic Odyssey
    A Nova program about the famous English explorers expedition The Endurance
    An interactive site produced by Kodak about Shackleton's voyage. Requires the Flash player.

    55. Antarctic History
    The International Geophysical Year; Permanent Occupation of antarctica By the late1940s Antarctic exploration had entered a new phase, and one not just due
    It has been only 100 years since humans first occupied the continent of Antarctica (1899), and a mere 180 years since seafarers first saw the islands of the Antarctic Peninsula (1819). Yet even before they laid eyes on it, most early explorers were convinced a large, southern continent existed. They called it Terra Australis Incognitathe Unknown Southern Land.
    The idea went back to the ancient Greeks, who had a fondness for symmetry and balance. There must be a great continent to the south, they postulated, to balance the great land masses in the northern hemisphere. Two thousand years later, the great age of exploration brought Europeans far enough south to test the hypothesis.
    In 1520, after he had sailed through the Strait that now bears his name, Magellan speculated that the land to his south, Tierra del Fuego, might mark the northern edge of a great continent. Fifty-eight years later, in 1578, Sir Francis Drake sailed his Golden Hind through Magellan's Strait. He encountered severe weather on the Pacific side and was blown to the south of Tierra del Fuego, then east around Cape Horn. It became obvious that Magellan's "continent" was merely a series of islands at the tip of South America. If there was indeed a southern continent, it had to be further south.
    It seems ironic that the severe weather that makes the southern ocean so dangerous, particularly in the south Atlantic, was a key factor in the discovery of Antarctica. Time and time again, sailors blown off course by a storm discovered new land. Often, this new land was further south than any previously known. While attempting to navigate around Cape Horn in 1619, the Spaniards Bartoleme and Gonzalo Garcia de Nodal were blown off course, only to discover the tiny islands they named Islas Diego Ramirez. This would be the most southerly recorded land for another 156 years.

    56. Discovery And Exploration: Subjects: 1
    America. AmericaMapsEarly works to 1800. antarctica. antarcticaDiscoveryand explorationBritishMaps. Brazil. BrazilMaps.
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    57. Antarctica - Books On The Land Of The South Pole
    Voyages Towards antarctica, 16991839 by Alan Gurney (Hardcover - February 1997).Antarctic Birds Ecological and Behavioral Approaches (exploration of Palmer
    Books on Antarctica Related Books Australia
    Travel Australia

    Aboriginal Australia

    Aboriginal Art
    History Books UK
    Art Prints - Antarctica

    Best Sellers
    South with Endurance: Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, 1914-1917

    by Frank Hurley
    Sir Ernest Shackleton's trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914-1917 was one of the great feats of human endurance one vividly captured in the powerful and dramatic pictures taken by Frank Hurley, the expedition's official photographer. The Publisher
    (September 2001) With Byrd at the Bottom of the World : The South Pole Expedition of 1928-1930 by Norman D. Vaughan, Cecil B. Murphey (Contributor) Hardcover - 208 pages 1st Ed. edition (September 1990) Stackpole Books; ISBN: 0811719049 Ice : The Antarctic Diary of Charles F. Passel by Charles F. Passel Hardcover - 480 pages (November 1995) Texas Tech Univ Pr; ISBN: 089672347X Moments of Terror : The Story of Antarctic Aviation by David Burke Hardcover - 320 pages (April 1994) Howell Pr; ISBN: 0868401579 Scott's Last Expedition : The Journals by Robert Falcon Scott, Beryl Bainbridge (Paperback - December 1996) The Worst Journey in the World Apsley Cherry-Garrard The harrowing story of the Scott expedition to the South Pole.

    58. Antarctica
    one expects to find, there is also background information on the natural historyof antarctica, as well as an introduction to the age of exploration and the
    Antarctic Treaty Papers
    "Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only." - Preamble to the Antarctic Treaty
    This site is maintained as a resource for those conducting research on the law of Antarctica and for all those interested in learning more about the goverance of the Seventh Continent. In addition to the treaties and other documents one expects to find, there is also background information on the natural history of Antarctica, as well as an introduction to the age of exploration and the history of the Antarctic Treaty itself. Send questions, comments and suggestions to ATCM 1998 New! The latest Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting - ATCM XXII - has its own site. For the latest information on this meeting visit the Tromso site Natural History of Antarctica History of Exploration History of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) ... International Law Links
    Natural History of Antarctica
    For an introduction to the white continent and why it needs to be protected by regulations follow this link
    History of Antarctic Exploration The heroic age of Antarctic exploration began in the early nineteenth century and continued through the first two decades of this century. For a few highlights of this period please follow this

    59. Vintage Postcards For Collectors: Polar: Arctic & Antarcti
    Autographed on the front. Transportation, polar exploration, antarctica,navy, captain, Husky, architecture. Grade I Add to Cart.
    If you prefer not to use our shopping basket system, you may purchase these postcards by contacting us directly by e-mail , phone or fax with the list of item numbers you wish to order. You may also use our secure Online Credit Card Payment Form and list the items you want. We accept payment in US$ by check, money order, PayPal or credit card. Satisfaction is 100% guaranteed! Click here for our Grading Guide and Shipping Chart
    North Pole Adventures
    Humorous interactions between a North Pole explorer and a polar bear, with Christmas greetings. Signed Reg. Carter. Complete set of six (three shown). Grade I
    Advert Byrd Antarctic Book
    Commander Peary on His Ship Real Photo
    "Commander Peary on His Ship." North Pole, exploration. Grade II
    Airplane Fokker North Pole Real Photo TX "R. E. Belvoys Plane that Flew Over North Pole. Made at Fort Bliss Field, El Paso, Texas." Photo by Alexander Photo. Transportation, polar exploration. Grade II POLA-P7872 Polar Exploration Cook-Perry Novelty Printed on back: "Who Discovered The North Pole? I Did. Turn the bottom card around and see my rival." Rotate card to see portraits of Cook or Perry on the back. North Pole, Arctic, map, Navy. Grade I

    60. Exploration In Antarctica
    Roald Amundsen, the first man to reach the South Pole on 14 December, 1911. Thestory of exploration in antarctica is one of heroism, tragedy and achievement.
    Roald Amundsen, the first man to reach the South Pole on 14 December, 1911 The story of exploration in Antarctica is one of heroism, tragedy and achievement. From the discovery of this new continent through to the present day, the harsh conditions of the wildest and coldest place on Earth have been a match for even the most intrepid adventurer. Whilst the Antarctic Circle was not crossed until the late 18th century, with the reaching of the South Pole coming almost 140 years later, the foundations of adventure in the Antarctic area were laid way back at the beginning of the 16th century. Gary Pierson , a member of the American Society of Polar Philatelists and Webmaster of the excellent Antarctic Philately web site ( ), has compiled a concise history of exploration in the Antarctic region, listing all events of major importance. He has kindly allowed it to be reproduced here in full.
    • 1519: In September, Ferdinand Magellan sails from Spain in search of a westerly route to the Indies. Sailing down the coast of South America he discovered the narrow straight passing through to the Pacific Ocean which today bears his name. To the south lies Tierra del Fuego which the early geographers assumed to be the edge of the southern continent.

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