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1. Bibliography Of Indigenous Knowledge And InstitutionsWORKSHOP RESEARCH LIBRARY I
VADA Volkeren Stammen peoples Tribes. Last (Noord Amerika - North America). indigenous PEOPLE. INGALIK (Native American the Igbo-speaking peoples of West africa. Igbo homepage
Indigenous Knowledge and Institutions
(2100 citations)
Compiled by Charlotte Hess
November 21, 2001
Abay, Fetien, Mitiku Haile, and Ann Waters-Bayer 1999. "Dynamics in IK: Innovation in Land Husbandry in Ethiopia." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor Abbink, John. 1993. "Ethnic Conflict in the 'Tribal Zone': the Dizi and Suri in Southern Sudan." The Journal of Modern African Studies Acharya, Bipin Kumar. 1994. "Nature Cure and Indigenous Healing Practices in Nepal: A Medical Anthropological Perspective." In Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems, and Processes . M. Allen, ed. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point. Acheson, James M. 1994. "Transaction Costs and Business Strategies in a Mexican Indian Pueblo." In Anthropology and Institutional Economics . J. Acheson, ed. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. (Monographs in Economic Anthropology, no. 12). Acheson, James M. 1990. "The Management of Common Property in a Mexican Indian Pueblo." Presented at "Designing Sustainability on the Commons," the first annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Duke University, Durham, NC, September 27-30, 1990. Acres, B. D. 1984. "Local Farmers' Experience of Soils Combined with Reconnaissance Soil Survey for Land Use Planning: An Example from Tanzania."

2. "FINAL CONCLUSIONS Meeting Of Women Leaders On The Environment" -Mtn-Forum On-Li
Lorena Aguilar Minister of Environmental Affairs andTourism, South africa. and the practices of indigenous peoples and local
Meeting of Women Leaders on the Environment
7-8 March 2002
Helsinki, Finland

Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002
To: "Mountain Forum - Women"
From: Mountain Forum Moderator
Subject: Declaration that the Women Ministers of Environment
Note: The message below was forwarded to the mf-women list by the EMF Moderator.
Dear Colleagues: Please find attached the Declaration that the Women Ministers of Environment in Finland have produced. This meeting was co-hosted by IUCN, the Ministry of Environment of Finland and Harvard University. This document has been sent to Mr. Nitin Desai Secretary of the WSSD. Warm regards to all, Lorena Aguilar
Meeting of Women Leaders on the Environment
7-8 March 2002 Helsinki, Finland
  • Women ministers of the environment and representatives from 19 countries, as well as women leaders of 28 international governmental and non-governmental organisations working for sustainable development met in Helsinki on 7-8 March, 2002. The meeting of Women Leaders on the Environment was organised under the auspices of the Council of Women World Leaders (CWWL) and IUCN - The World Conservation Union, and hosted by the Ministry of the Environment of Finland. The meeting was co-chaired by Ms. Satu Hassi, Minister of the Environment and of Development Cooperation, Finland, and Ms. Rejoice T. Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa.
  • The meeting recognised that ten years ago, governments committed themselves to the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, and while much work has begun, the full hope and promise of the integration of social, economic and environmental policies have yet to be wholly realised. Women bring a unique voice to the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development. Their experience, their participation and their leadership are crucial to the success of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Johannesburg offers an opportunity to strengthen the world's commitment to a sustainable development that is fair and equitable for all, and to reaffirm countries' common but differentiated responsibilities towards that end.
  • 3. Suggested Readings On The Role Of Conservation Biology In Community- Based Conse
    of forest crops, with foci on West africa and Latin of the traditional knowledge,culture, political systems, and integrity of indigenous peoples. PNUMAorma.
    Compiled by Preston Hardison, Department of Psychology NI-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail:;
    Suggested Readings on the Role of Conservation Biology in Community- Based Conservation
    Methods and Cases Brown, M. and Wyckoff-Baird, B. (1992/1994). Designing Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. The Biodiversity Support Program, World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and the World Resources Institute, c/o World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C. Policy-oriented document that reviews principles of ICPD design, methods and tools for their implementation, and case studies, mostly from Africa and Southeast Asia. Bakema, R.J. (ed.)(1994). Local Level Institutional Development for Sustainable Land Use. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) Press, Amsterdam. Reviews of institutions for local decision-making and participation in natural resources management, the effects of intervention, and the roles of administration and extension. Cernea, M.M. (1994). The Building Blocks of Participation: Testing Bottom-up Planning. World Bank Discussion Paper 166. World Bank, Washington, D.C. Covers methods for community diagnosis, analysis for community-based projects, the role of experimentation, institutions needed, how to manage conflicts, and decentralization by analyzing a single case of the Programa para Desarrollo Rural (PIDER) in Mexico.

    4. VADA - Volkeren En Stammen Peoples Tribes O - Q
    PYGMEE PYGMIE PYGMY (Afrika africa); PUYUMA (Taiwan) Q. orma (Kenia - Kenya). Theorma of Kenya; Kenya Ethnic Groups orma See also indigenous peoples in Brazil.

    5. Participatory Research On Bovine Trypanosomosis In Orma Cattle, Tana Participato
    IUCNorma (Costa Rica). IUCN-Forest terms of gender, indigenous peoples and traditional communities within Some Lessons from africa in Involving Traditional Communities

    6. Environmental Law Programme
    Fernanda Espinosa, IUCN's Policy Advisor on indigenous peoples also took IUCNELCand South africa National Parks (SAN Parks Find IUCN orma here and CCAD here.
    Environmental Law Programme A just world that values and conserves nature About IUCN Members News Our Work ... Publications Latest News Environmental Law Programme Commission on Environmental Law Environmental Law Centre Regional and Country Offices ... Portals Search
    8 April 2003
    4 April 2003
    for more details or contact the Project Coordinator Rosie Cooney at
    2 April 2003 Find InWEnt here
    26 March 2003 Find a copy of the IUCN Position Paper here IUCN IN WATER GOVERNANCE WRAP UP SESSION 21 March 2003 Find copy of IUCN INBO paper here Find the Gobal Water Partnership (GWP) here Find copy of IUCN GWP Wrap up session speaking notes here IUCN ELC WELCOMES RESEARCH FELLOW FROM AIDMO 18 March 2003 Zakaria El Brahmi, a Moroccan national working for the Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization (AIDMO), is spending one month with IUCN ELC. This is part of an advanced professional training programme of

    7. Union For The Protection Of New Varieties Of Plants - Issues
    Conference, Sun City, South africa, 2125 orma responded positively to the requestand was initiated with specific groups indigenous peoples, people living
    Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants -
    NON-UPOV PLANT PROTECTION SCHEMES BEYOND UPOV : Examples of developing countries preparing non-UPOV "sui generis" plant variety protection schemes for compliance with TRIPS
    July 1999 Background The World Trade Organisation's agreement on intellectual property, known as TRIPS, sets out minimal standards for patent and other forms of intellectual property protection in the 134 WTO member states. If countries do not provide these standards, they can be punished through trade sanctions. TRIPS Article 27.3(b) requires all countries to protect intellectual property over plant varieties, the basis of food security. According to the agreement, this can be done by patent law or by "effective 'sui generis' system". Developing countries must implement this rule by 1 January 2000 and least developed countries by 1 January 2006. However, the article is being formally reviewed by the WTO members right now and could possibly be changed before the implementation deadline. The review of Article 27.3(b), which has been going on in Geneva over the 1999 series of TRIPS Council meetings, has revealed that the WTO membership is unclear as to what an "effective 'sui generis' system" is or should be. "Sui generis" simply means special or unique, leaving the matter completely open to interpretation.

    8. Untitled
    the Waata were deprived of their relative autonomy visà-vis the Gabra, Boorana,orma and Sakuye pastoral africa’s indigenous peoples ‘First peoples
    Aneesa Kassam and Ali Balla Bashuna
    The predicament of the Waata, former hunter-gatherers of East and Northeast Africa: etic and emic perspectives
    Aneesa Kassam, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham, England and Ali Balla Bashuna, Marsabit, Kenya Paper to be presented at the Ninth International Conference on Hunters and Gatherers, Edinburgh, Scotland, 9-13 September, 2002.

    This paper tells the story of the Waata, former Oromo hunter-gatherers of East and Northeast Africa, who specialized in elephant hunting. It relates how the Waata way of life was brought to an end in the colonial period due to the enactment of wildlife conservation laws and the creation of national parks. Through this policy and that of the containment of ethnic groups to tribal reserves in Kenya, the Waata lost their place in the regional system of production. As a result, they lost their autonomy and became servile members of the Boorana and Gabra Oromo pastoral groups with whom they had traditionally interacted. They thus suffered both external, state, and internal, cultural, discrimination. The paper describes the Waata struggle for self-determination in postcolonial Kenya and reflects on the problems of advocating their cause, both from an emic and etic point of view.
    The story is told emically, from the inside, from the point of view of a Waata social activist from Northern Kenya (Bashuna 1993; forthcoming), and etically, from the outside, from the perspective of a social anthropologist (Kassam 1986; 2000). Both researchers have been analysing the problem of the Waata in different ways. Their present collaboration is the outcome of a dialogue that began in Kenya over a decade ago. The paper also reflects on this dialogical process and on the problems of advocating the Waata cause.

    9. World Wetlands Day 2001: Planned And Reported Activities
    sites will be the first ever in africa, and the plans, with the help of IUCNorma,to mount pe) writes Dear friends of the indigenous peoples Wetlands Network
    The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands World Wetlands Day 2001: Activities planned and reported for WWD 2001 What is World Wetlands Day? World Wetlands Day , set for 2 February of each year, in recognition of the signing of the Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar, was celebrated for the first time in 1997. The purpose of World Wetlands Day is to provide an opportunity for government and citizens' groups to undertake actions aimed at raising public awareness of wetland values and benefits in general and the Ramsar Convention in particular. (Photo left: WWD 2001 in Lutembe Bay, Uganda Wetland world - A world to discover! The suggested theme for World Wetlands Day 2001 is " Wetland world - A world to discover! " In addition, World Wetlands Day 2001 falls on the 30th anniversary of the signing of the Convention and marks 30 years of work and progress by the Convention on Wetlands. The wetlands community around the world is invited to celebrate this anniversary on World Wetlands Day. The Ramsar Administrative Authority in each country and the wetlands community at large are encouraged to focus on the efforts made, and the obstacles encountered, in implementing the three main commitments of the countries that have joined the Convention: 1) the inclusion of internationally important wetlands in the Ramsar List; 2) planning for the "wise use" of all their wetlands; and 3) international cooperation on shared water systems and species. The Anniversary's motto is:

    10. References
    The ruralurban interface in africa expansion and adaptation. among the Rendille. Nomadic peoples 12 2-25. study from Kenya. In indigenous knowledge systems and development ed.
    Home about ifad operations Evaluation ... job opportunities What's New Search Contact Us document.write(document.title) approach
    tools and guidelines


    knowledge notes

    Abu, K. 1990. Socio-economic study of livestock keeping in the northern region. Draft report for ZOPP project planning workshop, Khartum. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany Abu Bodie, G.J. 1979. The role of Rendille women. IPAL Technical Report F-2, UNESCO/MAB. Adan, A.H. 1988. Adra, N. 1983. Ahmed, A.G.M. 1972. Essays in Sudan Ethnology, Ahmed, A.G.M. 1976. Some aspects of pastoral nomadism in the Sudan. Economic and Social Research Council, Khartoum. Al-Hassny, A. 1983. Allan, W. 1965. The African husbandman. Asad, T. 1970. The Kababish Arabs: Power, authority and consent in a nomadic tribe. New York: Praeger Publ.

    11. The Constitution Of Kenya Review Commission
    Samburu, Turkana, Ogiek, Sengwer, Terik, orma, Wardei Somali Tribal peoples (2000.)Traditional Occupations of indigenous and Tribal peoples Emerging Trends
    The Commission The Review Process The Constitution: Past, Present and Amendments Civic Education on the Constitution ... Some of your Views THE CASE FOR THE RECOGNITION AND PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF KENYA’S INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    This memorandum has been prepared and submitted to the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission by members of pastoralist and hunter-gatherer communities in Kenya. Pastoralists and hunter-gatherers (PHG) have identified themselves as indigenous peoples owing to their culture, relationship and spiritual attachment to their ancestral and traditional territories, in Kenya, and seek to have the new Kenyan Constitution recognize them as such.
    1. There shall be a constitutional Commission to address historical injustices.
    2. This Constitution shall obligate the State to recognize the rights of indigenous peoples as stipulated by various international instruments and standards, specifically, ILO Convention 169, the United Nations Declaration on Persons belonging to Ethnic Minorities, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, amongst others, mentioned in this memorandum.

    12. VADA - Volkeren Stammen Peoples Tribes I - L
    See also indigenous peoples in Brazil. El Molo See also Gabbra See also GallaSee also orma See also See also Russian peoples See also Rusland Russia.

    13. Kenya -- Ethnic Groups
    The principal nonindigenous ethnic minorities are the The term Swahili refers todifferent peoples who share Boran, Burji Dassenich, Gabbra, orma, Sakuye, Boni
    Kenya Ethnic Groups
    The Kikuyu, Meru, Gusii, Embu, Akamba, Luyha (or alternate spelling of Luyia), Swahili and Mijikenka (which in fact is a group of different ethnic groups) constitute the majority of the Bantu speaking peoples of Kenya. In general, the Bantu have been farmers. The Kikuyu (or Gikuyu) homeland is around Mount Kenya and it is believed they migrated into the area from East and North East Africa around the 16th century. They were neighbors of the Maasai and although there were raids for cattle between them, there was also a lot of trade and intermarriage. The Kikuyu god, Ngai, resides on Mt. Kenya which they call Kirinyaga . As with other ethnic groups, the traditional healer was held in high esteem. For the Kikuyu, land ownership is the most important social, political, religious, and economic factor. They have a complex system of land ownership that revolves around close kin, The importance of land brought them into conflict with the colonial government when white settlers and farmers occupied their traditional lands. Today, Kikuyu farmers produce most of the fresh produce that is consumed in Nairobi as well as coffee and tea for export. Many Kikuyu have also been successful in economic and commercial endeavors. Traditionally, the Kikuyu were governed by a council of elders based on clans. The Akamba The Luyha's traditional homeland is around Kakamega in western Kenya. They are Kenya's third largest ethnic group after the Kikuyu and the Luo. The Luyha suffer from high population density which effects their farming economy as cultivation occurs on plots that get smaller with each generation. They are important producers of sugar-cane.

    14. Underlying Causes Of Deforestation: Background Document
    Guyana. Amerindian peoples Asociation. Jirina, Ludmila, Russia. Faz East Russia.Association of indigenous People of Pzimozski Region. UICNorma. Samranjit, Pongtip,
    Workshop on Underlying Causes of
    Deforestation and Forest Degradation Background Document
    Costa Rica, 18 - 22 January, 1999 An overview of the underlying causes identified, similarities and differences and possible ways forward The process leading to the Costa Rica Workshop involved the preparation of case studies in different regions of the world and their presentation in seven regional and one indigenous peoples' organizations workshops. Presentations provided the basis for discussions in working groups and in plenary, aimed at the identification of the common underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation, followed by the identification of actors and solutions to address them. The eight workshops and the more than forty case studies reflect a wide range of causes, actors and possible solutions in extremely diverse social, political, economic, cultural and environmental contexts. However, all of them coincide in the identification of a number of key causes which are at the root of deforestation and forest degradation processes in all types of forests. All of them also show important coincidences regarding a number of actors -both domestic and international- which are part of the problem and therefore can be part of the solution. As part of the solution, it is important to highlight that the process leading to the workshops, as well as the workshops themselves, constituted an important step forward in raising awareness and increasing knowledge about this relatively new -at least for many people- way of looking at the causes of deforestation and forest degradation. The process involved the participation of local community representatives, NGOs, academics, government officials and representatives from international and to a lesser extent business organizations. This mix facilitated a wider understanding of the problem through the exchange of different types of information and different viewpoints with the common aim of addressing the problem. Given the success of the approach, we feel that it could be extremely useful to continue carrying out similar processes at the national level and that this suggestion could be discussed at this global workshop.

    15. ENB On The Side @ UNFCCC COP-6 Alberto Salas power generation sector in SouthAfrica, using near acceptable to some NGOs and indigenous peoples if these
    Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-6
    published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
    in co-operation with the UNFCCC Secretariat Monday 13 Tuesday 14 Wednesday 15 Thursday 16 ... Friday 24 Events convened on Tuesday 14 November 2000 Ancillary benefits and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation presented by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) M aurizio Bussolo and David O'Connor of the OECD present their case study on the ancillary benefits of GHG mitigation in India. Joke Waller-Hunter, Environment Director, OECD, noted that combustion fuels are the main source of greenhouse gases and that it is generally understood that policies to reduce GHGs can have positive and negative "ancillary effects" on public health, ecosystems, and land use.
    Jan Corfee-Morlot, reported on a workshop organized by the OECD in cooperation with several partners. She explained that climate change mitigation policies operate through country economic and institutional systems that lead to reductions in GHGs, changes in other pollutants, and mitigation costs. The most prevalent type of ancillary benefits are generally health-related. However, she noted, there are other benefits such as effects on employment, energy security, and on GDP. For example, regarding transportation policy, reducing congestion may be desirable from a general welfare perspective, even if other policies would lead to a greater reduction of emissions. The goal is to form integrated policies.

    16. Traditional Music & Cultures Of Kenya
    thus be called Kenya's aboriginal or indigenous people (a include the Borana, Burji,Gabbra, orma, Rendille and used and managed by entire peoples for their
    click map to enter
    The Traditional Music and Cultures of Kenya, a multimedia encyclopaedia dedicated to Kenya's people, has moved to a new and now permanent address: A fully indexed site search engine, a clickable index, and an interactive map will enable to you to easily find what you're looking for. The site now has over five hundred pages, 235 images, seven hours of music, and not an advert in sight! Karibu - welcome. Click on the link or on the map to access the site's main page

    17. Jean-Philippe Platteau - Ethnic Cleavages And Grassroots Behavior
    the land improvement scheme proved successful, the indigenous farmers reacted 2) Inthe orma pastoralist communities the solidarity of the Bantu peoples of the
    Villa Borsig Workshop Series 2000 - The Institutional Foundations of a Market Economy - Jean-Philippe Platteau

    Ethnic Cleavages and Grassroots Behavior
    Jean-Philippe Platteau
    Social scientists’ depictions of rural communities suggest that personalized relationships sealed by various forms of reciprocal exchange contribute to people’s wellbeing by allowing them to solve important problems effectively. Economists do not escape this rule. They consider that such personalized networks of relationships have the potential advantages of supplying informal insurance to their members and overcoming the trust problem inherent in all difficult and costly to enforce exchanges. Recent but growing concern about the negative consequences of ethnic feelings have mitigated this positive view, however. This paper explores the role of the community in generating or relaying ethnic feelings. The recent ethnic genocide and cleansing in Rwanda and Yugoslavia seem to indicate that political manipulation orchestrated at the highest levels is the main force sparking ethnic hatred and killings. Yet unless we are prepared to see ordinary people as automata mechanically responsive to the messages sent by their elites, we have to ask why these people chose to obey messages of racial hatred and to perpetrate violence. In Rwanda the question is why the same people who spent an inordinate amount of time and energy disobeying directives from above in ordinary day-to-day matters chose to follow the instructions or incitements to ethnic violence broadcast by their elites (Uvin, 1998, pp. 206–7). This paper highlights the grassroots logic that can reinforce and propagate ethnic hatred triggered by the upper echelons of the political sphere using two concepts borrowed from social choice theory—weak and strict monotonicity.

    18. Oromia Briefs
    Qaiioo, Anniyya, Tummugga or Marawa, orma, Akkichuu, Liban rates second among theAfrican indigenous languages. that even influenced the lives of other peoples. Briefs.htm
    SBO/ Radio Liberating the Oromo People for Stability and Development in the Horn of Africa
    Oromia Brief
    Location Horn of Africa; in what is today Ethiopia. Oromia is approximately located between 3 degree and 15 degree N latitude and 33 degree and 40 degree longitude. Size Population 28 million; 3rd. largest nationality in Africa; single largest nationality in East Africa. Religion Waaqa, Islam, Christian. Resources Breadbasket of the Horn of Africa -cereals including wheat, barley, sorghum, maize, tafi; exports includes coffee, oil seeds, hides and skins; it has the largest livestock holding in Africa; forestry - houses all the forest and wildlife reserves of the Horn including unique species like Nyala-lbex, Colobus monkey and the red fox. minerals - two of three mineral belts of the region including gold, silver, platinum, uranium, marble, Nickel, and natural gas. History Political Objective The fundamental political objective of the Oromo people is to exercise their inalienable right to national self determination to liberate themselves from a century of oppression and exploitation, and to form, where possible, a political union with other nations on the basis of equality, respect for mutual interests and the principle of voluntary associations.

    19. Present
    indigenous peoples had excellent knowledge of the multipurpose value of especiallyif the species is indigenous and does The orma people in the Tana and Lamu
    Tropical Forage Tree legumes:
    Key Development Issues
    Max Shelton
    The University of Queensland, Australia
    Photo - Feeding gliricidia to smallholder buffalo in Bali Popular saying in Rajasthan "Death will not visit a man, even at the time of famine, if he has a Prosopis cineraria, a goat and a camel since the three together can sustain him during the most trying conditions". Source: Kishan Kumar 1999.
    A short version of this paper has been included in Unasylva Vol. 51, No. 200, pages 25-32.
    Table of Contents Summary of key issues and priorities 1. Introduction 2. Traditional use was often not forage 3.1 Qualities sought in forage tree legumes ... 5. References Summary of key issues and priorities Introduction
    Much has been written on the role of forage tree legumes. The literature abounds with reports, scholarly papers, conference proceedings, and books which describe traditional uses of indigenous species and new opportunities with exotic species ( see Reference list ). Tree legumes offer many benefits. But it is the flexibility of their uses that makes them especially significant; they can be found on farms ranging from small-holder subsistence to large-scale commercial. The full text follows . This summary is linked to the main text for those wishing more detail. Benefits and species Many benefits are claimed for forage tree legumes ( see section 3.1

    20. MM July/August 1994
    and marginalized (and particularly for indigenous peoples) whose lives claim thatit is indigenous villagers who except for the occasional orma pastoralist in
    July/August 1994
    The World Bank: Fifty Years is Enough!
    Table of Contents
    Troubled Waters: World Bank Disasters Along Kenya’s Tana River
    by Korinna Horta Slush Funds, Corrupt Consultants and Bidding for Bank Business by Pratap Chatterjee A Financial House of Cards by Patricia Adams
    Behind the Lines Editorial
    : Fifty Years Is Enough! The Front Interview ... : In Defense of the Bank An Interview with the World Bank’s Armeane Choksi Economics: The Myth of the Chilean Miracle by Stephanie Rosenfeld Book Notes: Battling the Bank and IMF Names in the News Resources
    The Milk Mob Aaron Freeman’s excellent article "Monkeying with Milk" ( Multinational Monitor, June 1994) explained why so many consumers and farmers are outraged over Monsanto’s collusion with the U.S. government in forcing recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) into our milk supply. It should also be noted that Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not require two full years of human health testing on rBGH - as their protocol stipulates for drugs of this kind - but settled for 90 days; also in violation of their protocol, FDA did not require Monsanto to provide a residue test. Regarding the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (NASDA) and its support of rBGH: a NASDA meeting in Chicago last spring featured a training session for rBGH "spokespersons," sponsored by Monsanto. When NASDA met in Spring Green, Wisconsin, in July 1994 for golfing, boat rides and banqueting, the largest corporate sponsor was Monsanto, followed by other NASDA-regulated businesses. (Wisconsin Secretary of Agriculture Alan Tracy was recently named NASDA President.) The matter was referred to the Wisconsin Ethics Board.

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