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  1. Transhumance, migratory drift, migration: Patterns of pastoral Fulani nomadism by Derrick J Stenning, 1957

81. Articles
Although the cattleraising fulani remained on the the relations of Islam with WestAfrica's Sudanic peoples. survival to give ground to indigenous customs and
Religion and Empire in the Western

The loss of political influence suffered by Muslims following the fall of Songhal was less serious in the eyes of true believers than the spirit of accommodation which had long characterized the relations of Islam with West Africa's Sudanic peoples. Perhaps this was the force of necessity, for African culture had never been receptive to the demands of Islamic doctrine which was consequently obliged for survival to give ground to indigenous customs and thought. The Dyula traders were a good case in point. They lived peaceably side by side with pagans to whom they sold great quantities of Muslim amulets and by whom they were thoroughly accepted as part of the pagan African scene. Although they were a factor in spreading Islamic culture throughout West Africa, they were but a minor influence for mass conversion.
The frustration of hard-shell reformers like the Torodbe was poised against the resentment harbored by the pagan or nominally Muslim chief against the religious dogmatists in his realm. Their ill-concealed air of superiority was all the more vexing because their assistance was so often necessary in the affairs of state. Moreover, their religious exclusiveness was frequently accompanied by linguistic and cultural differences which made them unassimilated islands of foreigners in their adopted land. Finally, there was always the danger that advisers might develop excessive influence and arrogate authority, using it to subvert the state on behalf of an alien religion and way of life.

82. BC3110:  Women And Religion In Africa And Diaspora
Islam and systems of belief indigenous to africa in africa and amongst africandescendedpeoples in the 7. Yusuf, Bilkisu, “Hausa-fulani Women the state of
Women and Religion in Africa and Diaspora Professor A. Ejikeme
phone: x4-2055
Lehman 418A Pan-African Studies BC3110x
Fall 2002
T 4:10-6:00

Course Requirements and Description
In this course we will explore the ways in which women have been constituted by religions as well as religions which have been constituted by women in Africa and its Diaspora. Course Objectives To introduce students to the diversity of religious expressions in Africa and amongst African-descended peoples in the Americas. words commonly used, but which can be difficult to categorize. To examine the articulation between gender categories and religious beliefs/practices. Each student must present a 15-20 page research paper. Students are required to submit a paper proposal by October 15 Because this is a seminar and each student will be working on an independent research project, an important aspect of the course will be the sharing of information and ideas. Students will be asked to make two presentations on their works-in-progress, and then a major presentation on the draft/paper at the end of the semester.

83. West Africa
of the area dominated by the Mande peoples. architectural styles and beliefs of indigenouspagan cultures N. David, The fulani compound and the archaeologist'.

84. Bibliography Of Indigenous Knowledge And InstitutionsWORKSHOP RESEARCH LIBRARY I
People and Culture, in Nigeria
Indigenous Knowledge and Institutions
(2100 citations)
Compiled by Charlotte Hess
November 21, 2001
Abay, Fetien, Mitiku Haile, and Ann Waters-Bayer 1999. "Dynamics in IK: Innovation in Land Husbandry in Ethiopia." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor Abbink, John. 1993. "Ethnic Conflict in the 'Tribal Zone': the Dizi and Suri in Southern Sudan." The Journal of Modern African Studies Acharya, Bipin Kumar. 1994. "Nature Cure and Indigenous Healing Practices in Nepal: A Medical Anthropological Perspective." In Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems, and Processes . M. Allen, ed. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point. Acheson, James M. 1994. "Transaction Costs and Business Strategies in a Mexican Indian Pueblo." In Anthropology and Institutional Economics . J. Acheson, ed. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. (Monographs in Economic Anthropology, no. 12). Acheson, James M. 1990. "The Management of Common Property in a Mexican Indian Pueblo." Presented at "Designing Sustainability on the Commons," the first annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Duke University, Durham, NC, September 27-30, 1990. Acres, B. D. 1984. "Local Farmers' Experience of Soils Combined with Reconnaissance Soil Survey for Land Use Planning: An Example from Tanzania."

85. Ethnicity In Nigeria
a fusion, a collection of Sudanese peoples that were They do maintain an indigenoushome, however the was established to avoid the fulani's annual slave
Ethnicity in Nigeria
Simon A. Rakov, Vassar College '92 (English 32, Fall 1990)
The ethnicity of Nigeria is so varied that there is no definition of a Nigerian beyond that of someone who lives within the borders of the country (Ukpo, p. 19). The boundaries of the formerly English colony were drawn to serve commercial interests, largely without regard for the territorial claims of the indigenous peoples (38). As a result, about three hundred ethnic groups comprise the population of Nigeria (7), and the country's unity has been consistently under siege: eight attempts at secession threatened national unity between 1914 and 1977. The Biafran War was the last of the secessionist movements within this period (3). The concept of ethnicity requires definition. Ukpo calls an "ethnic group" a "group of people having a common language and cultural values" (10). These common factors are emphasized by frequent interaction between the people in the group. In Nigeria, the ethnic groups are occasionally fusions created by intermarriage, intermingling and/or assimilation. In such fusions, the groups of which they are composed maintain a limited individual identity. The groups are thus composed of smaller groups, but there is as much difference between even the small groups; as Chief Obafemi Awolowo put it, as much "as there is between Germans, English, Russians and Turks" (11). The count of three hundred ethnic groups cited above overwhelmingly enumerates ethnic minority groups, those which do not comprise a majority in the region in which they live. These groups usually do not have a political voice, nor do they have access to resources or the technology needed to develop and modernize economically. They therefore often consider themselves discriminated against, neglected, or oppressed. There are only three ethnic groups which have attained "ethnic majority" status in their respective regions: the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the

86. WebPulaaku/Sokoto/H.A.S. Johnston/The Fulani Empire Of Sokoto/
Gida(n) the house (of). HaaBe a word used by the fulani to describe the indigenouspeoples of the Sudan. Maghreb Moslem North africa.
Sokoto H.A.S. Johnston.
The Fulani Empire of Sokoto

London. Ibadan. Nairobi: Oxford University Press. 1967. 312 p.
an executive official (literally Deputy) in Nupe.
courtesy title accorded to any man who has made the Pilgrimage to Mecca. The Hausa form of Haffl.
a judge in a Moslem court.
Alkalin Alkalai
Moslem Chief Justice.
a Fulani title, often accorded to the head of a clan or sub-clan.
the title of the rulers of the Songhai Empire after Muhammad Askia.
the members of the Atilm branch of the Sokoto ruling family.
suffix meaning 'the people of', e.g. Gobirawa, the people of Gobir.
Banza Bakwai
Birni n
a walled town, hence a city.
this title has been used to describe the rulers of the Hausa States in distinction to 'Emir', which has been reserved for their Fulani successors.
a title originating in Bornu but later widely adopted by the Hausas and die Fulani. Normally reserved for members of the ruling family.
another tide originating in Bornu but adopted in Hausaland, particularly in the eastern Emirates, and retained by the Fulani.
son of, equivalent of Arabic

Muslim, with a great deal of indigenous beliefs intermingled therein, the Fulaninot only Information on the Hausa peoples http//
Figures in Black History
Courtesy of Morpheus
Ghana, Mali and Songhai had come and gone on the African stage. Near central Africa another great empire called Kanem would rise around 1200AD. Kanem was originally a confederation of various ethnic groups, but by 1100AD, a people called the Kanuri settled in Kanem and in the thirteenth century the Kanuri began upon a conquest of their neighbors. They were led by Mai Dunama Dibbalemi (1221-1259), the first of the Kanuri to convert to Islam. Dibbalemi declared physical jihad (holy war) against surrounding minor states and so began one of the most dynamic periods of conquest in Africa. At the height of their empire, the Kanuri controlled territory from Libya to Lake Chad to Hausaland. These were strategic areas, as all the commercial traffic through North Africa had to pass through Kanuri territory. As a result of the military and commercial growth of Kanem, the once nomadic Kanuri eventually turned to a more sedentary way of life. Pictured here is a painting of the king of Bornu in royal procession arriving at one of his provincial residences around 1850AD. Pictured here are Bornu horsemen trumpeters sounding the Frum-Frums.

88. List Of Articles By Subject / Encyclopedia Of The World's Minorities
Friulians, 1000 words. fulani, 3000 words. Shor, 1000 words. Siberian IndigenousPeoples, 2000 words. South Asians in africa and the MiddleEast, 1000 words.
Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities
List of articles by subject
Entries sorted alphabetically
(back to top) Achebe, Chinua (Nigerian) 1000 words Adams, Gerry (Northern Ireland Catholic) 1000 words Aga Khan (Ismali) 1000 words Ali, Muhammad (African-American) 1000 words Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (Harijan) 1000 words Arafat, Yasser (Palestinian) 1000 words Ben Jelloun, Tahar (Algerian) 1000 words Bhindranwale, Jarnail Sant (India-Sikh) 1000 words Bonner, Neville Thomas (Aborigine) 1000 words Chavez, Cesar (Mexican-American) 1000 words Césaire, Aimé (Martiniquais) 1000 words Da Silva, Benedita (Afro-Brazilian) 1000 words Dalai Lama (Tibetan) 2000 words De Klerk, F.W. (Afrikaner) 1000 words Du Bois, W.E.B. (African-American) 1000 words Fanon, Frantz Omar (Algerian) 1000 words Farrakhan, Louis (African-American) 1000 words Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (India) 1000 words Garang, John (Sudanese) 1000 words Garvey, Marcus (Jamaican) 1000 words Gheorghe, Nicolae (Roma Romania) 1000 words Grant, Bernie (United Kingdom)

89. Alphabetical List Of Articles / Encyclopedia Of The World's Minorities
Friulians, 1000 words. fulani, 3000 words. G. Shor, 1000 words. Siberian IndigenousPeoples, 2000 words. Sidama, 1000 words. Sorbs, 1000 words. South africa, 1000 words.
Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities
Alphabetical list of articles
Entries sorted by subject
B C ... W X Y Z
(back to top) Abadhi 1000 words Abkhazians 1000 words Aborigines 2000 words Acehnese 1000 words Achebe, Chinua (Nigerian) 1000 words Adams, Gerry (Northern Ireland Catholic) 1000 words Adare (Harar) 1000 words Adja 1000 words Afar 1000 words Affirmative Action 2000 words Afghanistan 1000 words Africa: A Continent of Minorities? 5000 words African-American Nationalism and Separatism 2000 words African-Americans 5000 words Africans: 1: Overview 1000 words Africans: 2: Asia 1000 words Africans: 3: Europe 2000 words Afrikaners 1000 words Afro-Arabs 1000 words Afro-Brazilians 2000 words Afro-Caribbean-Americans 1000 words Afro-Caribbeans 2000 words Afro-Cubans 1000 words Afro-Latin Americans 3000 words Afrocentricity 1000 words Aga Khan (Ismali) 1000 words Ahmadiyas 1000 words Ainu 2000 words Alawis 1000 words Albania 1000 words Albanians (Kosovars) 5000 words Alevis 1000 words Alfurs 1000 words Algeria 1000 words Ali, Muhammad (African-American) 1000 words Alsatians 1000 words Altai 1000 words Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (Harijan)

90. TConline News: July
Many of the indigenous peoples of the Tajumulco Mam (tahhoo-MOOL-coh mahm) areain western Guatemala think that all missionaries have a gold mine in the

The Komering of Indonesia
The Gujarati of India
The Chechen of Chechnya
The Bohra Muslims of India ... Tukulor of West Africa To the editor:
Tell us what you think about TConline
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Compiled by Mark Kelly Pray for the Rejang More valuable than gold Still reluctant to follow Your brother in Christ, Semy ... More important than family Window on the World stories from: June 2001 May 2001 April 2001 A must-read for your list
July/August 2001 Pray for the Rejang In the tropical rain forests of southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, 750,000 Rejang (pronounced re-JAHNG) people eke out a living by farming coffee, tea, cinnamon, pepper, rubber, cocoa and rice. There are fewer than 50 Christians among them and no churches. The Bible and other literature are available in the Indonesian language but not yet in their heart language. A team of Christian workers visited an ethnic-minority village in rural southern China to get acquainted with the inhabitants and share the gospel with them. After watching the

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