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         Fulani Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Transhumance, migratory drift, migration: Patterns of pastoral Fulani nomadism by Derrick J Stenning, 1957

41. Films And Videos On AFRICA
Describes Soro, a beating game practiced in fulani, North West Nigeria about the women'smovement and the associations of indigenous peoples who seek





Print this page Library Home Sound and Moving Image Library Subject Guides to Films and Videos Last updated October 2001 The films and videorecordings listed below are owned by York University Libraries and available for academic use by the York University community. Requests for these materials can be made in writing, by telephone, or in person to the
125 Scott Library
York University
4700 Keele Street
North York, Ontario M3J 1P3 E-Mail: Telephone:416-736-2100 ext.33324 Fax:416-736-5838 Fall/Winter Hours: Summer Hours: Monday - Thursday 9 am - 9 pm Monday - Thursday 9 am - 7 pm Friday 9 am - 8 pm Friday 9 am - 5 pm noon - 5 pm Closed Weekends Please note the following abbreviations: MP 16mm film VC VHS videotape VC 3/4 3/4" videotape Table of Contents GENERAL AFRICA SERIES 52 min. each 1984 RM Arts Prod. 1. DIFFERENT BUT EQUAL VC #1206 and #4494 Traces the early history of the continent noting that some of the world's greatest prehistoric civilizations had their origins in Africa.

42. Solidarity With The Rural Poor:
For example, the fulani used to vaccinate african Republic), Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan),East africa. indigenous peoples Guatemala, Bolivia, Peru, India, China.
Home About IFAD Operations Evaluation ... Contact Us document.write(document.title) About LRKB

IFAD's Approaches to Poverty Alleviation and Social Security through Livestock Development Authored by Ahmed E. Sidahmed (IFAD). An introductory keynote paper presented at the Workshop group "Contributions of livestock and fisheries to social security". Eschborner Fachtage /GTZ 25th Anniversary meeting, Eschborn, Germany, June 1999.
Table of Contents Livestock-keeping by the disadvantaged How IFAD addresses the problems facing disadvantaged populations The participatory project-identification and design process IFAD's approach for supporting the rural poor through livestock development ... Box 3: Post-crisis assistance: Rwanda Returnees Rehabilitation Programme
Livestock-keeping by the disadvantaged Livestock contributes to the livelihood security of poor households in many ways: as an important and reliable source of food, farm power, manure, income generation and savings for rural poor families. Small stock (small ruminants, pigs, poultry and rabbits) represent particularly important household possessions for the elderly, women and children. Livestock are also an important source of high-quality nutrition, especially for pregnant women and for the cognitive development of the young. Furthermore, livestock are reliable assets in poor countries suffering from the short-term impact of economic reform policies, and they are an effective mechanism for offsetting the currency devaluation and inflation, which deplete the cash reserve of poor families.

43. Africa Bibliography
indigenous African Institutions Ardsleyon-Hudson, NY Transnational from the artand artifacts of its peoples. Covers meeting the Dogon, fulani, Tuareg, and
Africa Bibliography
all periods
Gross geography often has nothing to do with cultural lines. That is, the fact that Africa can be easily delimited as a continent by the Suez canal does not mean that it does not consist of several cultural or even racial zones at different epochs. Especially, up until about 600 CE Northern Africa was racially as well as culturally distinct from Sub-Saharan (black) Africa. While there was a Nubian conquest of Egypt, it was fairly short lived, temporarily replaced but did not breed out the uppermost classes, and the Egyptians remained a Semitic rather than Negroid people. Remarks about "Cleopatra being black" are simply silly, since she wasn't even Egyptian, but Macedonian Greek of an inbred royal line, with a narrow, prominently bridged nose. The Tuaregs still show the strongly Europid background of the Libyans and Numidians, who absorbed the Vandals as well. This is primarily a bibliography for Sub-Saharan Africa, which had often more contact with Arabia or India than with its own northern shore. While it will include the Tuareg and the Meroitic Empire, you will have to go to other bibliographies for the earlier peoples of North Africa. Search for Books at

44. Africa. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001
among others, the Amhara, Mossi, fulani, Yoruba, Igbo BC and 1500, Bantuspeakingpeoples became dominant and social organization of the indigenous population.
Select Search All All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer American Heritage Coll. Dictionary Roget's Thesauri Roget's II: Thesaurus Roget's Int'l Thesaurus Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference Columbia Encyclopedia PREVIOUS NEXT ... BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Africa k KEY Geology and Geography Geologically, recent major earth disturbances have been confined to areas of NW and E Africa. Geologists have long noted the excellent fit (in shape and geology) between the coast of Africa at the Gulf of Guinea and the Brazilian coast of South America, and they have evidence that Africa formed the center of a large ancestral supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea began to break apart in the Jurassic period to form Gondwanaland, which included Africa, the other southern continents, and India. South America was separated from Africa c.76 million years ago, when the floor of the S Atlantic Ocean was opened up by seafloor spreading; Madagascar was separated from it c.65 million years ago; and Arabia was separated from it c.20 million years ago, when the Red Sea was formed. There is also evidence of one-time connections between NW Africa and E North America, N Africa and Europe, Madagascar and India, and SE Africa and Antarctica.

45. Gateway To The Black World.Screen Name Service
in the hands of its indigenous peoples through most slave trade throughout the region,fulani traders continued and the Mende, Temne, and other peoples of the
Seems like there's been some kind of error. The link that brought you here is malfunctioning. The content you wish to view may have moved to another area of the site or may no longer be available. Apologies for the inconvenience. Let's try again!

46. Gateway To The Black World.Screen Name Service
Hausa, one of the two most common indigenous languages of spoken by the Khoikhoiand San peoples of southern in the vicinity of Dakar, and fulani (also known
Seems like there's been some kind of error. The link that brought you here is malfunctioning. The content you wish to view may have moved to another area of the site or may no longer be available. Apologies for the inconvenience. Let's try again!

47. 1Up Info > Sudan > The Muslim Peoples - Arabs | Sudanese Information Resource
Of other peoples living in Darfur in the 1990s who and they occasionally competedwith indigenous populations for In Darfur groups of fulani origin adapted in
You are here 1Up Info Sudan
People ... News Search 1Up Info
Sudan The Muslim Peoples Arabs In the early 1990s, the largest single category among the Muslim peoples consisted of those speaking some form of Arabic. Excluded were a small number of Arabic speakers originating in Egypt and professing Coptic Christianity. In 1983 the people identified as Arabs constituted nearly 40 percent of the total Sudanese population and nearly 55 percent of the population of the northern provinces. In some of these provinces (Al Khartum, Ash Shamali, Al Awsat), they were overwhelmingly dominant. In others (Kurdufan, Darfur), they were less so but made up a majority. By 1990 Ash Sharqi State was probably largely Arab. It should be emphasized, however, that the acquisition of Arabic as a second language did not necessarily lead to the assumption of Arab identity. Despite common language, religion, and self-identification, Arabs did not constitute a cohesive group. They were highly differentiated in their modes of livelihood and ways of life. Besides the major distinction dividing Arabs into sedentary and nomadic, there was an old tradition that assigned them to tribes, each said to have a common ancestor. The two largest of the supratribal categories in the early 1990s were the Juhayna and the Jaali (or Jaalayin). The Juhayna category consisted of tribes considered nomadic, although many had become fully settled. The Jaali encompassed the riverine, sedentary peoples from Dunqulah to just north of Khartoum and members of this group who had moved elsewhere. Some of its groups had become sedentary only in the twentieth century. Sudanese saw the Jaali as primarily indigenous peoples who were gradually arabized. Sudanese thought the Juhayna were less mixed, although some Juhayna groups had become more diverse by absorbing indigenous peoples. The Baqqara, for example, who moved south and west and encountered the Negroid peoples of those areas were scarcely to be distinguished from them.

48. NATIVE-L (July 1993): Dutch Gov't: Indigenous Peoples
again falls outside the scope of the issue of indigenous peoples in the sense ofpeoples who have of the Sahel, such as the Tuareg and the fulani, who have
Dutch gov't: indigenous peoples
Tue, 13 Jul 1993 10:27:00 PDT
This is a publication from the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign
Affairs / Development Cooperation, which you may find of
interest. It was put here for your information by the Innu
Support Group. Notes appear at the end.
Voorlichtingsdienst Ontwikkelingssamenwerking, bezuidenhoutseweg 67,
postbus 20061, 2500 EB 's Gravenhage, tel. +31-70-3486486
Number: 11(E)
Date: 14 may 1993 INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN THE NETHERLANDS FOREIGN POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION On 29 March 1993, the Netherlands Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr P.H. Kooijmans, and the Netherlands Minister for Development Cooperation, Mr J.P. Pronk, sent a memorandum to the Netherlands Parliament, to inform it about the Netherlands Government policy with respect to the issue of indigenous peoples in the context of foreign policy and development cooperation. In the memorandum, the Ministers also respond to the reports

49. WebPulaaku/Sokoto/H.A.S. Johnston/The Fulani Empire Of Sokoto/Hausaland And The
seat of the Empire which the fulani created in The indigenous people were unable towithstand the onslaught next four centuries the two peoples ran uneasily in
Sokoto H.A.S. Johnston.
The Fulani Empire of Sokoto

London. Ibadan. Nairobi: Oxford University Press. 1967. 312 p.
Chapter One
Hausaland and the Hausas
The seat of the Empire which the Fulani created in the nineteenth century was Hausaland. To understand their achievement it is therefore first necessary to survey the geography of that country and to review briefly the origins and history of its inhabitants.
Hausaland forms part of the belt of savannah which stretches right across Africa from the Atlantic to the Red Sea. This belt is sandwiched between the desert in the north and the equatorial forests in the south. By the Arabs it was called the Beled es-Sudan, the land of the blacks, and the Sudan is the generic name by which it is still known. Within it, Hausaland occupies the greater part of the sector between Lake Chad in the cast and the Middle Niger in the west.
Hausaland is thus part of a plain that stretches away for fifteen hundred miles to the west and two thousand to the east. It contains no mountains and possesses no natural frontiers. Essentially it is a gently undulating landscape with fertile valleys, populous and cultivated, lying between watersheds and plateaux that are often barren or waterless and therefore empty and clothed in bush. With minor variations this theme repeats itself over hundreds of miles and only occasionally does a chain of reddish hills, a wide shallow river, or a town of flat-roofed houses appear to give variety to the scene.

50. KAM Kanem Bornu And The Hausa Kingdoms
of various ethnic groups, but by 1100AD, a peoples called the Devoutly Muslim, witha great deal of indigenous beliefs therein, the fulani not only
Kanem Bornu and the Hausa Kingdoms Kanem-Bornu

In the late 1300's, civil strife within Kanuri territory began to seriously weaken the empire. By the early 1400's, Kanuri power shifted from Kanem to Bornu, a Kanuri kingdom south and west of Lake Chad. When Songhay fell, this new Kanuri empire of Bornu grew rapidly. The Kanuri grew powerful enough to unite the kingdom of Bornu with Kanem during the reign of Idris Alawma (1575-1610). Idris Alawma was a fervent Muslim and set about building a Muslim state all the way west into Hausaland in northern Nigeria. This state would last for another two hundred years, but in 1846, it finally succumbed to the growing power of the Hausa states. Pictured above are Bornu trumpeters sounding the Frum-Frums. The Bornu were well known for their chain-mailed cavalry. These trumpeter may have served to lead the medieval African kingdom's powerful shock troops into battle. (Photo courtesy of WSU) The Hausa Kingdoms

Being in close contact with one another, these kingdoms all shared a common language, Hausa. In the late 1300's Islam began to filter into Hausaland through traveling merchants. But the pace was relatively slow. It was not until the 1450's that a group of people from the Senegal River, known as the Fulani, began immigrating in large numbers into Hausaland that a strong Islamic presence took root. The Fulani immigration was driven by the desertification of north and western Africa. A pastoral people, the Fulani were in search of a land that could support their herds. Devoutly Muslim, with a great deal of indigenous beliefs therein, the Fulani not only brought Islam and its books, but also began to set up Islamic schools and learning centers all throughout Hausaland. Pictured above is a 1959 picture of Kano, a city that traces back to one of the early Hausa kingdoms. (Photo courtesy of WSU)

51. Womensrightswatch-nigeria : Antw:WomensRightsWatch-Nigeria> GOOD NEWS-SHARIA COU
over the centuries have developed indigenous knowledge and The fulani are anotherHamitic people who live they intermarried with the Woloff and Serer peoples.
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Search: All of Kabissa Whole Internet Pambazuka News Home Contact Directory African Mailing Lists African Websites ... Thread Index Thank you very much for the information on the case against Hafsatu - and I am glad to hear that she is finally acquitted! Nevertheless, as you said, there are still cases that are pending and I would like to continue to cover the problems of Safiya Husseini. Are there any news of her well-being?
Best greetings from Germany
Cornelia Fuchs
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52. 100gogo Expedition Of Africa, Africa's Super Predators & Mammals Safari
fulani known also as Fulbe and Peul, a people who have either conquered indigenouspeoples (such as in a symbiotic relationship with agricultural peoples.
Africa - The Birthplace of Modern Humans You either love it or hate it . . . Africa Map Click here to see large map
Features of Africa
Africa is the second-largest continent , after Asia, covering 30,330,000 sq km; about 22% of the total land area of the Earth. It measures about 8,000 km from north to south and about 7,360 km from east to west. The highest point on the continent is Mt. Kilimanjaro - Uhuru Point - (5,963 m/19,340 ft) in Tanzania. The lowest is Lake 'Asal (153 m/502 ft below sea level) in Djibouti. The Forests cover about one-fifth of the total land area of the continent.
The Woodlands, bush lands, grasslands and thickets occupy about two-fifth.
And the Deserts and their extended margins have the remaining two-fifths of African land. World's longest river : The River Nile drains north-eastern Africa, and, at 6,650 km (4,132 mi), is the longest river in the world. It is formed from the Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia, and the White Nile, which originates at Lake Victoria. World's second largest lake : Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the is the world's second-largest freshwater lake - covering an area of 69,490 sq km (26,830 sq mi) and lies 1,130 m (3,720 ft) above sea level. Its greatest known depth is 82 m (270 ft).

53. Report Of Bassam 2000
the Remaining Task, The Role of the indigenous African Church of the following groupsthe Tamacheq, the fulani, the Malinke related peoples, the Wolof
Report of Bassam 2000
Dear AD2-Announce Reader: Greetings from Africa, a continent on the move for God! Praises be to Him! Please pray for God's continued hand and provision on the church and leadership in that region. I would urge those so inclined to send words of encouragement and support to Wayne and the other ministries laboring there throughout that region. Against the backdrop of wars, AIDS, poverty, etc. - the church of Christ is on the move in Africa, a sense I pray you will see and agree as you review this report. May His name be praised! That all may hear!
Luis Bush
International Director
Report of Bassam 2000 - May 8-12, 2000 350 key church and mission leaders from across French speaking Africa came to Grand Bassam, Cote d'Ivoire for Bassam 2000, a follow-up consultation to Dakar '98 focusing on the remaining Unreached Peoples Groups of West and Central Africa. These leaders came from 30 different countries, both African and non-African. They represented a wide array of different cultures and languages, not to mention a variety of church and mission organizations, denominations, and agencies. The following main points represent a brief summary of what took place at what many participants referred to as the most strategic, inspirational and widely representative of any Franco-phone West and Central African consultation that they have ever attended. There were many inspiring reports of what God is doing through partnership efforts as well as in a number of different National Initiatives across West and Central Africa. Challenging plenary sessions were greatly appreciated and included; The Challenge of the Remaining Task, The Role of the Indigenous African Church, Reconciliation, and National Missionary Training and Sending. Each afternoon the following working groups meet for two hours each day: Research, Social Action, Prayer, Radio, Women's Ministry, Translation and Literature, Mission to Muslims, and National Mission training and sending. A special time of focusing on specific strategic unreached people groups was held for each of the following groups: the Tamacheq, the Fulani, the Malinke related peoples, the Wolof, and the UPGs of the Lake Chad Basin.

54. Center For International Development At Harvard University (CID) :: Current Even
Through and Passing On fulani Mobility, Survival Digital Certificates South Africa1200 POSTPONED Vulnerable Witnesses indigenous peoples and Understanding
About CID CID People CID Events Research Programs Student Programs Publications Research Datasets Resources CID Home About CID Faculty Chair Statement Supporting CID Faculty Oversight Committee Faculty Associates CID Staff Student Associates KSG Directory Event Calendar Past Events and Conferences CID Seminar Series Environment and Sustainable Development Globalization and Economic Development Malaria and Human Affairs Political Economy Rule of Law in Political and Economic Development Science, Technology and Innovation Graduate Student Program Undergraduate Student Program International Development Courses Summer Internship Program Thesis Prize MPA-ID Working Papers Series G24 Discussion Papers Series Special Reports Archive CID Datasets Online Datasets Data Products International Statistical Sites National Statistical Offices Other Internet Data Resources Global Trade Negotiations Development Links Executive Education Visitor Information Return to CID Homepage CID Events Past Events and Conferences
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and Historical Materials of Formosan indigenous peoples in Asai cultures of Asia andAfrica mainly in Ethnolinguistics OGAWA, Ryo (Professor) fulani people and
Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA) Main Activities Collaborative Research Projects
  • Cross-linguistic Studies of Tonal Phenomena
  • Dynamism of Political Cultures in Africa and Asia
  • Studies on Linguistic and Cultural Contacts
  • Comparative Study of Travels and Representations
  • Social Change and International Relations in Modern East Asia
  • History of the Non-Han peoples of South-West China
  • Studies on the Historical Iran World
  • State and Religion in Post-Independence African Countries
  • Historical Development of International Relations in the Islamic World: A Case Study of the Ottoman Empire
  • Al-Afghani and Modern History of the Muslim World
  • Typography and Font History
  • Advanced Studies on the Indian Ocean Area
  • Gender and Sexuality in Asia and Africa
  • Social Space and Religion
  • Linguistic and Cultural Study on Phongxaly
  • Integrated Research on the Methods of Fieldwork under the 'Overseas Scientific Research' Scheme
  • Historical Studies on Japanese Occupation Period in Burma (1942-45)
  • Reinvestigation of Rhetoric via Informatics
  • Comparative Study of 20th Century's ÔIndividualizationÕ in Trans-Atlantic African Societies
  • Asian and African Language Acquisition Program
  • A Study of Multilingual CALL SYSTEM
  • Research on Linguistic and Historical Materials of Formosan Indigenous Peoples in Asai Collection
  • "Classical" Narrative Texts and Historical Consciousness in Pre-Modern Southeast Asia Information Resources Center As a part of the Institute, an Information Resources Center was established in 1997 with an initial term of 10 years. Its main purpose is to process information resources of languages and cultures of Asia and Africa mainly in the form of storage, compilation, and publication with a view to developing inter-institutional and international academic exchange. The Center is constructing a ÒDigital Museum of Languages and CulturesÓ, to be accessed through the Internet. This Digital Museum not only presents a digital library of linguistic, cultural and historical data but also makes available insights into the theoretical and technical aspects of building such libraries.
  • 56. HCPDS : Publications And Working Papers
    Through and Passing On fulani Mobility, Survival traditional healers in southernAfricato present compelling case that indigenous peoples generally believe
    Books Harvard Series on Population and International Health Public-Private Partnerships for Public Health edited by Michael R. Reich, Harvard University Press, April 2002. Health Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Making Health Development Sustainable , edited by Peter Berman, Harvard School of Public Health, 1995. Power and Decision: The Social Control of Reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel Snow, Harvard School of Public Health, 1994. Population Polices Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment, and Rights , edited by Gita Sen, Lincoln C. Chen, and Adrienne Germain, Harvard School of Public Health, 1994. Health and Social Change in International Perspective , edited by Lincoln. C. Chen, Arthur Kleinman, and Norma C. Ware, Harvard School of Public Health, 1994 The Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series Vol. 1: The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020 , edited by Christopher J.L. Murray and Alan Lopez, World Health Organization and the World Bank, 1997.

    57. The Fulani People
    has been influenced both by surrounding peoples and by A vast majority of fulani livein rural settings an hour's time using long thin leaves indigenous to the
    Who Are the Fulani People?
    The history of the Fulani seems to begin with the Berber people of North Africa around the 8 th or 11 th
    What Do the Fulani Believe?
    Religion and Beliefs:
    The Fulani were one of the first African tribes to convert to Islam and are today more than 99% Muslim. The devoutly Muslim Fulani have seen themselves as the propagators and preservers of the Islamic faith in West Africa from as early as the fourteenth century. Historically it was a Fulani chief named Usuman dan Fodio , along with nomadic Fulani herdsmen who were instrumental in facilitating the spread of Islam across West Africa through evangelism and conquest. At times they would wage "holy wars" or jihad in order to extend and purify Islam. As the Fulani migrated eastward they spread their Islamic beliefs. As they became more powerful and attained more wealth they began to be more aggressive with their religion. Their adoption of Islam increased their feeling of cultural and religious superiority to surrounding peoples, and that adoption became a major ethnic boundary marker. Some settled in towns and quickly became noted as outstanding Islamic clerics, joining the highest ranking Berbers and Arabs. Today it is difficult to find any Fulani who admits to not being Muslim, no matter how lax his or her practice may be. To a Fulani person: to be Fulani is to be a Muslim. Although they adhere very strongly to the tenants of Islam, it has been surprising to find a high level of belief that certain people possess supernatural powers. Like other West Africans, Fulani will frequent local religious practitioners who have established reputations for their curative powers. Many such practitioners - witch doctors and medicine men - are also Muslim religious leaders.

    58. Geography
    These peoples were able to populate much of africa for women on one hand, womenindigenous to the this invasion mainly because the fulani's cattle were
    Geography of Cameroon One of the major geographical features of Cameroon is Mount Cameroon, upon which CHAMEG is located. This mountain is the highest point in Cameroon and is actually a still active volcano. Another of the major geological features are the huge rivers that wind through much of Cameroon: the Logone, the Sanaga, the Nyong, and the Benoue. The peoples of Cameroon rely heavily upon these rivers for their livelihood. The capital of Cameroon is Yaounde, which began as a German trading station. Another important city is Douala, which actually existed before colonialism as a small native settlement. Both of these cities' creations and/or developments can be traced to the colonialism that forged the country's history, as is the case with all the cities in Cameroon. View of the city of Yaounde History of Cameroon Pre-Colonial Era In the 17th century, cassava (a tuber/root) was introduced into the area, seriously altering women's lives ever since. Since it was considered a woman's role to grow and process the cassava, this lead to a shift in labor that seriously disadvantaged women. In the 19th century, Fulani Muslims from the north invaded what would be Cameroon. There were two consequences of this invasion for women: on one hand, women indigenous to the invaded regions resisted this invasion mainly because the Fulani's cattle were damaging their crops. Secondly, since this resistance was not successful, and because the Fulani were Muslim, a religion known for its seclusion of women and their subordination to their husbands, those women in the northern region of the country who were converted to the religion saw their circumstances change drastically.

    59. West Africa
    the same time encouraging the strong indigenous churches of we are working amongFulani, Tuareg and for unreached peoples, adopting these peoples and helping
    West Africa
    World Horizons ministry in West Africa was established in 1986. Our goal has always been to see church established among the unreached people of the Sahel region just to the south of the Sahara desert. These peoples, inhabiting the former French colonies of the interior, are nominally Muslim and have been relatively neglected by missionary endeavour. We are working in NIGER and BURKINO FASO with plans for several other nations. In Niger we are working primarily in the area around the capital city of Niamey. We are working with the Fulani, Dzerma and Hause peoples. Our work includes the following projects:
    • A church among primarily Dzerma people in the neighborhood of Dar Es Salaam. Many young men have come to the Lord and are being discipled through this work. A church planted in the spring of 1999 at Koira Tegui, a suburb of the city. This is in a predominantly Fulani area. Various literacy and primary health care projects offering opportunity to share the Gospel in creative ways.
    In Burkino Faso our goal is also to work among the least reached peoples while at the same time encouraging the strong indigenous churches of the south of the country to become involved in unreached peoples work. Accordingly we are working among Fulani, Tuareg and Sonrhai in the far north of the country on the edge of the desert.

    60. Joseph R. Wheeler, III Interview
    Constructivists, sculptors, Oriental, the indigenous peoples of America I am one withthe indigenous blood of all the Maasai, Somburu, Yoruba, fulani, Nuba, and
    Joseph R. Wheeler, III Interview
    Wave Elivation
    The Sun Goddess
    The Warehouse
    Spiders tell "I" About The Web of Love
    Mother Returns Art Crimes: How long have you been painting canvases and portable pieces? Joseph: I've been doing portable pieces all of my life. I came up on cheap sketch pads and typing paper, on Saturday morning art classes that taught me all of the accepted forms of visual art. Those classes also taught me to respect other forms of art whether I understood them at that young age or not. I developed my skills in the following order (blending them as time went on): crayons - ya'll know what it is, pencil, pen, markers, colored pencils, markers, watercolors, inks and dyes, oil and acrylic painting, and then somewhat recently - the aerosol can and airbrush. I did a lot of poster-size masterpieces on illustration board. I had always looked at brush to canvas painting as the ultimate level of accomplishment. I thought it was hard. I tell a lot of younger people that I've had the pleasure of working with that no medium is impossible to adapt to if you have "EYE" and know the "LINE".
    Drawing is the basis of the artist's perception.

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