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         Fulani Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Transhumance, migratory drift, migration: Patterns of pastoral Fulani nomadism by Derrick J Stenning, 1957

61. Search:
gazetted in 1972, resident fulani pastoralists participated in studies from centralAfrica, this paper Venezuela 1993 Itinerant indigenous peoples in Venezuela
Search Keywords non timber forest products (NTFP) Project Wild Meat, Livelihoods Security and Conservation in the Tropics Global, October 2002 - September 2004 This project is funded by a grant from the MacArthur Foundation, and will research the human and social dimensions of hunting for consumptive use in tropical forests, including bushmeat and the bushmeat trade.. more... Bushmeat - a Pilot Study Report commissioned by DEFRA to identify research interventions which can help achieve a sustainable bushmeat trade in West and Central Africa... more... RDFN 25a Community Forestry: Facing up to the Challenge in Cameroon The Cameroon case presents one of the greatest challenges to community forestry in the tropics, and has generated exceptional interest in the international community.. more... RDFN 25b-i The Development of Community Forests in Cameroon: Origins, Current Situation and Constraints The introduction of the concept of community forestry into Cameroon’s forestry legislation by means of the idea of community forests was a great innovation in the Central African sub-region.. more...

62. West Africa
Another fulani group, the Foulbe, are much stricter in Traditionally, most West Africanpeoples regarded a The payment usually follows indigenous rules rather
West Africa Links to legal datasheets for countries in this region. The Region and Its History Islam first reached West Africa by way of traders from North Africa and the Middle East who settled in the area in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. Over the next five hundred years, assorted West African rulers and local merchants who wanted to do business with the Muslim traders adapted themselves to Islam and its customs. But the practice of the religion did not spread far outside of towns and the commercial elite until the Muslim jihads of the 18th and 19th centuries. These wars were led by Muslim scholars and teachers who were determined to turn the region's small Islamic colonies into Muslim states. They arose in dispersed places all the way from modern-day Chad to Benin, but gradually they influenced each other and culminated in the region-wide struggle to

63. People
include the following Gurspeaking Voltaic peoples the Gurma number of West Atlantic-speakingFulani; and the In the southwest the indigenous Kwa peoples also
Country Info Togo Introduction Togo General Data Togo Maps Togo Culture ... Togo Time and Date Togo People Back to Top The population of Togo comprises about 30 ethnic groups, many of whom are immigrants from other parts of western Africa. The groups indigenous to Togo live in the north and southwest. The northern groups include the following Gur-speaking Voltaic peoples: the Gurma; the Natemba, Dye, Bu-Bankam, Bu-Kombong, and Konkomba; the Tamberma; the Basari; the Moba; the Naudemba (Losso); the Kabre and Logba; and the Namba (Lamba); a small number of West Atlantic-speaking Fulani; and the Kebu (Akebu). In the southwest the indigenous Kwa peoples also belonging to the central Togo group are the Akposo, the Adele, and the Ahlo. The immigrants came from east, west, and north. The Ewe, who emigrated from Nigeria between the 14th and 16th century, form the major ethnic group. There are also some scattered Yoruba, mainly Ana. Groups who emigrated from present-day Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire since the 17th century include the Ane (or Mina), the Ga-Adangme, the Kpelle and the Anyana, the Chakossi, and the Dagomba. The northern groups of the Tem (Kotokoli and Temba), Gurma, and Mossi came from the north, mainly from areas in Burkina Faso.
Countries Map or Maps
Egypt Maps
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64. Contemporary Global Systems
their energies to conquering the indigenous peoples rather than Britain had conqueredthose indigenous polities that a feudal system with fulani overlords and
Understanding Nigeria Through Geography’s Five Themes
Nigeria is an African place created by Europeans, like Jordan a place created by politics, largely external politics. It is a fascinating country with a significant resource endowment, a complex mix of ethnic groups, and a precarious hold on the allegiance of its people. With a population exceeding 100 million, it is Africa’s most populous country. It stretches across an area slightly larger than Texas. Nigeria faces many problems, not the least of which is its very survival. Let us use geography’s five themes to try to understand Nigeria, particularly as a player in the contemporary global system. The Place That Became—and is—Nigeria
Before colonialism the area that became Nigeria was a complex region in flux. Even now the country has more than 300 languages (Figure 5.1). Hausa is dominant in the North, Yoruba in the West. Igbo is the most important language in the East. Before colonialism those 300 societies had a range of political systems and economies. An Islamic Jihad, spreading from Sokoto in northwestern Nigeria at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, spread the authority of an Islamic caliphate south and east until it covered a sizable section of the country. The Sokoto Caliphate was basically a feudal system with Fulani overlords and adoption of Hausa as the language of daily life. In Yorubaland in the southwest and Benin City in the south central part of the country, large kingdoms competed for power. Elsewhere the political structures varied, some with traditional, monarchical rulers, others more republican in form.

65. UNDP/SL Documents:  Towards A Typology Of Sustainable Livelihoods Systems
and Central africa) and North africa (including Yemen groups such as the Tuareg, Fulaniand Turkana. important, however, is that indigenous peoples face greater info/Typology/typology.htm
Created by the Sustainable Livelihoods Unit of UNDP Last updated November 3, 1999 Documents Towards a Typology of SL Systems Abstract Table of Contents

Towards a Typology of Sustainable Livelihoods Systems
An Overview of the Issues
The concept of sustainable livelihoods (SL) has, in recent years, gained considerable attention among policy-makers, practitioners and academics. A SL framework provides the basis for the examination of ecological, sociological and economic factors and how their interplay shapes and influences the lives of people living in poverty. In the ecological realm, relevant elements include the natural resource base upon which the poor depend, especially common property resources. Social factors are the institutions (i.e., rules and norms) that attempt to foster cooperative behaviour within society and the formal and informal organizations that mediate this effort. And finally, economic factors centre on the production and distribution of goods and services. As one of UNDP's five corporate mandates, SL offers both a conceptual and programming framework for poverty reduction in a sustainable manner. Conceptually, livelihoods are the

66. Introduction To African Textiles: Part Three - Raw Materials
Peul is the Francophone term for fulani. Ene CJ indigenous Silkweaving in Nigeria in Nigeria Magazine 81 by the women weavers of the Berber peoples of North
Return to gallery
African Textiles Introduction 3. Raw Materials Home Web resources: an eternity of the forest - Mbuti women's barkcloth painting References: For a good general introduction see chapter on materials in: African Textiles Weaving in Sub-Saharan Africa Wool: Gardi B. & Seydou C. "Arkilla Kerka: La tenture de mariage chez les Peuls du Mali" in Man Does Not Go Naked Imperato P. "Wool Blankets of the Peul of Mali" in African Arts VI(3) 1973 A Fulani woollen kaasa blanket from the inland Niger delta, Mali. Author's Collection. [Peul is the Francophone term for Fulani] also see Francophone gallery here Cotton: Monteil C. Le Coton Chez Les Noirs Spinning cotton, Cameroon, circa 1910, old postcard. Silk: Ene C.J. "Indigenous Silk-weaving in Nigeria" in Nigeria Magazine Silk in Africa Raffia: Loir H. Le Tissage du Raphia au Congo Belge (1935) also see Kuba pages here Bark cloth: Burt E.C. "Bark-cloth in East Africa" in

67. Untitled Document
The African Charter on Human and peoples' Rights promotes non between the Tivs whobelieve that they are indigenous and the pastoral Hausafulani who moved

68. Murdock
for a variety of South african indigenous groups) “Nowhere is favored by all thepeoples of the fulani (northern West africa) “Marriage always involves a
History 95, 10/29/96 These descriptions of family patterns in African societies are adapted from Africa: Its Peoples and Their Culture History , by George Peter Murdock (1959). 1. How are the assumptions Murdock brings to his anthropological study similar or different from those Mungo Park (handout) brings to his explorer's account? What's missing (what questions does he not ask)? 2. How would you expect the family patterns to affect, or to be affected by, gender relations in each society? What division of labor would you infer from each? What might be the advantages of each for men and for women? Mande (from the area of the West African empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay; the most numerous group there is the Malinke or Mandingo): Southern Nigerians (including Ibo, Yoruba) : Fulani (northern West Africa)

69. Ajepong Syllabus
kinship, family and marriage, indigenous political systems (b) AfroAsiatic Swahili,Hausa-fulani, Cushite (Southern in the vocabulary of the peoples of Sub
VC Sam Adjepong at wheat harvest in Harrington, Washington, August 1996 ELEMENTS OF AFRICAN CULTURE
by Professor Samuel Kwasi Adjepong
Vice Chancellor, University of Cape Coast Course Description:
An opportunity to explore the great African continent. The concept "African culture" will be defined and delineated. The major characteristics of African culture will be outlined, including: kinship, family and marriage, indigenous political systems and traditional economic patterns and belief systems. Students will learn how agents of social change such as industrialization, colonial rule, education, urbanization and Christianity have shaped African culture. The status of women in contemporary African society will also be explored. I. INTRODUCTION 1. The myth of the "homogenous" African culture; the reality of cultural pluralism in Africa.
2. Africa in Historical perspective (a) Misconceptions and distortions about African past.
(b) Africa in antiquity - ancient cultures and civilizations.
Note: Africa has been a dynamic partner in civilization. The earliest civilization (OLDUVAI CIVILIZATION) more than 2000 years ago, has been found near Tanganyika. Africa is the cradle of humanity. (i)
  • Egypt: the art of writing Kush: irrigation technology Axum: astronomy Moroe: geometry and medicine Moroe: the invention of paper Moroe: the pyramids Moroe: the mummification of the dead Ancient Egyptians were black. Egypt was founded by people from the south of Africa. Most names of Pharaoh's were Ethiopian.

70. The Mistake Of 1914
way of life most Middle Belt peoples have more Belt because of their difference withthe Hausa/fulani? Even indigenous preIslamic Hausa-fulani culture was not
The 'mistake' of 1914 by Mallam Bamaguje Katsina State, Nigeria Many Nigerians especially southerners seem to believe that the amalgamation of northern and southern protectorates by the British in 1914 was a colossal mistake. They contend that northern and southern Nigeria are too different to make a workable nation, hence they attribute much of Nigeria’s problems today to that historic ‘error’. As an Nkrumaist Pan Africanist who believes in the unification of black Africa, I find such notion disturbing. Even in pre-colonial Africa, multi-ethnic nations existed. The Benin empire comprised Edos,Urhobos, Yorubas and some Igbo speaking peoples. The influence of the Oyo Empire extended into modern day Ghana. The Sokoto caliphate was multi-ethnic, in fact most of the great African empires Mali, Songhai, Ashanti, Zulu etc were composed of more than one ethnic group. Around the world today multi-ethnic nations are the norm rather than exception. Even Britain our erstwhile colonial master is an amalgam of English, Welsh, Scots, Norrnans, Saxons, Angles, etc. It is therefore likely that even without colonialism multi-ethnic nations would have emerged in Africa today. On closer scrutiny the apparently irreconcilable dichotomy is actually between the core North and the rest of the country. In culture and way of life most Middle Belt peoples have more in common with the South than with the core North. In fact many Middle Belters have strong historic and ethnic affiliation with the South — the Kwara/Kogi Yorubas and their south western cousins; Idomas of Benue and Yalas of Cross River; the Igalas had more historical interaction with the Igbos and Edos than their fellow Hausa ‘northerners.’

71. Yes, The People Of The Arabian Peninsula Are Not Africans At All!
is constituted by the Afroasiatic peoples of the They are neither assimilated Arabsnor indigenous Africans but a The fulani, Haussa and the Tukhrir(Toucouleur
    Yes, the people of the Arabian Peninsula are not Africans at all!
    Follow Ups Post Followup Afrikan Frontline NEWSBoard Posted by Zeru Isaac on May 05, 1998 at 21:35:16: In Reply to: Is Afrika exclusive of Saudi peninsula? posted by Bessai ibn Atta on January 20, 1998 at 21:17:17: My personal interpretation of who is African
    is that it is not determined by geology or
    even geography but by ethnicity (culture and language)as well as race or genetics. These two concepts are not always the same because people might assimilate to a varying degree to an ethnic group without having or only
    partly having their genetic background. For
    example Arab is an ethnic group which infact
    includes many races and genetic backgrounds who have assimilated to the original Arabs in language, religion and to some extent the
    culture (Arabian culture has also been under
    non Arab influence like Berber, Phoenician,
    Byzantine, Turkish, Roman, Hellenistic and
    so on). Ethnicity is to me generally a state of mind
    but somehow genetics can´t be neglected or ignored. If one is similar to the ethnic group from the beginning (genetically that is) then one can simply adopt the culture and language and assimilate. A Swede and a

72. Untitled
and Oswald Weiner (eds.), indigenous knowledge systems Tanout Arrondissement, Niger ,Nomadic peoples 11,26 pastoral production among the fulani of northeastern
Allen, Christopher. 1978. "Sierra Leone", in J.Dunn (ed.) West African States: Failure and Promise, pp.189-210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Banton, Michael. 1957. West African city; a study of tribal life in Freetown. London: Oxford University Press for the IAI.
Baxter, P.T.W. 1975. "Some consequences of sedentarization for social relationships", in T.Monod (ed.) Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, pp.206-228. London: Oxford University Press for IAI.
Baxter, P.T.W. 1984. "Butter for barley and barley for cash: petty transactions and small transformations in an Arssi market", in Sven Rubenson (ed.) Proceedings of the seventh international conference of Ethiopian societies; University of Lund, 26-29 April 1982. Addis Abeba: Institute of Ethiopian studies.
Bjeren, Gunilla. 1985. Migration to Shashemene; Ethnicity, gender and occupation in urban Ethiopia, Uppsala: Scandanavian Institute of African Studies.
Blench, Roger. 1985. "Pastoral labour and stock alienation in the sub-humid and arid zones of West Africa", ODI Pastoral Development Network Paper19e.

73. VADA - Volkeren Stammen Peoples Tribes I - L
Lords of the Savanna; The Bambara, fulani, Igbo, Mossi Home Find Books Search Seealso indigenous peoples in Brazil See also Dyula. See also peoples of India.

74. Met Timeline | Guinea Coast, 1400-1600 A.D.
Islamic visual motifs and later indigenous Akan aesthetics. are considered some ofAfrica's most remarkable century migration of the fulani peoples to Hausaland
See also Central Africa Eastern and Southern Africa and Western and Central Sudan The increase in size, centralization, and prosperity of the Owo and Benin kingdoms during this period is partially the result of their participation in trans-Saharan trade routes and trade with the Portuguese . Artistic production responds to refinements in metallurgic technologies and an intensified use of symbolic and ritualistic emblems of kingship. Artists of the Guinea coast are influenced aesthetically through contact with Islamic traders and the Portuguese, who often directly commission the carving of ivory objects. Additionally, the Akan (in what is now Ghana) develop an elaborate system of cast brass gold weights to measure the precious gold dust being traded to North Africa and then to Europe; the design of these gold weights is heavily influenced first by abstract Islamic visual motifs and later indigenous Akan aesthetics.
The royal court of Benin is believed to have originated in the thirteenth century. According to Edo oral tradition, the kingdom was governed by the thirty-one "Rulers of the Sky," or Ogiso kings. The Ada ceremonial sword, which in contemporary Benin court ritual remains an important emblem of kingship, is believed to date to this period. Eweka I, who may have been from the neighboring Yoruba dynasty, is the first Benin oba (king), succeeding the Ogiso kings around 1300. Eweka's authority is undermined by conflict with autochthonous chiefs. Oba Ewedo of the kingdom of Benin reorganizes the

75. Development Related Research At The
such fora for nonstate actors, such as 'indigenous peoples'. Laursen, Bjarke andKrogh, L. indigenous Soil Knowledge among the fulani of Northern
Development related research at the
Department of Ethnography and Social Anthropology
1. Overview
2. Recent and continuing research
  • Middle East
    South Asia

    Southeast Asia

    Insular Southeast Asia/Pacific
    Recent publications by staff and students (1998-99)
    1. Overview
    With origins in the ethnographic activities of the Moesgaard Museum, the department has a longstanding tradition of research in and collaboration with developing countries, starting with the long term engagements of P.V. Glob in the Persian Gulf and of Klaus Ferdinand in Afghanistan, and expanded by generations of students who have carried out fieldwork in different parts of the developing world. The department continues to collaborate with the Moesgaard Museum, also in connection with the ethnographic study collection and the UNESCO collection at the Museum, which cover every part of the world and a wide range of themes, such as health and natural resources, human rights, gender, identity, conflict, and many others.
    Regional strengths While individual research projects at the department may focus on any part of the world, the department has particularstrengths in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East, West Africa, and the Circumpolar North. Recent Ph.D. projects and other individual projects have helped to maintain and renew traditional strengths in parts of Central Asia, such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and opened up new areas of research such as China and Southern Africa.

76. Untitled
africa came to be dominated by foreign peoples. Asian, Indian, over 1000 differentindigenous groups (including Bantu, Berber, fulani, Creole, Fula
Sub Saharan Africa
National Archives
Report from Head Archivist
Sub-Saharan Africa was originally inhabited by a group of people who were probably the forefathers of the Pygmies, Bushmen and Hottentots of today. In 30,000 BC, they were pushed to the Northwest and South by another group of people who were taller and larger. Sub-Saharan Africa was home to several great kingdoms before European colonization. The Ghana Empire, which began in the fourth century and reached its height in the tenth century, commanding most of the area between Timbuktu and the Atlantic Ocean. The Mali Empire (also known as the Madingo Empire) was a trading kingdom which controlled most of West Africa as well as the city of Timbuktu and extended into the southern Sahara. Under Mansa Musa, the Mali Empire reached its apogee in the fourteenth century. The Arab traveler Ibn Batuta visited and wrote on the Mali empire in the mid-fourteenth century. Africa came to be dominated by foreign peoples. The Portuguese were the first to explore Sub-Saharan Africa in 1270. By the nineteenth century, Sub-Saharan Africa had been colonized by almost every European nation and was host to a series of battles, conflicts of interest and treaties. The dynamics of this colonial period for the most part determined Africa's borders today. Countries include:
Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

77. - Cameroon People
Religions Christian 40%, Muslim 20%, indigenous African 40%. nonIslamic or recentlyIslamic peoples of the or Fulfulde, the language of the fulani, is widely

78. The Arts OF Africa, Oceania, And The Native Americas (Cortez, 1999)
cover all the arts of all the peoples of africa Topic Art's Function and the IndigenousVoice (Be prepared The Visual Culture of Nomads Wodaabe fulani of West
About Contents Search Comments ... Internet Resources
Art History 060
Dr. Constance Cortez Santa Clara University Department of Art Santa Clara, California Email: COURSE OBJECTIVES: This is not a survey course. It will not cover all the arts of all the peoples of Africa, Oceania, and the Native Americas. Rather, certain aspects of selected cultural traditions will he examined in order to establish a foundation for advanced upper division study of visual culture in these three areas of the world. In addition to learning about a number of specific cultural groups at particular historical moments, our goal is to understand more fully how art historical and anthropological methodologies, theories, and practices structure our encounters with the cultural materials of Africans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans.
Art as Technology: The Arts of Africa, Oceania, Native America, SouthernCalifornia (edited by Zena Pearlstone, Beverly Hills: Hillcrest Press, 1989) is available at the student bookstore. All other assigned readings are on reserve at the library. Additionally, there are a number of articles and books that have been placed on reserve in the library for supplementary reading.
EVALUATIONS: Student performance will he evaluated on the following
Class Participation Paper Topic (date) Exam 1 (date) Exam2(date) Research Paper (date) Exam 3 (date)
CLASS PARTICIPATION: You are expected to attend all class sessions and to turn in assignments on the assigned date. 2 points will be deducted for each day after more than 2 absences. This grade is also based on "active listening," that is, listening to what others have to say and offering your own comments and opinions during classroom and group discussions.

79. MOST Ethno-Net Publication: Anthropology Of Africa
Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as major indigenous languages of on the Igbos by HausaFulaniand the the colonialists in preventing the colonized peoples from uniting
    A nthropology of Africa and the Challenges of the Third Millennium
    - Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts, PAAA / APA, 1999
Cross-Cultural Conversations and the Semiotics of Ethnocultural Domination in Nigeria Obododima Oha (Ph.D.)
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Department of English ABSTRACT

It is inevitable and desirable that different cultures hold ‘conversations’. ‘Conversation’ in this
case figuratively refers to interaction, which transgresses a given cultural space. In this case,
cultures attempt to overcome the barrier of difference, suggesting the boundary, Martin
Heidegger would say, as “that from which something begins its presencing” (1971: 153); or as a symbolic challenge for openness. Just as in normal conversational interaction requiring the
Gricean Co-operative Principle,(1) cultures in conversation ideally have to target the arrival at
some understanding of each other. In this case, we assume that cultures are not prisons, as the Whorfian hypothesis proposes, and that one culture can enter another (and also be entered), a situation the semiotician, Yuri Lotman, refers to as “the culture within the culture” (1994). The entry of the one culture into another is, as Lot, an argues, transformative: it transforms the

80. Sub-Saharan Africa
a land of diverse ethnic composition, including the indigenous Pygmy peoples andthe Bantu speaking peoples moving in from West Central africa about a 1,000

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