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         Oceanography Research Submersibles:     more detail
  1. Research submersibles in oceanography, (Contribution of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, no. 2456) by Robert D Ballard, 1970
  2. Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research by Committee on Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science, National Research Council, 2004-03-05
  3. Undersea Vehicles and National Needs by Committee on Undersea Vehicles and National Needs, National Research Council, 1996-11-19
  4. Underwater exploration: An entry from Thomson Gale's <i>Gale Encyclopedia of Science, 3rd ed.</i> by Gillian S. Holmes, 2004
  5. The unmanned submersible as an Arctic research tool by Gordon M Gray, 1972
  6. Deep submergence vehicles for ocean research (Woods Hole, Mass. Oceanographic Institution. Reference) by Scott C Daubin, 1969
  7. OCEANOGRAPHY: An entry from Charles Scribner's Sons' <i>Dictionary of American History</i> by Keith R. Benson, 2003
  8. Summary reports of vessels, aircrafts and submarines during 1967 (Technical memorandum WHOI) by W. M Dunkle, 1969
  9. Summary reports of vessels, aircraft flights, and submarine dives during 1972 (Technical memorandum / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) by W. M Dunkle, 1973
  10. Summary report of vessels, aircraft flights and submarine dives during 1973 (Technical memorandum WHOI) by W. M Dunkle, 1974
  11. NR-1 submersible cruise report for Offshore Operators Committee study of chemosynthetic marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico by James M. Brooks, Mahlon C. Kennicutt II, and Robert R. Bidigare by J. M Brooks, 1987

1. Current Vessels: Submersibles - Trieste
Current research submersibles Trieste. has also been engaged by US National researchCouncil, as an at NEL and the Scripps Institution of oceanography at La
Oceanography Space Sciences Blow the Ballast! CyberMail ... Teachers' Corner
Current Research: Submersibles - Trieste
Department of Navy Press Release
August 23, 1958 Office of Naval Research Bathyscaph Arrives In San Diego for West Coast Oceanographic Diving The Bathyscaph Trieste has arrived in San Diego, California after a voyage from Castellamare, Italy via Norfolk, Virginia, for use in research of the ocean depths off the Southern California coast. The 70-ton diving craft, recently purchased by the Office of Naval Research from renowned Swiss scientists Auguste and Jacques Piccard, has been made available to west coast oceanographers to conduct basic scientific research involving acoustical and biological investigations of Pacific waters in the San Diego area. Long-range objectives of this program are to explore the ocean environment at great depths, and to evaluate the bathyscaph's potentialities both as a research tool and as a deep-diving submarine rescue vessel. Types of research to be conducted will be planned jointly by the Office of Naval Research and the Navy Electronics Laboratory, who will operate the bathyscaph. The first dives are expected to be made in late fall.

2. The Caribbean Marine Research Center
The longterm interdisciplinary Fisheries oceanography and Recruitment in the Caribbean and Reef Studies program and uses research submersibles to characterize the geological and
The Caribbean Marine Research Center Background The National Marine Research Center for the Caribbean region is located at the Caribbean Marine Research Center (CMRC) in Palm Beach, FL and is one of six regional centers of the National Undersea Research Program (NURP). The Center also provides research support facilities at Lee Stocking Island in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. CMRC was created in 1984 by the Perry Institute for Marine Science, Inc. and in 1987 was designated as a National Undersea Research Center under the auspices of the NOAA National Undersea Research Program. Its mission is to actively support the urgent need for research and education in tropical and subtropical marine environments, particularly research aimed at understanding the ultimate management of important marine species and ecosystems in the region and promoting the reversal of the ongoing depletion of marine resources and uncontrolled degradation of the oceans. Facilities and Equipment Research programs supported by CMRC typically utilize sophisticated undersea technology, including manned submersibles, remotely operated vehicles, and both air and Nitrox scuba diving. Lee Stocking Island offers 28 buildings (laboratories, aquaculture hatchery and production facility, housing, workshops, power stations, dining hall, reverse osmosis water plant, dive locker and boat yard), an airstrip, large dock, eight boats and diving support facilities, including a decompression chamber and the submersibles Delta and Clelia.

3. The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Oceanography: North America
Nemo Oceanographic Data Server. Physical oceanography research Division. Scripps Library Under Waterworld, Deep Sea submersibles off Oregon
North America
Bermuda Canada Mexico
United States
... Miscellaneous

4. U.S. Coast Guard, Story Oceanography In The Coast Guard Oceanography In The Coas
Naval Meteorology and oceanography Command JASON Project Prepare to Descend. research submersibles And Undersea Technologies. Robotic submersibles. Robotic submersibles are

5. The Evolution Of Oceanography, II
the surface, while the development of manned research submersibles allowed scientists contributedan extraordinary amount of knowledge to oceanography, and are
The Evolution of Oceanography:
- Getting to LEO, Part II Searching the Ocean for Questions and Answers
Investigating the ocean for scientific purposes did not begin until about 250 years ago, with the most intensive study occurring only during the last 130 years. The voyages of individuals such as Captain James Cook and Charles Darwin included some of the first dedicated ocean measurements and observations as part of larger expeditions. The Challenger Expedition (1872-5) was the first fully scientific oceanographic expedition, marking the arrival of oceanography as a science. After this expedition, exploration and map-making would no longer take the primary role in ocean science. Instead, a new science called oceanography was born, encompassing physical, chemical, geological and biological studies.
Studying the ocean is difficult, for a number of reasons, including:
1. The ocean is an incredibly dynamic environment in a constant state of motion and change.
2. The ocean is a large area with related and unrelated events (currents, tides, upwellings, storms, etc.) happening on many different scales, from kilometers to micrometers.
3. People are not built to remain in aquatic environments for long periods of time, making it difficult to observe or monitor conditions at or below the ocean surface.

6. COFS School Of Oceanography Research
Within the School of oceanography facilities are available research conducted by facultyand students in as well as manned and remotelyoperated submersibles.
The research program in the School of Oceanography presently is comprised of more than 170 projects covering a broad range of oceanographic investigations, ranging from one-person studies to multidisciplinary, multi-university projects. Annual direct expenditures exceed $11 million.
Well-equipped teaching and research laboratories are augmented by the 65-foot R/V "Clifford A. Barnes" and various small craft. In 1991, the 274-foot R/V "Thomas G. Thompson" joined the fleet.
Funds from federal agencies and from the state of Washington provide research support. Major sources of support during 1987-88 were the National Science Foundation (62%), the Office of Naval Research (22%), the State of Washington (4%), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (3%), the Department of Energy (2%), and other federal agencies such as NASA and EPA (5%). The remaining support was derived from various state and local governmental agencies and from private organizations.
Biological Oceanography

Chemical Oceanography

Marine Geology and Geophysics

Physical Oceanography

Biological Oceanography
There is potential for confusion between biological oceanography and other branches of science that use marine organisms as models for studies. Some lines of inquiry are distinguished easily from oceanography, such as medical research use of hemoglobins or toxins manufactured by marine organisms because of their relative simplicity, neurophysiological use of squids and tubeworms for their usually large and manipulable nerve cells, and embryological use of sea urchin eggs as easily obtainable models of animal development. Marine biology, which is often a focus of study at the undergraduate level, and a common baccalaureate degree for students entering biological oceanography graduate programs, is rarely a field for more specialized graduate study in oceanography. The title of marine biologist has given way to more specific labels such as toxicologist, developmental biologist, or neurophysiologist.

7. Sea Technology And Ocean Research
Sea Technology Ocean research Autosub an autonomous underwater vehicle AWI The AlfredWegener-Institute is a German national research center for Polar and Marine research. Autosub from Southampton oceanography Centre (7m, 1500kg). research submersibles and Undersea Technologies is a report
Kibelka 's seatech bookmarks
go back to analytical links
On this page:
Ocean Resources:
Institutes Safety/Pollution Data ... CTDs and Sensors
Resources Institutes
  • AWI The Alfred-Wegener-Institute is a German national research center for Polar and Marine research. BALLERINA is the place to go when you seek information on the Baltic Sea Region.

8. Oceanography: Research Vessels
ONR Science Technology Focus. oceanography Space Sciences Blow the BallastCyberMail Search/Site Map. research Vessels. Surfaces Vessels. submersibles.
Oceanography Space Sciences Blow the Ballast! CyberMail ... Teachers' Corner
Research Vessels
Surfaces Vessels

9. Kids Ask About Oceanography
This Month's Most Frequently Asked Questions about oceanography. TheseQuestions work? A. Diving in research submersibles such as ALVIN. Q
This Month's
Most Frequently Asked Questions
about Oceanography
These Questions are From Fifth Grade Students at
North Dade Center For Modern Languages
  • Q What is the most exciting thing about your work?
    A. Diving in research submersibles such as ALVIN.
  • Q How many years of college did you study to be an oceanographer?
    A. Four years to get my Bachelor's degree and 2 years to get my Master's.
  • Q. What do you spend most of your work time doing?
    A. Most time is not spent at sea, but in the lab using computers to process data.
  • Q. What subjects should I study if I want to be a scientist?
    A. Math and general science such as Biology and Chemistry are most important.
  • Q. What is the deepest you have gone underwater in a submersible?
    A. I have been nearly two miles down in an underwater feature called a Submarine Canyon.
  • Q. Do you ever get to work with dolphins and whales?
    A. No, I am a Marine Geologist, and I study the ocean floor. Marine Biologists sometimes work with oceanic mammals.
  • Q. Have you ever used an echo sounder?

10. Universities
oceanography;; Alexander Malahoff (Prof oceanography) geology, geophysics,manned and unmanned research submersibles;; Sherwood Maynard
Last Update: 24 Jan 2003
Guide to Higher Education
in Historical and Underwater Archaeology
Institution Name : University of Hawaii at Manoa Department Title : Marine Option Program Faculty in Historical/Underwater Archaeology
  • Bayman, James (Ph.D., Arizona St 1994; Assoc Prof Anthropology) Anthropology, archaeology, Hawaii, North America, political economy, chiefdoms, craft production, artifact geochemistry
  • Chapman, William (Ph.D., Oxford 1982; Assoc Prof Historic Preservation Program) Anthropology, historic preservation, Caribbean
  • Graves, Michael (Ph.D., Arizona 1981; Prof Anthropology) Oceania, American Southwest, ethnoarchaeology, archaeological method and theory
  • Griffin, P. Bion (Ph.D., Arizona 1969; Assoc Dean, College of Social Sciences) Anthropology and archaeology, hunter-gatherers, Indonesia, Philippines, Hawaii
  • Hommon, Robert T. (Ph.D., Arizona 1976; Adj Researcher SOEST) Archaeology, Hawaii
  • Hunt, Terry (Ph.D., Washington 1989; Assoc Prof Anthropology) Prehistory of Oceania, evolutionary theory, geoarchaeology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction, ceramics
  • Kikuchi, William K. (Ph.D., Arizona 1973; Prof Anthropology) Anthropology, archaeology, Hawaiian fishponds, American Samoa

11. E&ES Resources~Oceanography 9.8 Unit 8
is a very good article on the use of submersibles, ships for ocean research andequipment This article discusses many aspects of chemical oceanography.
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9.8 - Oceanography 8. Oceanographers have a range of technology available to assist the collection of data about the oceans. Students Learn to Outline the range of data that can be collected by echo sounders and describe the principles involved in the collection of data.
A New Scientist article on the use of sonar with links. Panoramas of the Sea Floor This site contains information on echo sounders. Also contains notes on bathymetry and dimensions of oceans. Chapter 3 This site contains information on echo sounders and magnetometers. UNDERWATER DETECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEMS Chapter 9 This site is good for students and teachers providing simple explanations of echo sounders in a question and answer format.

12. Archives Of The Scripps Institution Of Oceanography
modern textbook in oceanography, was a pioneer SCUBA diver, dove off California inthe bathyscaphe Trieste and other deepsea research submersibles, conducted

Services Moving Image Collection Timeline ... Other Sites
Eugene Cecil LaFond Biography
Kevin Hardy, December 12, 2002
Eugene Cecil LaFond at Ancient Mariners TG on Scripps Pier Sept. 27, 2002 Eugene Cecil LaFond was a quiet man, a scientist and statesman of science, who had a worldwide effect on the new field of oceanography. Born on December 4, 1909, Bridgeport, Washington, he died peacefully in his sleep at home Sunday, December 1, 2002, a few days shy of his 93rd birthday. His wife of 67 years, Katherine Gehring LaFond, his constant companion and scientific partner, and two sons, William and Robert, survive him. Though he traveled worldwide, Gene always considered San Diego his home. His family moved here in 1921, and he graduated from Sweetwater High School(1928) and San Diego State College (1932). He was awarded an honorary D.Sc from Andhra University, India in 1956. In the course of his remarkable career, Gene worked at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, contributed to the content of "The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology," the first modern textbook in oceanography, was a pioneer SCUBA diver, dove off California in the bathyscaphe Trieste and other deep-sea research submersibles, conducted experiments under Arctic ice in U.S. Navy submarines near the North Pole, led construction of an oceanographic tower off Mission Beach, lead segments of the two-year Scripps Naga Expedition to Thailand and Vietnam in 1960-62, participated in the Bikini Atoll atomic bomb tests, and under a Fulbright Grant, worked in India with its scientists to establish the first oceanographic institute in that nation.

13. TAMU Oceanography - Personal Page
General research interests Processes which create oceanic lithosphere along the systems,standard underway geophysical tools and submersibles to characterize

Student Info Research About Us ... Directory
Paul Jeffrey Fox
Professor, Geological Section
Head, Ocean Drilling Program
U.S. Mail
Ocean Drilling Program
1000 Discovery Drive
College Station, TX 77845-9457 Phone: (979) 845-8480
Fax: (979) 845-1026
Ocean Drilling Program
College Station General research interests:
Processes which create oceanic lithosphere along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge System. Use of multibeam echo sounders, deep and shallow towed side-scan sonar systems, standard underway geophysical tools and submersibles to characterize the structural and volcanic expressions of plate accretion and transform tectonism.
Specific projects in the next 3-5 years: Recent Publications
  • Macdonald, K. C., P. J. Fox, R. T. Alexander, R. Pockalny, and P. Gente, 1996: Volcanic growth faults and the origin of Pacific abyssal hills. Nature. 380, 125-129. Grindlay, N. R., and P. J. Fox, 1993: Lithospheric stresses associated with nontransform offsets of the mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications from a finite element analysis. Tectonics. 12, 982-1003.

14. Biologybase: Oceanography & Marine Biology Resources
Under Waterworld, Deep Sea submersibles off Oregon; Center Bermuda Biological Stationfor research, Inc. oceanography Department, University of British Columbia;
covering the world of life Oceanography and Marine Biology Resources BiologyBase Fish Index This set of pages is in the process of being updated and revised, in February 2000. There are several broken links, but try for them anyway! For other oceanography resources (also being revised),
go to Fish Resource page
go to Aquatic Resource page
go to Life, the Universe and Everything main index

15. History
The studies included underwater oceanography with research submersibles, a surveyof the Indian River Lagoon, coral reef research, and research on life
SMS Home
Site Map
General Information
Research Interests

What's New?
History of SMS At the time of the administrative transfer, the current program of research of the Smithsonian Marine Station was initiated. The program supports the research of visiting Smithsonian scientists and their colleagues, postdoctoral fellows, a resident scientist/director, and the operations of the station including a small support staff (see Staff Directory Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory Project ) and in 1998 by the Link Foundation to support graduate fellowships ( Link Foundation Fellowships In April, 1995 the Smithsonian entered into an agreement with the MacArthur Foundation for the purchase of 8 acres of property near the Fort Pierce Inlet with access easement to the Indian River Lagoon for the purpose of relocating its facilities and program of research to a land-based laboratory. In April, 1996 the purchase was completed and plans begun for construction at the new site (see Site Plan Groundbreaking for the research laboratory building of Phase I of the Site Plan ( Phase I Laboratory ) took place on March 11, 1998. At the groundbreaking ceremony, the Director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, Robert Fri, announced an official name change for the Station, reflecting its plans for relocation and future commitment, from the former name "Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port" to the current name "Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

16. 44 I Estuarine Oceanography /i .
SEAC Newsletter, 2.2 1920.submersibles and archaeology.alvin submersible useoff; (Bordighera)daino research vessel.bathyscape; Foerster Laures F., 1983
  • Computers for Non Scientific Applications [computers use and archaeology]
  • Anon., , Airlift used to Locate Artifacts. Minnesota Historical News [airlifts use of]
  • Atkinson-Millar K., 1990 , The first stage of a maritime archaeology training programme in the People's Republic of China: a brief summary of the aims, procedures and results. IJNA [training programme in china.china marine archaeology training in]
  • 1967 , The efficiency of divers breathing Oxy-Helium. Ergonomics [oxy helium diver efficiency on.divers on oxy helium]
  • Baddeley A.D. et al 1968 , Nitrogen narcosis and performance underwater. Ergonomics [nitrogen narcosis]
  • Baddeley A.D., 1964 , The Influence of depth on the manual dexterity of free divers. Journal of Applied Psychology [divers manual dexterity of]
  • Baddeley A.D., 1966 , The influence of depth on the manual dexterity of free divers. Journal of Applied Psychology [divers dexterity of]
  • Baddeley A.D.

17. National Undersea Research CenterĀ  UNCW
In situ oceanography is conducted by NURP divers at this site, often with the useof submersibles and robots. Key research includes studies of the health of
National Undersea Research Center (NURP) University of North Carolina-Wilmington 7205 Wrightsville Avenue Wilmington, NC 28043 Phone: 910/256-5133 Fax: 910/256-8856 Email: Background: The Undersea Research Center at the University of North Carolina-Wilmington (UNCW) is one of six regional NURP Centers. The UNCW Center was established in 1980 with facilities in Wilmington, and also in Key Largo, Florida. The Center=s mission is to collaborate on a multi-agency scientific expedition to collect data, conduct excavations, map, and recover artifacts at the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary. UNCW is responsible for research along the Southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico Scientific Specialties: In situ oceanography is conducted by NURP divers at this site, often with the use of submersibles and robots. Key research includes studies of the health of coastal reef systems in the Florida Keys and the Flower Garden Banks, studies of marine fisheries population dynamics/habitat associations/recruitment processes, support of research, lithospheric resources and processes including those related to offshore oil drilling, climate change, sea level history, and sea floor evolution and carbon cycling as concern the air-sea interaction in global warming. Equipment: The Center leases and makes available to marine scientists an array of advanced undersea technology systems. Undersea systems operated by the Center include mixed gas scuba, remotely operated vehicles, the

You will leave the Office of Naval research web site by selecting one of Submersiblesare a great scientific tool to help researchers explore the ocean depths.
Themes Science Earth Sciences Oceanography ... Submersibles
Parts of this page utilize JavaScript or another scripting language. If you are seeing this message it means that your browser is not JavaScript enabled. External links on this page will open up a second browser window! You will leave the Office of Naval Research web site by selecting one of these external links. The appearance of external hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the United States Department of Defense of the linked web sites, or the information, products or services contained therein. Submersibles are a great scientific tool to help researchers explore the ocean depths. They are small submarines that can maneuver underwater easier than larger submarines. Submersibles are equiped with viewports (windows), searchlights, mechanical arms, cameras and scientific instruments that enable seeing and recording data from underwater vehicles. Perhaps ONR's most famous submersible is ALVIN , a three-person deep submergence vessel (DSV). Among some of its most memorable missions are discovery of deep-sea

19. 481 Geology And Geophysics
oceanographic data, FAQs on oceanography and meteorology research fields are tectonic,petrological and drilling, and sea floor observations using submersibles.
Engineering E-Library, Sweden
481 Geology and Geophysics

20. Internet Public Library: Oceanography/Hydrology
The Office of Naval research's Science and The oceanography section covers waves,tides, currents to additional information on submarines and submersibles.
This collection All of the IPL Advanced You are here: Home Subject Collections Earth Sciences Oceanography/Hydrology ...
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IPL Recognized in Computerworld Honors Program Recent IPL News IPL Recognized in 2002 Computerworld Honors Program New design for the IPL unveiled! Now offering links to over 20,000 books A science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena.
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Aquatic Network
Aquatic Network calls itself the "Information Service for the Aquatic World. Subject areas covered include aquaculture, conservation, fisheries, limnology, marine science and oceanography, maritime heritage, ocean engineering, and seafood."
International Year of the Ocean
"The United Nations has declared 1998 the International Year of the Ocean (YOTO). This designation provides individual organizations and governments with an important opportunity to raise public awareness and understanding of the ocean and related issues." This site provides resources for students, teachers, and reporters. Brochures and a poster may be ordered at no cost. Fact sheets cover such topics as ocean exploration, weather, pollution, coastal development, and fisheries. There are extensive links to ocean related sites.
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