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         Fulani Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Transhumance, migratory drift, migration: Patterns of pastoral Fulani nomadism by Derrick J Stenning, 1957

21. UCSB Department Of Anthropology Links Directory: Africa
anthropology, archaeology, sociology, science, indigenous African studies mali amongthe dogon, fulani and bozo Okavango Delta peoples of Botswana The culture
Home Add a Site Modify a Site What's New ... Search

22. SO 3135
Gold Europe’s Conquest of indigenous peoples, “The Conquest in the Islamic Worldand africa Islamic Revitalization Dan Fodio, and the fulani Prophecy and
SYLLABUS SO 3135 History of World Civilizations Since 1500 Dr. Kalivas World History at Middlesex Homepage Texts, Grades, and Course Policies Required Readings:
Robert Tignor, et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: A History of the Modern World from the Mongol Empire to the Present . W.W. Norton and Company, 2002. Ronald Wright, Stolen Continents: The New World Through Indian Eyes. Houghton Mifflin, 1992. Mark Cocker, Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold: Europe’s Conquest of Indigenous Peoples. Grove Press, 2001. Avi Shlaim, War and Peace in the Middle East: A Concise History. Revised and Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 1995.
In addition to the assigned texts, there are lectures and world history websites that accompany each week of this course. Please be sure to complete all the assigned readings texts, websites, and online lectures in a timely manner. Thank you.
Internet Attendance Policy:
Participation in online discussions in the Discussion section is the only way to have a "class," so your active participation in weekly discussions is a requirement for this course. Thank you.

23. The Washington Times - Nigeria
by Christianity in colonial times, various indigenous religions and like the Hausaby a fulaniled invasion Yoruba are among the most urbanized peoples in africa
Government Telecomunications A Special International Report Prepared by
The Washington Times Advertising Department - Published on September 30, 1999
Home Page
Sponsors Federal Ministry of Finance
Federal Housing Authority

Nigerian Ports Authority

Yankari National Park

A Special International Report Prepared by The Washington Times
Advertising Department
Written by:
Jennifer Barsky
Marketing Director: Kevin M. Baerson For more information, call The Washington Times International Advertising Department at (202) 636-3035 (202) 635-0103 fax e-mail: Nigeria’s Cultural Inheritance Keys to Understanding Contemporary Society Modern Nigeria has inherited a rich and often complex history. With the move to democracy, Nigerians look to retain their cultural roots along with modernity, joining together to bring peace and prosperity. The country’s three main ethnic groups are the Yoruba, the Igbo, and the Hausa, between them making Nigeria a meeting point of colorful, sometimes conflicting ethnic interests and identities. The country’s historical tapestry includes between 250 and 400 ethnic groups, their differences best defined by language. But even this seemingly definite trait provides only loose distinctions. Location and history are often as important in mapping Nigeria’s ethnic landscape. The nation’s official language is English. Government officials and many businessmen with at least secondary education typically speak it, as it is essential in cross-cultural communication. Pidgin – a mix of English and colloquial terms – has been widely spoken in many areas for more than a century. Nigerians are generally multilingual with at least three languages at their disposal, owing to a long history of cross-cultural and often transnational trade across a spectrum of ethnic groups.

24. Background Notes Archive - Africa
Religions Christian (40%), Muslim (20%), indigenous African (40 Bakas) (18%); (4)Predominantly Islamic peoples of the also known as Peuhl or fulani (14%); and
Return to Africa Background Notes Archive
Return to Background Notes Archive Homepage
Return to Electronic Research Collection Homepage

25. Voices - Back To Africa
oppression, and the changing of indigenous names. our survival as distinct Africanderived peoples no matter people would consistently tell me I looked fulani.
Voices W.A.R
West Africa Review IJELE
Art eJournal of the African World JENDA
A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies African Philosphy
Journal on African Philosophy Art Gallery
Art works Bibliolist
Bibliographies Books
Publications Telecom
Calling service Scholars
Essays Poetry
Written word Data Resources eAfrica Database Health HIV/AIDS Conferences Upcoming conferences Fellowships Fellowship opportunities Search ARC Still can't find what you are looking for? Narratives Back to Africa By Mwatabu S. Okantah I understand, now, why Langston Hughes titled one of his autobiographies, " I Wonder As I Wander." The wondering and the wandering began in my life at about the same time I discovered my affinity for the work of Hughes, and several other black writers: Zora Neale Hurston, Aime Cesaire, Gwendolyn Brooks, Leon Damas, Lance Jeffers and Toni Morrison. I did not realize then that this wondering and wandering that began in some distant place in my mind would lead me to my own cultural heritage in West Africa. I did not realize then that there was relief to be found waiting inside the culture, that there was peace to still the tension; self-knowledge to embrace the alienation.

26. Culture
In the south, indigenous peoples produced their own art long before as Ekpo and Ekpeamong the peoples of the According to the fulani custom of sharo (test of
Country Info Nigeria Introduction Nigeria General Data Nigeria Maps Nigeria Culture ... Nigeria Time and Date Nigeria Culture Back to Top Nigeria's rich and varied cultural heritage derives from the mixture of its different ethnic groups with Arabic and western European cultural influences. Secret societies, such as Ekpo and Ekpe among the peoples of the southeast, were formerly used as instruments of government, while other institutions were associated with matrimony. According to the Fulani custom of sharo (test of young manhood), rival suitors underwent the ordeal of caning as a means of eliminating those who were less persistent, while in Ibibio territory girls approaching marriageable age were confined for several years in bride-fattening rooms before they were given to their husbands. These and other customs were discouraged by colonial administrators and missionaries. Some of the more adaptable cultural institutions have been revived since independence; these include Ekpo and Ekong societies for young boys in parts of the southeast and the Ogboni society found in the Yoruba and Edo areas of southern Nigeria.
Countries Map or Maps
Egypt Maps
South Africa Maps

England Maps

France Maps
... from HomePage

27. Africa Draft
Riesman, Paul, Freedom in fulani Social Life in Meillassoux (ed.), The Developmentof indigenous Trade and Mair, L., peoples of africa, chapters 5, 10 (Nuer and
AFRICAN SOCIETIES Michaelmas and Lent Terms
Course Convenor:
Room: Eliot Extension L31
Dr David Zeitlyn
Telephone extension: 3360
Other Teachers:
Room: Eliot Extension L41
Dr. N I Lovell Email
Telephone extension: 7845
Location of Lecture: DLT2 (Monday 2.00 p.m.)
Location of Seminar: DLT2 (Monday 3.00 p.m.)
Number Registered for Course : max 40 Email list for Course : Assessment Procedure : You will be assessed by a combination of two essays, a bibliography on one of the topics covered and contributions to the course email list. At the end, a three hour examination is held. Essays etc contribute 10% of all marks, the examination 90%. You must make at least four contributions to the email list which include at least two article summaries (but not including essays and the bibliography which should not be sent to the list). Assignment Requirements : Essays need to be of at least 2000 words, not more than 3000 in length and must be typed
Deadlines for Assignments Essays must be handed in to the Departmental Office, L46 Eliot Extension and a receipt obtained as follows:
first essay on 18 December 1998 by 3.00 p.m.

28. BIOREGIONAL: Oct97 : Re: Mexico, US, Territory, Theft, And Mythologies
17th18th century conquest-migrations across africa by fulani, Amhara, and of a Chineseempire that brutally suppressed and slaughtered indigenous peoples.
Re: Mexico, US, territory, theft, and mythologies
Wed, 08 Oct 1997 02:04:20 -0700
Jamil Brownson
Hardly a balanced approach to history in Ross' blurb on his book tour. Ross'
inflamatory terminology ". . . the U.S. theft of 51% of Mexican
territory." seems to make an unfortunate assumption that it was all a
one-sided affair, and an exceptional phenomenon for the 19th century (circa.
1) Mexican government was headed by General Santa Ana who signed a peace
treaty then sold out his country, hardly unusual for any time in history,
but certainly par for the course in Mexico.
2) Territories north of the Rio Grands were considered ungovernable and of dubious value. Mexican settlements were sparce, as were previous Spanish settlements, and an economic drain as they had to be subsidized and protected militarily from fierce Indian attacks by Comanches, Apaches, Utes

29. InteRadio - Vol. 9 No.2 - Global
the Pulaar speaking population the fulani people with Americas speak 1,000, or 15%africa speaks 2,011 indigenous peoples and electronic media Looking to the
Volume 9, Number 2
The remembrance of knowledge lost
Sustaining linguistic and biological diversity
Sophie K. Ly
Secretary-General, AMARC
The more global modern life becomes, the more urgent the call to support cultural diversity, to give a voice to local communities. Indeed, many initiatives already exist across the globe. But what language do these voices speak? Within what context do they transmit the knowledge and nuances of their geographical origin? Because local languages and expressions are the raw material that nourishes community radio stations, it is important to explore the linguistic riches that constitute the foundation of cultural identity. In May 1997, the South-Africa daily printed a picture titled "The last voice of an ancient tongue." They were referring to Ms. Elsie Vaalbooi, age 96. When she passes on, she will take away with her the secrets of the Khomani – one of the oldest languages in the world – spoken for 25,000 years in the Kalahari region until it disappeared around 1970. Here's an example. The article published in the

30. Nigeria Nexus
power returned to the colonies' indigenous peoples, quality of as the undisputed regionalpower of West africa. was dominated by the Islamic Hausafulani people
P O L I T I C S C I V I L S O C I E T Y R E G I O N S E C O N O M Y ... M E D I A H I S T O R Y HOSTED SITES MEDIA RIGHTS AGENDA RMS MEDIA SERVICES COMMUNICATING FOR CHANGE Pre-Independence First Republic Library of Congress' Country Study of Nigeria Search Maps News in Brief The First Republic
The independent Republic of Nigeria was founded at a time when hopes were high in the Third World. The end of the colonial era came to Africa (and especially West Africa) later than it did to other regions, but still the problems that lay ahead for newly independent nations were often lost in the haze of optimism. With the yoke of colonialism removed and economic and political power returned to the colonies' indigenous peoples, quality of life was expected to quickly and dramatically improve. Nigeria, with its tremendous population and abundant resources, especially had reason to look forward to success as the undisputed regional power of West Africa. One of the new nation's first serious stumbling blocks was the 1962 census. Independent Nigeria needed a complete and accurate count of its people, so that electoral seats and federal monies could be apportioned fairly. Unfortunately, the results of the census turned out to be problematic for some. Dr. Nnamde Azikiwe, the leader of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), a political party derived almost all its support from the Ibo of the Southeast region, charged that the census figures had been skewed by Northerners in an attempt to grab a greater share of the federal budget. His party tried to persuade the courts to annul the census results, but it failed.

31. The Cultural Implications Of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa
Like the fulani of africa’s Western Sahel, men apparently disastrous when combinedwith indigenous SubSaharan in order for sub-Saharan peoples to survive
The Cultural Implications of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa By: Staci L. Larsen Edmonds Community College - October 13, 2001
After enduring hundreds of years of oppression, conflict and crisis, sub-Saharan Africans now face the most challenging threat to their survival - the HIV pandemic. In Africa, 25.3 million people are currently infected with HIV with sub-Saharan women accounting for at least 55-percent of these infections. Specific cultural ideals, identities, and gender roles are crucial factors in the development of particular behaviors that support the perpetuation of HIV. Furthermore, the lasting effects of European colonialism have significantly influenced individual and socio-cultural identity. While corporations, politicians and church leaders continue to argue over topical solutions, the epidemic rages on through the continuation of traditional cultural behaviors.
Table of Contents
Introduction Development and Distribution of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa The Impact of Colonialism in Contemporary Africa Symbolism of Identity and Social Trauma ... References
It is a paradox that the region thought of as the "cradle of civilization", the place of human origins, is presently experiencing the largest recorded death toll known to humankind.

32. Ethno-religious Politics
of different peoples (fulani) religious missionary of overseas Chinese East africa africanization and subsidies for indigenous peoples, regional nationalists
Chapter 4
Cultural Pluralism, Ethnic Conflict
1. definitions:
ethnicity "perceived shared characteristics of a racial or cultural group"
-historical lineage, language, religion, race, geographic homeland
- most of these are "learned" characteristics 2. Prevalence: Pretty much everywhere
except homogeneous states: Finland, Denmark, Japan, South Korea People are mixed together because of: -migration to escape poverty, war, repression
-conquest, colonialism, imposed cultural values on some peoples, moved people around (e.g. Ottoman, Soviet empires)
-artificial state included different peoples
-coerced slavery
-economic complementarties of different peoples (Fulani)
-religious missionary activity Latin American: Spanish/Portugese-Native American-Africans -Other Europeans-South Asians Africa: -very widespread tribal/language differences Rwanda: Tutsies, Hutus Nigeria: Ibo, Yurobo, Hausa Cameroon, Kenya, Tanzania: many tribes

33. Guinea
groups in Guinea are the pastoral fulani and the Most of the indigenous peoples speaktheir own languages. the first Marxist state in africa under president
for Faith Comes By Hearing Area: 94,925 sq. mi.
(245,860 sq. km)
Capital and largest city (1995 est.): Conakry, 1,508,000 Population (2000 est.): 7,466,200 (average annual rate of natural increase: 2.2%); birth rate: 40.1/1000; infant mortality rate: 131/1000; density per sq. mi.: 79 Ethnicity/race: Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller tribes 10% International Missions - Active Countries
GUINEA The west African country of Guinea is slightly smaller than Oregon. Guinea is home to nearly 7.5 million people. French is the official language, and 24% of the population is literate in French. About 48% of the people are literate in local languages. Native languages include Malinké, Susu, and Fulani. There are approximately 29 total languages spoken in Guinea. There are currently four Faith Comes By Hearing New Testament recordings requested for Guinea. These are Fuuta Jalon (Pular), spoken by over 2.5 million; Kpelle, Guinea, spoken by 308,000; Maninka, spoken by 1.8 million; and Susu spoken by 800,000 people in Guinea. All of these projects are awaiting funding.

34. Africa Overview
was filled by desert Berbers, an indigenous African people The fulani were also ferventMuslims, so they not Of all the peoples the Europeans tried to subdue
Return to syllabus African Civilizations Africa south of the Sahara Africans south of the Sahara lived largely in nomadic, hunter-gatherer groups up until 200 BC. As a result, African populations were very sparse. There are several speculations as to why sub-Saharan Africans remained in hunting-gathering groups, but they are all guess-work. Perhaps the most reasonable explanations involve the abundance of resources and the protection that their isolation gave them from invasion and migration pressures. Still, early sub-Saharan Africans developed metallurgy at a very early stage, possibly even before other peoples. Around 1400 BC, East Africans began producing steel in carbon furnaces (steel was invented in the west in the eighteenth century). The Iron Age itself came very early to Africa, probably around the sixth century BC, in Ethiopia, the Great Lakes region, Tanzania, and Nigeria. Iron technology, however, only spread slowly across Africa; it wasn't until the first century AD that the smelting of iron began to rapidly diffuse throughout the continent. The instrument of that spread was the Bantu migrations Urban settlement began at a very early date in Africa. The earliest urban settlements were stone-walled towns in southern Mauritania that date back to sometime in the second millennium BC. An explosion of urban settlement in the Sahel region immediately south of the Sahara began between 600 and 200 BC. The Sahel is a hot, dry savanna that can support human agriculture and settlement. The first urban settlements were Sahelian: Jenne, Gao, and Kumbi (later Kumbi Saleh, the capital of the kingdom of Ghana). All of these urban centers grew up in oasis and river regions which could support such large populations.

35. Films & Video Recordings On AFRICA
a beating game practiced in fulani, North West communism, apartheid in South africa,discrimination in the and the associations of indigenous peoples who seek

Last updated October 2001
The films and videorecordings listed below are owned by York University Libraries and available for academic use by the York University community. Requests for these materials can be made in writing, by telephone, or in person to the
125 Scott Library
York University
4700 Keele Street
North York, Ontario M3J 1P3
Telephone:416-736-2100 ext.33324
Fax:416-736-5838 Fall/Winter Hours: Summer Hours: Please note the following abbreviations: MP : 16mm film VC : VHS videotape VC 3/4 : 3/4" videotape
Table of Contents
AFRICA SERIES 52 min. each 1984 RM Arts Prod. 1. DIFFERENT BUT EQUAL VC #1206 and #4494 Traces the early history of the continent noting that some of the world's greatest prehistoric civilizations had their origins in Africa. 2. MASTERING A CONTINENT VC #1207 and #4494 Examines how African farmers created a viable way of life in an often hostile environment. 3. CARAVANS OF GOLD

36. LTC Library Acquisitions - July-August 1997 - Articles, Africa And The Middle Ea
The microeconomics of an indigenous African institution The fulani model of nomadismin a systemic view of pastoralism and farming. (In Nomadic peoples, 36/37
"Food security : the Southern African regional summit." (Special issue of: Land update, 58, 1997, p. 1-18)
Steenbock Library Periodical Lusigi, A. and Thirtle, C.
"Total factor productivity and the effects of R&D in African agriculture." (In: Journal of international development, 9:4, 1997, p. 529-538)
Steenbock Library Periodical Neumann, Roderick P.
"Primitive ideas : protected area buffer zones and the politics of land in Africa." (In: Development and change, 28:3, 1997, p. 559-582)
Memorial Library Periodical, AP D5089 A543 Swatuk, Larry A.
"Environmental policy making in Southern Africa : learning the hard way." (In: Latin American environmental policy in international perspective. Boulder : Westview, 1997, p. 185-210)
Steenbock Library, GE 190 L29 L38 1997. Van den Brink, Rogier and Chavas, Jean-Paul.
"The microeconomics of an indigenous African institution : the rotating savings and credit association." (In: Economic development and cultural change

37. Social Studies
peoples who live in africa today are nonindigenous. Therefore, the history of theafrican peoples is a believed the Berbers, the Tuaregs, the fulani and other 11/topics/classa.htm
a) Classification and Origin.
Many of the African peoples are descendants of the Stone Age peoples who lived here since medieval times.  However, some peoples who live in Africa today are non-indigenous.  Therefore, the history of the African peoples is a history of migrations, settlement and cultural intermingling.  Given these processes a number of factors must be put into consideration to classify the people of Africa.  As a result of ancestry from the Stone  Age people, migration and settlement  of various groups, there are at least five major ethnic groups of people in Africa. (i)  Caucasians They are two stocks - the Hamitic and the Semitic.  Hamites are said to have come from western Asia to form the original population of  North Africa.  It is believed the Berbers, the Tuaregs, the Fulani and other tribes of Ethiopia and Somalia are of Hamitic origin. Semites especially Arabs from Asia, came to Africa in the 17th century, invaded Egypt and overran the rest of North Africa.  Although most Arab speaking peoples have settled in Northern Africa, others have settled elsewhere in  smaller groups. In the previous unit, you saw the major reason for the coming of the Arabs to East Africa between 1000-1500 A.D.

38. MOST Ethno-Net Publication: Anthropology Of Africa
374 (Otite, 1990), the Hausa / fulani, Yoruba and by any intrinsic hostility amongAfrican peoples. in developing consultation with the indigenous institutions
    Anthropology of Africa and the Challenges of the Third Millennium
    - Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts, PAAA / APA, 1999
Ethnic Conflicts and the Problem of Resolution in Contemporary Africa: A Case for African Options and Alternatives Emeka E. A. Obioha
Dept. of Sociology, Faculty of the Social Sciences University of Ibadan, Nigeria ABSTRACT
In the last few decades most African nation-states have been going through difficult times of ethnic conflicts, violence and antagonism. These conflicts have been unable to be resolved through the long adopted western models and paradigms of conflict management.
This paper is therefore designed as a response and contribution towards the on going debates and search for new ways to conflict management in Africa. The discussion focused on the examination of the contexts and dynamics of ethnic conflicts in Africa. Precisely, some of the forms, causes, and the underlying consequences of such with reference to some recent scenario in the continent was discussed. One of the major issues pointed out is how imperialism and colonialism impacted on ethnicity and ethnic conflicts which are traceable to the colonial masters systems of administration, arbitrary delimitation and partitioning the continent.
This paper also borders on how persistent these conflicts have been and how the various western models and paradigms of conflict management have failed on the altar of peace deliberations due to their inadequacy to fit in properly into the Africa context. In conclusion, African traditional alternatives to conflict resolution were suggested for adoption in the next millennium.

39. Foreign Policy In Focus - Self-Determination - Listserv
ethnic groups, the Hausafulani in the two million since 1983, when africa's longestrunning risks. But human rights, indigenous peoples, and environmental
2 August 2001 Self-Determination Crisis Watch is an electronic journal sponsored by Foreign Policy In Focus (FPIF), a joint project of the Interhemispheric Resource Center and the Institute for Policy Studies. FPIF, a "think tank without walls," is dedicated to "making the U.S. a more responsible global leader and partner." The project has received a grant from the Carnegie Corporation to advance new approaches to self-determination conflicts through web-based research and analysis. Crisis Watch presents the latest analysis about self-determination from our international network of experts. For more information, please visit our Self-Determination In Focus website at
Table of Contents

40. Anthro.Net: Africa
Freedom in fulani Social Life An Introspective Yoruba Gurus indigenous Productionof Knowledge in africa the collective cutures and peoples encompassed under
This guide contains bibliographic references and links to internet resources for African Archaeology and Ethnography. Recommended Reading: African-American Pioneers in Anthropology An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400 by Christopher Ehret 1998 African Identities: Race, Nation and Culture in Ethnography, Pan-Africanism and Black Literatures by Kadiatu Kanneh 1998 Afrocentrism: Mythical Pasts and Imagined Homes by Stephen Howe 1998 Dancing skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa by Katherine Dettwyler, 1994 Freedom in Fulani Social Life: An Introspective Ethnography by Paul Riesman, et al 1998 Kinship and Marriage Among the Anlo Ewe by G. K. Nukunya 1999 Manhood and Morality: Sex, Violence, and Ritual in Gisu Society by Suzette Heald 1999 Maroon Arts: Cultural Vitality in the African Diaspora Yoruba Gurus: Indigenous Production of Knowledge in Africa by Toyin Falola 1998 Links:
  • African Archaeology: The ultimate reference set for the continent's prehistory.
  • African Art and Anthropology A comprehensive resource collection of new and used books on the subject of the African experience and art from an anthropological perspective.
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