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         Jainism:     more books (100)
  1. An Introduction to Jainism by Dr. Bharat S. Shah, Bharat S. Shah, 2002-08-29
  2. Jainism: An Introduction (I.B. Taurus Introductions to Religion) by Jeffery D. Long, 2009-07-15
  3. Life Force : The World of Jainism by Michael Tobias, 2000-05-01
  4. The Heart of Jainism (Classic Reprint) by Sinclair Stevenson, 2010-06-09
  5. Studies In Jainism: Primer
  6. Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation (Lala Sundar Lal Jain research series) by Helmuth Von Glasenapp, 1999-01-01
  7. The Scientific Foundations of Jainism (Lala Sunder Lal Jain Research Series) by K. V. Mardia, 2002-01-01
  8. The Golden Book of Jainism by Mahendra Kulasrestha, 2007-10-30
  9. Studies in South Indian Jainism by M S Ramaswami Ayyangar, B Seshagiri Rao, 2010-08-28
  10. Journey Through Jainism by M. S. Abhinandan, 2006-04-25
  11. Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life (Religions of the World and Ecology)
  12. Ahimsa, Anekanta and Jainism (Lla S.L.Jain S.) by Tara Sethia (Editor), 2004-04-30
  13. Jainism: The World of Conquerors by Natubhai Shah, 2003-06
  14. Jainism and Buddhism by J. G. R. Forlong, 2010-05-23

1. Jainism: Jain Principles, History, Resources, History
jainism Jain Principles, Tradition and Practices. jainism Introduction, Directories Lists. jainism in the Eyes of Others, Jain History An Outline. Category Society Religion and Spirituality jainism
Jainism: Jain Principles, Tradition and Practices
Jainism: Introduction
Jain Texts Jain Pilgrimage Jain Images ... Slides
Jainism: Introduction
Links to various sites
Links to various sites Fundamentals Of Jainism
What is Jainism?
Essence of Jainism

for young learners
24 Tirthankaras

The Dreams of Mother Trishala

by Prof. Lin Le jaïnisme, philosophie de la non violence Jinisme Popular Jain Prayers in English Jainism Simplified Univ of Michigan Jains Om: Significance in Jainism Shrimad Rajchandra Pooran Goal's - Jainism Cards: Mahavira Jayanti Shamapana eCard Anuvratas Five Vows and Six Avashyakas by Klaus Bruhn Fasting: Health , and spiritual benefits. Fasting: as therapy anti-aging how to Herbal Resources ... Mahavira and Jainism Sanderson Beck Mahavirapuram Life of Lord Mahavira Mantras The 24 Jinas ... A to Z of Jainism for young Jains Jainism by Prof. Sharan Jain Encyclopedia The Twenty-Four Jain Tirthankaras Pratikramana text Vinod Sanghavi's site ... A Guide to Selfless Dying (Center for Sacred Science) Jain idols: History The Fourteen Gunasthans Requesting forgiveness History: Kings of Western India ... Discussion: Role of Jains/Jainism in spreading civilization Taponilayam FAQ (Amar Salgia): The Divine: Lord Ram Class Anuvratas Old Gujarati: from Neminathacatuspadika Slides from JAINA Conv.:

2. Jainism
Tell me when this page is updated. jainism. Namokar Mantra
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Namokar Mantra What Is Jainism? History Literature ... Français

3. Welcome To Jainworld- Jain Community, Jainism, Tirtha, Prayers,  Navkar Mantra
This web site combines the aspirations of JAINS around the globe and is being positioned to link various Category Society Religion and Spirituality jainism...... JAINS around the globe and is being positioned to link various aspects of our liveslike religious, social, philosophical, cultural etc. b b jainism /b /b
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combining JAIN aspirations..Globally
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(Obeisance to all Saints) Click here for recital PHILOSOPHY SOCIETY LITERATURE EDUCATION CONTRIBUTION JainWorld is a tax exempt Foundation in USA and Read Mission Statement Search
M i s s ... L For list use... WEB-MAP Smayasar-ka-sar Jain Tirth Jain Recipies ... Jain Society.of Atlanta (Now hits per day NO OF HITS ... FROM Countries (as on ..1 FEB, 2003) (Statistics by Net Master USA) This web site combines the aspirations of JAINS around the globe and is being positioned to link various aspects of our lives like - religious, social, philosophical, cultural etc. cutting across all barriers. Objective is to create a complete knowledge-base of authentic and original scripts and various commentaries on them. Special emphasis is on how this can help us in day-to-day life now and keep us ahead in the days to come. Contact

4. Jain History
jainism is one of the oldest religions. History Outline with links to articles.Links to jainism Principles, Tradition and Practices (resources images).
J ainism is one of the oldest religions. A detailed discussion of Jain history would be very long. It covers many different periods of history. I have divided the time-scale into seven periods so that we can correlate the events within the Jain history, and can also relate the history of Jainism with other events in India and outside of India. You will note that several famous philosophers were contemporary of Lord Mahavira, and that 13-15th century was the age of reform in India as well as in Europe. I t should be recognized that as we go back in time, it becomes harder and harder to date events exactly. The dates I have given below, have been taken from several different sources. W e must distinguish between tradition and history. Tradition is the info- rmation that we have received through oral or written tradition. History on the other hand, is an analytical but approximate science. A historian takes a critical look at the information available to come to a conclusion. It is common for the historians to disagree.
Kirti-Stambha at Chittor, 14th cent.

5. Jainism Simplified
Jain concepts explained in a easy to read questionanswer format.
Jainism Simplified
CONCEPT DESCRIPTION Navkar Mantra The most fundamental Jain prayer. Nav Tattvas Jainism's fundamental concepts. Jiva The concept of the soul. Gati State of existence of life. Ajiva Nonliving. Kalchakra Jain time cycle. Punya and Pap Good and bad consequences. Karma Theory of karma. Kashaya Passions. Ghati Karmas Destructive karmas. Aghati Karmas Non-destructive karmas. Leshya States of mind. Bhavnas Reflections or meditations. Asrav Inflow of karma. Samvar Blocking of the inflow of karma. Nirjara Shedding of karma. Charitra Conduct. Pratikraman Jain rituals. Instincts Antiquity of Jainism Yakshas and Yakshinies Lesser Jain deities. These were taken from e-mails sent by Premchand B. Gada to the Jain E-mail List.
They are not formatted as HTML documents so they may look a little odd.

6. Brief Overview Of Jainism
University of Michigan Jains website. Includes information about Jains' vegetarian beliefs.
Jainism is one of the oldest religions known today
and its origins lie in the country of India.
Theologians often classify Jainism as a philosophy,
a way of living life, rather than a religion.
  • The origins of Jainism can be traced back to the Indus River valley civilization of 3000 B.C. Jains believe that there were 24 great teachers the last of whom was Lord Mahavira who lived during 6th century B.C. These twenty-four teachers are called Tirthankaras-people who had attained all knowledge while living (Moksha) and preached it to the people. Thus, there is not one all-powerful supreme being that controls all. Jains believe in reincarnation. Their souls, which are believed to be a unique substance in the universe, take different living forms in the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. This cycle has been going on forever, the universe has no beginning or end, it has always been and always will be. The ultimate goal is to get rid of one's karma on their soul so that they may end this cycle. Once this goal is reached their soul has attained all knowledge and it rests in the heavens forever (Nirvana). Karma theory is about actions and the results they bring to the soul's path. It is the simply the law of cause and effect with respect to the soul.

7. Jainism - The Comprehensive Resource At Jain Net
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Issue # 12 - February 22, 2003 Paryushan Mahaparva Special Mahaveer Jayanti Special - Short biography of Lord Mahaveer. JainList - Discuss and Learn Jainism through email. Tithi Date Falgun Vadi 7 Falgun Vadi 8 Falgun Vadi 9 Falgun Vadi 10 Falgun Vadi 11 Falgun Vadi 12-13 Falgun Vadi 14 February 23 February 24 February 25 February 26 February 27 February 28 March 1 Interested in becoming a Partner by sharing responsibility or contributing? Please get in touch
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8. Jainism:This Site Contains Everything For Jains
jainism All about jainism. WELCOME TO JITESH JAIN'S HOME PAGE

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9. Welcome To JAINISM.ORG
Welcome to Welcome to, your definitive resource on jainism. We have organized the site in three distinct sections. Once you select a section, use the navigation frames to navigate topics.
Welcome to
Welcome to, your definitive resource on JAINISM. We have organized the site in three distinct sections. Once you select a section, use the navigation frames to navigate topics. This site is still under construction, so do not be surprised if some links do not work. Choose a Section Jain Religion Jain resource center Jain Study Center of NC (Raleigh) Namo ariha.ntaaNaM
Namo siddhaaNaM
Namo aayariyaaNaM
Namo uvajjhaayaaNaM
Namo loe savvasaahuNaM
eso pa.ncha Namokaaro
savva paavapaNaasaNo
ma.ngalaaNaM cha savvesim
I bow to the Arahants, the perfected human beings, Godmen.
I bow to the Siddhas, liberated bodiless souls, God.
I bow to the Acharyas, the masters and heads of congregations. I bow to the Upadhyayas, the spiritual teachers. I bow to the spiritual practitioners in the universe, Sadhus. This fivefold obeisance mantra, Destroys all sins and obstacles

10. Jain Texts
Hinduism. I Ching. Islam. jainism. Journals. Judaism. Legends/Sagas
The Internet Sacred Text Archive is available on CD-ROM.
Every file with this icon is on the disk. Do your part to keep this site online and buy a copy today. Topics


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Sacred Texts: Jainism
Jain Texts
Jaina Sutras, Translated from the Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi, 1884
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About Jainism
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Ten Virtues Of Monks

Twelve Reflections or Bhavnas
Twelve Vows Of Layperson Fourteen Auspicious Dreams ... Nine Tattvas (Principles)

Read an outline of this Indian religion and philosophy. Also recommends other reference materials on the subject. Jain Dharma. (a.k.a. jainism). Click Here to Visit our Sponsors.
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(a.k.a. Jainism) Click Here to Visit our Sponsors. document.writeln("");
Early History of Jain Dharma Jainism traces its roots to a succession of 24 Jinas (" those who overcome ", or conqueror) in ancient East India. The first Jina is traditionally believed to have been a giant who lived 8.4 million years ago. The most recent and last Jina was Vardhamana (a.k.a. Mahavira, "The Great Hero") He was born in 550 BCE) and was the founder of the Jain community. He attained enlightenment after 13 years of deprivation. In 420 BCE, he committed the act of salekhana which is fasting to death. Each Jina has " conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed `his' soul from the karmas obscuring knowledge, perception, truth, and ability... " Jainism is a syncretistic religion, which contains many elements similar to Hinduism and Buddhism . The world's almost 4 million Jains are almost entirely located in India. There are about 1,410 in Canada (1991 census).
Jainist Beliefs and Practices
The universe exists as a series of layers, both heavens and hells. It had no beginning and will have no ending. It consists of:

12. Jainism Potpourri: Index Of Topics On Jainism
jainism Table of Contents jainism Potpourri. . Last Updated December 04 2001
Jainism Potpourri Last Updated: March 22,2003 What is Jainism?
A brief introduction to Jainism including its essential principles and philosophy.
Jain Monuments of Karnataka

A Survey of Jain sculptures and monuments found in the southern state of Karnataka in India. Jain Minister Chavundaraya
Everyone knows who he is, but until now no one knew what he looked like. Jainism Potpourri
Picture-stubs of Jain art and architecture found all over India A Glossary of Jainism
Who's who and what's what of Jainism Coronation of Gomata
The anointing ceremony of the image of Gomateshwara at Shravanabelagola. Table of Contents References:

(Catholic Encyclopedia)
Home Encyclopedia Summa Fathers ... J > Jainism A B C D ... Z
A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times, and has maintained its heretical attitude towards Brahminism down to the present day. The name is derived from jina B. C. B. C. According to Jainist tradition, they were preceded by an ancient canon of fourteen so-called Purvas, which have totally disappeared. With the Jainist, "Right Knowledge" embraces the religious view of life together with the end of man, while "Right Conduct" is concerned with the main ethical precepts and with the ascetic, monastic system. mantras . Jainist worship is thus little more than a veneration of a few saints and heroes of the past. suicide . According to Jainist ethics a monk who has practised twelve years of severe asceticism, or who has found after long trial that he cannot keep his lower nature in control, may hasten his end by self-destruction. JACOBI, The Jaina Sutras, vols. XXII and XLV of the Sacred Books of the East; HOPKINS

14. Jainism
jainism begins with a serious concern for the human soul in its relationship with the laws governing Category Society Religion and Spirituality jainism......jainism. jainism begins with a serious The Jains refer to the Jina asGod. Origins of jainism. Originating on the Indian subcontinent
Jainism Jainism begins with a serious concern for the human soul in its relationship with the laws governing existence in the universe,with other living beings, and to its own future state in eternity. First and foremost, it is a religion of the heart: the golden rule is Ahimsa or nonviolence in all parts of a person mental,verbal, and physical. Jains have deep compassion for all forms of life Jainism offers a quiet, overwhelmingly serious way of life, a cultural insistence on compassion, a society of ethics that has dramatically changed the world and will continue to effect change. Jainism is an ecologically responsible way of life which is nonviolent in thought, action, and deed. Jina and the Soul The "Jains" are the followers of the Jinas. "Jina" literally means "Conqueror." He who has conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed `his' soul from the karmas obscuring knowledge, perception, truth, and ability, is a Jina. The Jains refer to the Jina as God. Origins of Jainism Originating on the Indian subcontinent, Jainism or, more properly, the Jain Dharma is one of the oldest religions of its homeland and indeed of the world. Jainism has prehistoric origins dating before 3000 BC, and before the beginning of Indo-Aryan culture.

15. JainNet - JainList: World's Largest Discussion Group On Jainism
Forum for serious study of Jain texts, philosophy, rituals, culture and history.
JainList is the world's largest discussion forum on Jainism.
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    What is JainList?
    It's an email forum for serious discussions on Jainism. Into it's fourth year of existence, this list is for serious discussion on Jainism. Emphasis is on learning, as through discussions and knowledge sharing everybody benefits. The orientation of discussions in JainList is towards understanding Jain philosophy, teachings, rituals, history and culture. Based on Ahimsa (Non violence) towards all living beings. Meditation, yoga, pranayam etc. are inherent to the lifestyle through various scientifically proved rituals and acts. For example, boiled drinking water was suggested by Lord Mahavira 2500 years ago. Historical and archeological evidence has proved existence of Jainism before Mahavira. Unlike Vedic Hinduism it doesn't believe in God as a creator.
  • 16. Jainism In English & Gujarati
    jainism in English Gujarati. !!! Jai Jinendra !!! * jainism relies agreat deal on one's own efforts and initiatives, and laws of nature.
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    17. Jainism Simplified Chapter 14 - Asrav
    Jainist perspective on karma, including that of perfumes and scents.
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    ASRAV Asrav means inflow and according to Jain philosophy defined as the inflow of karmas to the soul. The influx of karmas occurs at every second in life. It is this process that keeps our souls wandering in this universe and prevents it from being free. Let us say that you went boating and were having a good time. Suddenly, you noticed water spurting from the floor of the boat. What would go through your mind? What would you do? The first thing that would go through your mind is that there is a hole, let me fix it before the boat sinks. You may be lucky if it was just one hole, but there could be more than one. In the same way, we know that karmas are accumulating in our souls through one or more of our activities and unless we stop them they are going to choke our souls. Asrav can be described as two types. 1) Physical or Objective 2) Psychic or Subjective The physical type refers to actual activities which lead to the inflow of karmas. The psychic refers to mental engrossment in such activities. There are forty-two ways through which the soul is exposed to the inflow of karmas. Of the forty-two, five are senses, four are passions, five are avratas, three are yogas, and twenty-five are activities. The first seventeen of these are regarded as the major ones, while the other rest twenty-five are the minor asrava. These asrav can also be named in eighteen different forms (sins), such as; violence, falsehood, stealing, sexual activity, possessiveness, anger, ego, deceit, greed, attachment, hatred , quarrelsomeness, false accusations, divulging someone's secrets, backbiting, taking delight in committing sins, being unhappy with religious acts, lying maliciously, trusting false belief, religious teachers, and religions. In Jainism, karmas enter due to following five reasons: 1) Wrong Belief (Mithyatva), 2) Vowlessness (Avirati), 3) Passions (Kashayas), 4) Negligence (Pramad), 5) Psychophysical activities (Yoga). 1) Mithyatva (False Belief): Mithyatva means wrong attitude, wrong taste, ignoble activity, and lack of faith in the nine fundamentals (tattvas) expounded by the Jinas. Mithyatva also means not having interest and faith in the path of Moksha expounded by the Jina, but having interest and faith in a so called path of Moksha expounded by ignorant and unenlightened people. In other words, instead of having faith in the Arihants, great spiritual heads, and a great dharma, those with mithyatva believe in a false spiritual head and false dharma. The false preceptor is one who does not act according to the great vows such as non-violence (Ahimsa), Truth (Satya), Non-stealing (Asteya), Celibacy (Brahamcharya), and Non-possessiveness (Aparigraha). He keeps wealth and woman, and approves of such actions. He does not abide by the code of conduct of monks. Such a person is a false spiritual head. The false religion, is that which is devoid of samyakdarshan (the right faith), samyakjnan (the right knowledge), and samyakcharitra (the right character). A false religion does not explain the true nature of jiva and ajiva. A false religion deems it right to enjoy sensual pleasures, to have passions, and to commit sins. Having faith in such a false spiritual head and dharma; having partiality for them and interest in them constitute false belief or mithyatva. The five kinds of mithyatva: 1) The Anabhogik Mithyatva (Total ignorance): This is a state of ignorance in which one cannot distinguish between good and bad, or true and false doctrines. This state is also present in all the jivas that do not have a mind. Such jivas range from the Ekendriya up to the Asamjni Panchendriya (do not possess a mind). 2) The Abhigrahik Mithyatva (Fanatic false faith): This refers to those having a fanatic faith and interest in a false dharma (religion). In such a state one believes that their dharma is the only right one, even though its propagator may have derogation like attachments, hatred, and violence, etc. 3) The Anabhigrahik Mithyatva (Accepting other faiths without comparing their qualities): In this state people are simple; they are not extremists. People in this state believe that all religions are equal even though other religions may not be observing principles like Ahimsa and truthfulness. They do not completely accept celibacy, non-possessiveness, or anything which is not offered, etc. How can we consider them equal when they do not follow these principles to the full extent? 4) The Abhiniveshik Mithyatva (Insistence in false faith): State in which one knows that his or her religion is not right, but continues to live in accord with that faith. 5) The Samshayik Mithyatva (Skepticism): State in which there is doubt or skepticism about the dharma expounded by the Jina. False belief is the greatest enemy of the soul. Because of mithyatva, one can not have faith in the fundamentals (tattvas), the path of Moksha, Tirthankars, Arihants, spiritual heads and dharma. One will have a strong interest in the sinful activities like violence and sensual pleasures. As a result of this, man moves farther away from a noble dharma. All the devotion and austerities carried out through various previous lives become wasted on account of the excitement caused by sins and sensual enjoyments. We should discard mithyatva which is the basic cause of our distraction from true religion. 2) Avirati (Vowlessness) Avirati means the stage of vowlessness during which one has no restraint from doing or contemplating upon bad things. Unless we take a vow to restrain or cut our association with any undesirable activities, all such activities will bring bad karmas to our soul. By taking a vow, we are saying that we will not have anything to do with these activities. In this way, we will not accumulate any bad karmas related to such activities. 3) Passions (Kashayas) Kash means Samsar and Aya means gain. Therefore, kashayas means that which helps to gain or keep the jiva in samsar. In other words, kashayas are those things which keep Jivas in the cycle of birth and death. Kashayas are also called passions and refer specially to anger, ego, deception, and greed. These passions have many forms such as attachments, hatred, enmity, hostility, arrogance, craftiness, trickery, lust, greed, and possessive propensity, etc. While fun, sorrow, delight, excitement, fear, disgust, abhorrence and sexual craving, etc., provoke kashayas. They themselves are not kashayas, but are rather referred to as nokashayas. Anger, greed, deception, and ego are further subdivided into four types depending upon their severity: The four types are: a) Severe (Anantanubandhi Kashaya), b) Moderate (Apratyakhyan Kashaya), c) Mild (Pratyakhyan Kashaya), d) Slight (Samjwalan Kashay). a) Anantanubandhi Kashay This kashay binds the soul to endless worldly lives (samsar). It adds bondage and impels the cycle of life and death to go on forever. This kashay dwells in person who lives in false belief or Mithyatva . The jiva, under the influence of this kashay, commits very violent sins and has very severe attachments and hatred towards others. On account of the influence of this kashay, the jiva commits sins without realizing what is right and what is wrong, and carries out evil actions without any fear. This kashaya undermines righteousness or samyaktva which in this context means faith in religious fundamentals, tattvas. Therefore, it is necessary to realize that a sin is a sin and should be considered an ignoble action. In this respect, when one destroys the Anantanubandhi kashaya, one will develop the right faith in the tattvas and will develop Samyaktva. If Anantanubandhi Kashaya arises it will destroy the faith and will throw the jiva down from the level of Samyaktva to Mithyatva or false belief. b) Apratyakhyan Kashay Sins like violence should not be committed. Though jivas know and realize this truth, they have not developed the strength to discard such sinful activities. In other words, the idea that a vow should be taken or restraint should be used to discard these sins does not arise. Even if one desires to take such vows, the apratyakhyan kashay would paralyze such desires. When this kashaya surfaces, it even drags those who are observing partial restraints to a level of no restraints (vowlessness). Under the influence of this kashay, the jiva, in spite of knowing it, becomes so inactive and apathetic that he or she cannot even say, "I will take a vow to refrain from this sin of this magnitude". c) Pratyakhyan kashay Pratyakhyan Kashaya does not oppose partial restraints, vows, or pachchakhanas (accepting a vow to discard sins), but it eclipses the idea of total vows. Even though the first two extreme kashayas are gone, and faith and a desire to take total vows may appear, this kashaya still proves harmful towards acceptance of the total vows. During the effect of this kashaya, even though jiva may realize that violence is a sin and would like to abstain totally from committing such sins, he or she will only be able to restrain partially. Violence towards the sthavar jivas may continue but when this kashaya is destroyed, suppressed, or both one can totally restrain from causing violence to all lives. Therefore, depending upon the effect of this kashaya person may follow partial or total vows. d) Samjwalan Kashay At the point when this is the only kashaya left, the has dropped passions greatly in severity to the level of slight passions. At this level a person may either suppress this kashaya or destroy it completely. When this kashaya is suppressed, it will appear as if the jiva is devoid of any attachment or hatred, but such a state does not always last for long. Within the next half antah muharat (twenty-eight minutes), the jiva will fall prey to newly surfacing kashayas, and may regress all the way back to the influence of anantanubandhi kashaya. On the other hand, if this kashay is completely destroyed then, the soul will arise to the true non-attached stage from which there is no rolling back. Therefore, when all samjwalan kashayas are destroyed this jiva will become a Kevali. Thus it can be seen that even a slight kashayas holds the Vitragata (status of equanimity) as a hostage. 4) Pramad (Indolence) Pramad means that soul is inactive in contemplating on its own form. Pramad is caused by five things: 1) Arrogance, 2) Sensual cravings, 3) Passions, 4) Sleep, 5) Engaging in gossiping. It may be described that the pramad is also caused by eight other things: 1) Attachments, 2) Hatred, 3) Ignorance, 4) Doubt, 5) Illusion, 6) Forgetfulness, 7) Harmful activities of the mind, body and voice 8) Not caring for, and not having enthusiasm for any religious activities. If there is slight indolence (pramad) when a person has discarded all sinful activities and is initiated as a monk or a nun, then that monk or nun is called a Pramatta (one who is under the impact of pramad). When a monk or nun discards gross pramad he or she is an Apramatta monk or nun. Even after one becomes an Apramatta, passions may arise, but they will be very subtle. Thus, these passions can be destroyed or controlled. At such a time, the jiva will be strongly awakened. Therefore, a very small degree of passion is not called pramad. When the jiva transcends from this state of spiritual awareness, the vitrag state appears. Consequently, senses are the cause for passions and passions lead to one’s downfall. Senses: Senses are so slippery that if we are not vigilant, they get involved into what is happening around us and provoke our passions. Passions in turn may drag our souls from spiritual path. Let us understand how the five senses can hinder our spiritual progress. a) Hearing: A person may become involved in listening to sensual songs, music or talk and may spend so much time in it that he or she may not be able to concentrate on doing the necessary things. One should listen to religious sermons and devotional songs which help to improve our conation, cognition, conduct, and ultimately lead us to liberation. b) Seeing: People spend so much time watching television that involves violence, sensual or demoralizing episodes, or MTV which increase one's lust and makes the mind more violent. Instead, one should spend time watching moral episodes and sermons by monks and nuns if available which would, in turn, also increase our conation, cognition, conduct and lead us to liberation. c) Smell: We should not be engrossed in pleasures of perfumes and scents that will increase our lust as well as other’s lust. Such engrossment will bring the downfall of all parties involved. We should also be reminded that there is a great deal of violence involved in the creation of such products. Some people pluck flowers to smell, but they forget that they have caused a death. Nonetheless, such is violence. For these reasons, one should keep desires low, and stay away from such things. d) Taste: Many people eat meat because they consider meat to be a tasty food. Sometimes people overlook the violence involved in meat production. A similar incident occurs when some one drinks liquor. Even though, some may say we do not drink too much, we hear cries about driving while intoxicated. Not only do these people harm themselves, but they cause many innocent lives to be lost. There are many unwanted incidents occurring in the society due to the influence of the sense of taste. In order to prevent such occurrences, let us control our taste and stay away from such things. Let us learn to live on simplistic tasteful food so that austerity like Ayambil can easily be performed. e) Touch: What do kissing, hugging, or even shaking hands bring to our mind? They bring sensual pleasure and increase our lust and therefore, we should avoid these things. We can greet a person by saying "Jai- Jinendra" with folded hands. 5) Yoga (Psychophysical Activity) In Jainism, yoga means psychophysical activities. In other words, the thoughts, the words, and the physical activities of the jiva are called yogas. There are fifteen types of activities. If these activities are meritorious, the soul gathers auspicious karmas, and if they are demeritorious, the soul gathers inauspicious karmas. The Manoyoga (the activity of the mind) is divided into four subtypes: 1) Satyamanoyoga - thinking about an object or its condition for what it is. For example: "Right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct action, would lead to Moksha." 2) Asatyamanoyoga - thinking about a thing or its condition, in such a way which is contrary to what it truly is. For example: "Right conduct is not necessary for Moksha." 3) Satyashatyamanoyoga (mixed activities of the mind) - thinking that something may have some truth, but not the whole truth, or may have some untruth, but not totally so. For example: "Knowledge itself is enough to attain Moksha". 4) Vyavaharmanoyoga - thinking about something which is of a general nature. In this the truth or untruth, does not matter very much. For example: "Let me tell Ramesh that it is nine o’clock because if he does not get ready, he will be late." "Let me tell Bhavesh, it is lunch time even though there is half hour more to go." The Vachan yoga (the activity of the speech)is divide into four subtypes: 1) Satyavachan yoga - speaking the truth about an object. 2) Asatyavachan yoga - telling lie about an object. 3) Satyashatyavachan yoga (mix vachan) - saying something that may have some truth and some untruth. 4) Vyavaharvachan yoga - refers to casual words like; "You may go. You may come in, etc." The Kaya yoga (the activity of the body) is divided into seven subtypes which are related to the following five types of bodies: 1) The human beings, animals and birds have the audarik body. 2) The heavenly beings and the inhabitants of hell have the vaikriya body. 3) The highly spiritual monks, who have mastered the shastras (fourteen poorvas) go to Samavasaran when they need clarification of their doubts where Lord Arihant is giving a sermon, by creating a special extra body called the aharak sharir. Their real body stays with them wherever they are. 4) The tejas body gives energy to the whole body. 5) The karman body carries the imprints of karmas to the next birth. When the soul departs from the current body, at the time of death, the tejas and karman bodies go with it to the next life. Kaya yoga means the activities of these bodies, any organs, or any sense organs of all jivas. The seven types of kaya yogas are divided into: Two Audarik Kaya yoga - (1) Mishra Audarik, and (2) Pure Audarik, Two Vaikriya Kaya yoga - (1) Mishra Vaikriya, and (2) Pure Vaikriya, Two Aharak Kaya yoga - (1) Mishra aharak, and (2) Pure Aharak, and One Karman Kaya yoga. 1) Mishra Audarik Kaya Yoga: As a jiva is reborn in the next life, a new body is not ready at the very first moment, but the body is formed with the help of the Karman sharir, a collection of karmas, and with Audarik Pudgals. This activity is called the Mishra Audarik Kaya Yoga. 2) Pure Audarik Kaya yoga: Whatever activities that occur after the body has been fully formed are called the Audarik Kaya Yoga. The same is for: 3) Mishra Vaikriya Yoga, and 4) Pure Vaikriya Yoga, 5) Mishra Aharak Yoga, and 6) Pure Aharak Yoga. 7) Karman kaya Yoga: When the soul (jiva) travels to the next life, it first goes straight up and then, it usually turns twice. When the soul turns for the first time, it does not have any connection with a body because it has just discarded its current body and has not reached its next. At that time, the activity of the soul is due to the Karman body. This activity is called the Karman Kaya Yoga. All together there are 15 yogas. These activities could be the auspicious ones or the inauspicious ones. Truthful activities relating to religious principles are auspicious activities. Untruthful activities relating to religious principles are inauspicious. We attain punya (merit) by means of auspicious yogas and papa (demerit or sin) by means of inauspicious yogas. 25 Different activities: The following twenty-five activities cause influx of karmas, and one should take care to avoid them: 1) Kayiki activity: When carefree physical activities cause injury. 2) Adhikarniki activity: When someone engages in the activity of creating or supporting the instruments or weapons of violence. 3) Pradvesiki activity: When someone is causing injury due to anger. 4) Paritapaniki activity: When someone acts in grief and sorrow, causing others grief or sorrow. 5) Pranatipatiki activity: When someone kills or injures any part of the body. 6) Arambhiki activity: When someone begins activities which would cause injury. For example: building a house, or tilting a farm, etc. 7) Parigrahiki activity: Activities which cause hoarding of grains, cattle, wealth, and other material things. 8) Mayapratyayiki activity: When someone is causing injury by way of deceptive activities. 9) Mithyadarshanapratyayiki activity: When someone acts contrary to the path shown by the Jina and follows a false faith. 10) Apratyakhaniki activity: When one carries on activities without taking their vows. 11) Dristiki activity: When one looks at someone else with lust, hatred or attachment. 12) Spristiki activity: When one touches or hugs or kisses someone else with lust. 13) Pratityaki activity: When one reacts to unrelated matters. 14) Samantopanipatiki activity: When one enjoys praise for possessing wealth. 15) Naishastriki activity: When one causes injury or death on the job due to compulsion or command from a superior. 16) Svahastiki activity: As an employer, when one commands an employee to perform any action which may cause injury. 17) Ajnanpaniki activity: When one acts contrary to the Jina’s teaching while thinking he or she is a wise person. 18) Vaidaraniki activity: When one unjustly speaks ill of another person in order to defame others. 19) Anabhogiki activity: One should be very careful when voiding urine or defecating bowel movements, etc. 20) Anavakanksapratyayiki activity: When one shows disregard to and disbelief in the effectiveness of laws of life and conduct as proclaimed by the Jina. 21) Prayogiki activity: When one does not control mind, speech, and bodily movements as taught in the Jain Scriptures. 22) Samudayiki activity: When one acts with such wide implications that all eight karmas become attracted. For example, many people go to see acts of violence such as hanging, and have thoughts which make them wonder why it is taking so long to hang someone. 23) Premiki activity: When a person does things under the influence of deceit and greed. 24) Dvesiki activity: When a person does things under the influence of pride and anger. 25) Iryapahiki activity: Any passionless movements or activities. Back to Chapters List.
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