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1. Dictionary Of The Taino Language
A comprehensive collection of Taino words translated into Spanish with an introduction in English.Category Society History By Region Caribbean Puerto Rico......This dictionary of words of the indigenous peoples of caribbean fruto, el fiame,se trajo de africa con la Cabuya. Cordel o soga delgada, hecha de majagua o
This dictionary of words of the indigenous peoples of caribbean is from the encyclopedia "Clásicos de Puerto Rico, second edition, publisher, Ediciones Latinoamericanas. S.A., 1972" It was compiled by Puerto Rican historian Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste of the "Real Academia de la Historia." He describes as "vocabulario indo-antillano." It may possibly be the most comprehensive collection of Taino words ever compiled and it is well documented. For the purpose of clarification, Dr. Coll y Toste includes words which have been incorporated into language, but are not Taino. An example is Mabí, which is of African derivation.
I do not know if this encyclopedia is still in print, but I highly reccomend it. If it all can be obtained do it. Aside from the dictionary, Coll y Toste's writing is descriptive, well documened, and wonderful reading. The remainder of the encyclopedia, seven volumes in all, is a treasure of Puerto Rican history and culture.
If I may offer a word of advice. Please do not take this dictionary (or anyone else's work) as "Gospel." Though Dr. Coll y Toste does a fine job, as you will find, many times he disagrees with the findings of others who had previously documented these same words. Most of his disagreements center on spelling and pronunciation, not meaning.

2. GRAIN | GRAIN Publications | 2002 | Intellectual Property Rights In African Agri
peasants, small farmers, indigenous peoples, and rural Life Agricultural Biodiversity,indigenous Knowledge, and Bantu (Ganda and soga),” in Ethnographic
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GRAIN publications Intellectual Property Rights in African Agriculture Implications for Small Farmers Devlin Kuyek August 2002 Download this GRAIN publication in PDF format (right hand click and "save target as...")
(includes all tables and graphics - use for printing) [See also Genetically Modified Crops in African Agriculture, August 2002] Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 2. INNOVATION: TWO PERSPECTIVES
From innovation to imposition
Innovation by corporate breeders
The decline of the public sector 3. IPRS AND AFRICAN AGRICULTURE
Different perspectives on innovation
IPRs and international trade Harmonising African seed markets Soft supporters of IPRs 5. CAN AFRICA GO ITS OWN WAY? The road less travelled The struggle for community rights 1. INTRODUCTION

3. Untitled By Steamer From West Africa To Cape Town And Around Themselves Stood Be
The Ganda of Uganda. Southwold Martin Society-Ganda-africa General 1954-1960 Introduction by James L. Gibbs, Jr. In, James L. Gibbs, Jr., ed., peoples of africa. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965 81-118. also a valuable account of the indigenous political system. A neighboring tribe, the soga, whose institutions supply illuminating
S PRING With complete texts by members of the STH community
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Shifting Southward:
Global Christianity Since 1945 Dana L. Robert
Truman Collins Professor of World Mission From December 12 to 29, 1938, the most representative meeting of world Protestantism to date took place in Tambaram, India. Under the gathering storm clouds of World War II, with parts of China already under Japanese occupation, with Hitler triumphant in the Sudetenland, and with Stalinism in full swing, 471 persons from sixty-nine countries met at Madras Christian College for the second decennial meeting of the International Missionary Council (IMC). The central theme that drew so many to India at a time of multiple global crises was "the upbuilding of the younger churches as a part of the historic universal Christian community." With Protestant missions bearing fruit in many parts of the world, the time was ripe for "younger" non-Western churches to take their places alongside older Western denominations in joint consideration of the universal church's faith, witness, and social realities and responsibilities. The roster of attendees reads like a who's who of mid-twentieth-century world Christianity.

and secular instrument to the Shona, Bantu, Meru, Gogo, and soga cultures. it hasregained its important cultural role to the indigenous peoples of africa.
Get Five DVDs for $.49 each. Join now. Tell me when this page is updated MBIRA Home ASMAT FUE BERIMBAU BONPO SHANG ... HUMAN VOICE MBIRA PYTHAGORAS RATTLES SHOFAR SINGING BELLS ... INFORMATION Sacred Sound Tools photograph by Mitch Nur In the West we know this instrument as a thumb piano or kalimba, but in its native country of Africa it as called mbira, sansa, likembe, malimba, neikembe, or ikembe. It is both a sacred and secular instrument to the Shona, Bantu, Meru, Gogo, and Soga cultures. Used to contact ancestors and tribal guardians, chase away harmful spirits, weather control, cure illness, and impart a strong life force. During the colonial period in Africa the missionaries taught that the mbira was evil and discouraged the use of the instrument, but since independence it has regained its important cultural role to the indigenous peoples of Africa.
The Mbira is musically classified in the 'plucked idiophone' group of musical instruments. It has one or more rows of metal keys or tongs mounted on a wood soundboard which is mounted on a dried gourd which acts as a resonator. It is easy to play by gently striking the ends of the keys with the thumbs. To learn more about the Mbira To find an Mbira

5. D. East Africa. 2001. The Encyclopedia Of World History
grain cultivators, while Bantu peoples practiced forest agriculture based such as the Ganda, soga, Nkore, and Bunyoro. into the developing indigenous language, Swahili, in the
Select Search All All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference The Encyclopedia of World History d. East Africa PREVIOUS ... BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD The Encyclopedia of World History. d. East Africa The interior was not yet greatly involved with the coastal commerce. The most important changes in the interior in this period concerned the introduction of the banana and the development of highland agriculture based on it, and the spread of

6. D. East Africa. 2001. The Encyclopedia Of World History
and grain cultivators, while Bantu peoples practiced forest such as the Ganda, soga,Nkore, and loanwords into the developing indigenous language, Swahili, in
Select Search All All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer American Heritage Coll. Dictionary Roget's Thesauri Roget's II: Thesaurus Roget's Int'l Thesaurus Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference The Encyclopedia of World History d. East Africa PREVIOUS ... BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD The Encyclopedia of World History. d.

7. Archive
The soga political system is an example of the to undergo disorganization, especiallyin the case of africa. culture and that of the indigenous peoples of the
Ames, David. The Use of a Traditional Cloth-Money Token among the Wolof. American Anthropologist October, 1955 Vol. 57 ( 5):1016-1023. This article discusses the different uses of cloth money in different areas of Africa, mainly Gambia and Senegal. Cloth money was used before the 20 th CLARITY: 3 JESSICA SAVAGE: Denison University (Bahram Tavakolian) Arensberg, Conrad. American Communities. American Anthropologist. December, 1955 Vol. 57 (6):1143-1161. Conrad M. Arensberg, a professor from Columbia University, discusses the community-study method, and how this method addresses American cultures. Although all cultures are unique, there are common traits occurring among all cultures or subcultures. He incorporates the findings from Mumford, who wrote The Culture of Cities in 1937. Mumford stated that there is a pattern of study of among American cultures. Arensberg asserts that there are five main criteria of all cultures, and these elements are fundamental to analyze for methodological arenas. The first variable is individuals. What are the individuals’ characteristics or identities? The second element is spaces such as the boundaries of the community. Another factor is time. Arensberg studies how the culture "occupy their space in time" such as calendars or schedules. He adopts a structural-functionalist perspective. What is the purpose or the "social survival" of the culture? Lastly, what is the structure or process of the community? All of these elements are crucial in understanding the dynamics of communities.

8. ASM Vol.18
Reliant Practices of Pastoral and Agricultural peoples in Kenya paper finds the maximizingstrategy of indigenous herders more Toru soga Hirosaki University.
Special Issue: Social Changes and Self-Reliant Practices of Pastoral and Agricultural Peoples in Kenya pp. 121-135 Shun SATO
Tsukuba University How the East African Pastoral Nomads, Especially the Rendille, Respond to the Encroaching Market Economy ABSTRACT
The maximizing strategy for livestock herding of the East African pastoral nomads has been accused as irrational and thereby destroying the ecological balance of rangeland. Carrying capacity and pastoral productivity promoted in state policies, however, are arbitrary concepts. This paper finds the maximizing strategy of indigenous herders more adaptive to the precarious and drought-ridden tropical arid zone, using the Rendille herding as the main example. The Rendille further buffer themselves from market economy through manipulation of the local dual economy and the symbiotic personal relationship with the local livestock dealers. Key Words: East African pastoralism; Maximizing strategy; Rational herding; Local dual economy; Social transactions and transfers of livestock. pp. 137-155

9. Using Children In Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradition?
regimes displaced, at least partially, indigenous rules on Political structure ofNandispeaking peoples, africa, 10, London 1961, pp.400ff and JH soga, The Ama
USING CHILDREN IN ARMED CONFLICT: A LEGITIMATE AFRICAN TRADITION ? CRIMINALISING RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS, By TW Bennet Preface Using Children in Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradition? Culture, Tradition and Human Rights Age Grades and Age Sets Military Action and Socio-Political Structures Age Sets in the Zulu Kingdom Age Sets Under Colonial Rule The Definition of Childhood The Consequences of Violating Children¹s Rights Criminalising the Recruitment of Child Soldiers The Nature of the Problem Existing Protections Under Humanitarian Law International Human Rights Law Problems of Enforcement Conclusion: Taking Stock PREFACE "On the eve of the new millennium we are witnessing an abomination ‹ an abomination directed against children in the context of armed conflict." Olara Otunno, Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, United Nations, speaking at the UN Security Council, July 1998. ABOUT THIS MONOGRAPH: We selected under-researched topics for our current series of monographs, trusting that they will help in defining mechanisms for stopping the practice of using children in and for war. We are grateful for eminent legal scholar, Professor Tom Bennett¹s contribution, which we believe brings a fresh and critical look at the historical, anthropological and legal aspect of child warriors in the African tradition. In his other work on criminalising recruitment of children in armed conflict, he makes no bones about the work that still needs to be done in this area. There is a crying need to provide a deterrent to war crimes against children and to see international justice in action. To this end ACT is calling for the establishment of a specialised international tribunal on War Crimes Against Children as a matter of the gravest urgency.

10. HTML Document For The World Wide Web
Why did the soga clan advise the Japanese 512 Describing the indigenous developmentof Japanese africa and the southward migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples.
Era 4
Giving Shape to World History Beginning about 300 CE almost the entire region of Eurasia and northern Africa experienced severe disturbances. By the seventh century, however, peoples of Eurasia and Africa entered a new period of more intensive interchange and cultural creativity. Underlying these developments was the growing sophistication of systems for moving people and goods here and there throughout the hemisphere China's canals, trans-Saharan camel caravans, high-masted ships plying the Indian Ocean. These networks tied diverse peoples together across great distances. In Eurasia and Africa a single region of intercommunication was taking shape that ran from the Mediterranean to the China seas. A widening zone of interchange also characterized Mesoamerica. Beyond these developments, a sweeping view of world history reveals three other broad patterns of change that are particularly conspicuous in this era
  • Islamic Civilization: One of the most dramatic developments of this 700-year period was the rise of Islam as both a new world religion and a civilized tradition encompassing an immense part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Commanding the central region of Afro-Eurasia, the Islamic empire of the Abbasid dynasty became in the 8th-10th-century period the principal intermediary for the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies across the hemisphere.

11. Cat98a
stations and other areas occupied by indigenous peoples in Namaqualand. of life withthe Basuto of southern africa. 301094 Chalmers, JA Tiyo soga, de eerste
  • A selection of Africana books recently purchased and from stock, including History, Military, Biography, Anthropology, Missions, Travel, Hunting, Nature, Reference, Literature, Art
NB. All books are priced in South African Rands.
All books are first editions in original bindings, unless otherwise stated. Minor defects are not always mentioned. Any book received in unsatisfactory condition may be returned (well packed, by insured post) for a credit. Fuller details of any book will be supplied on request. Please check with us if the book/s required is/are still available before visiting our shop. PRICES OF BOOKS ON THIS CATALOGUE INCLUDE VAT @ 14%. VAT WILL BE DEDUCTED FROM BILLS TO FOREIGN CUSTOMERS. ORDER DETAILS POSTAL ADDRESS: ABC BOOKSHOP, PO BOX 642, Hilton, 3245, SOUTH AFRICA PHONE: FAX: E-MAIL ADDRESS: [301304] Achtzehn, H.G.O. Zinkwazi Beach, South Africa: 1991. Soft cover. Pp. vi,160, photos, one colour, plans, maps. History of Zinkwazi Beach, Darnall and the surrounding area north of Durban. Previous owner's name rubber-stamped inside front cover. VG. [301051] Adams, Jill

12. Cat98b
301406 soga, John Henderson by missionaries administrators, mainly in South africa. militaryactivities or clashes between settlers and indigenous peoples.
[301018] Macfarlane, N.M. A record of medical work and of medical service in Basutoland. [301074] Mackarness, Frederic Martial law in the Cape Colony, during 1901. HACKETT [300799] Macmillan, W.M. The Cape colour question: a historical survey. [300789] Malan, J.H. Boer en barbaar, of die geskiedenis van die Voortrekker tussen die jare 1835-1840. En verder, van die kaffernasies met wie hulle in aanraking gekom het. Bloemfontein: Nationale Pers, 1918. Tweede uitgebreide en verbeterde uitgawe. Cloth. Pp. xx,440, frontispiece (portrait), illustrations, maps (1 folding). Revised edition of this account of the Voortrekkers, their travels and clashes with the indigenous peoples, particularly the Zulus. Afrikaans text. Original red cloth, marked, splitting down rear hinge, slightly shaken, owner inscription on half-title, Good. [300825] Malaria. Malaria en kinine. [301321] Malherbe, D.F. du T. Stamregister van die Suid-Afrikaanse volk - Family register of the South African nation. [301151] Manheimer, E. Le nouveau monde Sud-Africain: la vie au Transvaal.

13. Amaravati: Abode Of Amritas
US soldier who married Hitomi soga, 43, after black people should go back to africa, he said international emblem of the dispossessed indigenous peoples of the
Marc Miyake's metropolis of anti-idiotarianism, Asian studies, and Hawai'i affairs
Bio Contact Archives
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Honorary citizens: Steven Den Beste China Hand John Hawkins James Hudnall ... Kim du Toit
: RE- ORIENT -ING ISLAM Ralph Peters thinks Islam's future lies in the East: It is time to recognize, belatedly, that Islam's center of gravity lies far from Riyadh or Cairo that it has, in fact, several centers of gravity, each more hopeful than the Arab homelands. On these frontiers, from Delhi to Jakarta to Detroit, Islam is a dynamic, vibrant, effervescent religion of gorgeous potential. Islam, then, would be no different from Christianity or Buddhism, two more religions whose centers of gravity have shifted outside their lands of origin. But before you agree with Peters, keep in mind that he may be a punditourist: Over the past two years, I have enjoyed extended stays in both places [Indonesia and India] . Most Americans, and most government officials, haven't a clue about the on-the-ground reality in either one.

14. CXXX
KIM, UICHOL AND J BERRY indigenous psychologies; research soga, JH SouthEastern Bantu(abeNguni, abaMbo, amaLala TURNBULL, COLIN peoples of africa G500 TURNsa.
Get Five DVDs for $.49 each. Join now. Tell me when this page is updated C BACK TO INDEX Cabala See Kaballah Career counselling NATHAN, ROBERT and Career counselling NATH Campbell, Joseph LARSEN, STEPHEN A fire in the mind; the life of Joseph Campbell LARS Castenada, Carlos WILLIAMS, DONALD L Border crossings; psycho. perspective on Carlos Castaneda's path of WILL Catholicism See Christianity BEGG. EAN and DEIKE RICH On the trail of Merlin; a guide to the Celtic mystery tradition BEGG BOOK OF KELLS Book of Kells.described by Edward Sullivan, with 24 colour reproductions. G200 BOOK CLARKE, LINDSAY Essential Celtic mythology FM CLAR DANAHER, KEVIN Year in Ireland G500 DANA DONALDSON, MARGARET Explorations into Celtic Christianity and Spirituality. Readings. Pam DONA EVANS-WENTZ, W Y Fairy-faith in Celtic countries EVAN GOODRICH, NORMA Merlin GOOD GOSE, ELLIOT World of the Irish wonder tale; an introduction to .. fairy tales GOSE JACOBS, JOSEPH Celtic fairy tales JACO MACCANA, PROINSIAS Celtic mythology MACC MACCULLOCH, J A Religion of the ancient Celts G200 MACC PICARD, BARBARA

of white colonial domination over many peoples throughout the expropriation of therest of the indigenous people, the of our people as Tiyo soga, Nehemiah Tile
Port Elizabeth, January 11, 2000 Your Grace, the Rt Rev Sigqibo Dwane,
Leaders and members of the Ethiopian Episcopal Church,
Brothers and Sisters,
Ladies and gentlemen: Twenty years ago, in 1980, the late President of the African National Congress, Oliver Tambo, addressed the World Consultation of the World Council of Churches which was held in Holland. In his statement he quoted parts of Verses 27 and 28 of Chapter 1 of the Book of Genesis . With your permission, I would like to present these verses in full. 27: " So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." 28: " And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." Had he been alive, Oliver Tambo would have drawn great strength and inspiration from your " Declaration of the faith of this church " adopted at your Special Conference last year when you yourselves, true to the Holy Scriptures, said:

WCAR also recognised the collective rights of indigenous peoples. our continent, andto the peoples of this the community, Reverend De Villiers soga said Zwide

17. UK Uganda Network - Profile Of Uganda
Bantuspeaking peoples are the soga, Nkole, Chiga peoples speaking Nilotic and Nilo-Hamiticlanguages most Ugandans have retained indigenous religious beliefs
United Kingdom Uganda Network
A Profile of Uganda
The Republic of Uganda is a landlocked East African country lying on the Equator - roughly two thirds of the country is north of the equator and a third south. On the banks of Lake Victoria, Uganda is bordered by Tanzania and Rwanda to the south west, The Congo to the west, The Sudan to the north, and Kenya to the east.
  • Area
    • 93000 Square Miles or 241000 Square km
  • Location
    • Between 4 degrees N and 1 degree S of the equator in East Africa
  • Population
    • 19M estimated in 1995 probably around 22M today. Uganda's growth in population is well above the average for the Sub-Saharan areas of Africa. This is obviously because of the country's high birth rate producing a population in which almost half is under 15 years of age. The most densely settled areas are in the fertile south and east, primarily along Lake Victoria. Kampala is the largest city. Other major cities are Jinja, Masaka, and Mbale. Though the urban population constitutes only about one-eighth of the total, it is growing steadily.
  • Capital
    • Kampala, It is built around seven hills 35Km north of Lake Victoria. Across the lake you can get to Tanzania and Kenya though it is understood that at present the ferry is not running. (June 2000).

18. Untitled
© 1998 University of Chicago Library The Fallers, Lloyd A. Papers were processed as part of the HEA Title IIC project, "Preserving and Improving Access to Social Science Manuscript Collections at the University of Chicago Library." independence in East africa, modernization in Turkey, and Change in the soga Political System " Fallers investigated addressed how the indigenous Busoga political institutions and
ICU.SPCL.FALLERS Guide to the Lloyd A. Fallers Papers Finding aid prepared by Michael W. Scott, June 1995 Edited by: Eileen A. Ielmini, October 1998 University of Chicago Library. Special Collections Research Center Encoded finding aid prepared by Eileen A. Ielmini, February 1999 en University of Chicago Library Special Collections Research Center Guide to the Lloyd A. Fallers Papers Acknowledgments The Fallers, Lloyd A. Papers were processed as part of the HEA Title II-C project, "Preserving and Improving Access to Social Science Manuscript Collections at the University of Chicago Library." Descriptive Summary Fallers, Lloyd A. Papers 1937-1977(inclusive) 28 linear feet (56 boxes) Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library, 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 The Fallers, Lloyd A. Papers comprise 28 linear feet of materials including personal and professional correspondence, field notes and research materials, course materials, and manuscripts concerning other professional associations and projects in which he was engaged. The papers contain materials generated by Fallers while pursuing research into colonialism and independence in East Africa, modernization in Turkey, and more general topics of social stratification and status. The collection also includes field materials collected by Margaret Chave Fallers. Information on Use Access Series X, Microfilms, is currently restricted due to the need for special equipment. Series XI, Letters of Reference, is restricted and not open for research until 2024.

19. 8 Pan Africanism
settled and the inland where the indigenous people lived by emphasising the unityof all African peoples and shared Tiyo soga sometimes stayed at hotels in the
Wallace G. Mills Hist. 317 8 Pan-Africanism African Responses to Colonialism
- colonialism was the result of European intrusion and conquest;
- but colonialism was never completely one-sided;
- relationships, however unequal, are nevertheless 2-sided; Europeans were never able to impose their will and view of things entirely.
- moreover, over time strengths and weaknesses of the sides alter, which means that relationships are rarely static and constantly need to be adjusted to accommodate changes.
N. B. Neither side was monolithic or completely united: anti-imperialists and critics existed in Europe; divisions existed on the African side also.
- also, imperialism happened at a high point in European power, confidence, arrogance, assertiveness and aggression.
- in the 20th C, Europe weakened and destroyed much of its power and wealth in 2 wars; the injuries were not only to economic and military power, but also to confidence, pride and the certainty of their own superiority. Therefore, the strength of the colonialists was steadily weakening.
- on the other hand, the responses and reactions of Africans were also changing the elements and strengths of the African side of the relationship.

20. Jean-Philippe Platteau - Ethnic Cleavages And Grassroots Behavior
improvement scheme proved successful, the indigenous farmers reacted by the solidarityof the Bantu peoples of the for most purposes than Ganda, soga, Kiga, or
Villa Borsig Workshop Series 2000 - The Institutional Foundations of a Market Economy - Jean-Philippe Platteau

Ethnic Cleavages and Grassroots Behavior
Jean-Philippe Platteau
Social scientists’ depictions of rural communities suggest that personalized relationships sealed by various forms of reciprocal exchange contribute to people’s wellbeing by allowing them to solve important problems effectively. Economists do not escape this rule. They consider that such personalized networks of relationships have the potential advantages of supplying informal insurance to their members and overcoming the trust problem inherent in all difficult and costly to enforce exchanges. Recent but growing concern about the negative consequences of ethnic feelings have mitigated this positive view, however. This paper explores the role of the community in generating or relaying ethnic feelings. The recent ethnic genocide and cleansing in Rwanda and Yugoslavia seem to indicate that political manipulation orchestrated at the highest levels is the main force sparking ethnic hatred and killings. Yet unless we are prepared to see ordinary people as automata mechanically responsive to the messages sent by their elites, we have to ask why these people chose to obey messages of racial hatred and to perpetrate violence. In Rwanda the question is why the same people who spent an inordinate amount of time and energy disobeying directives from above in ordinary day-to-day matters chose to follow the instructions or incitements to ethnic violence broadcast by their elites (Uvin, 1998, pp. 206–7). This paper highlights the grassroots logic that can reinforce and propagate ethnic hatred triggered by the upper echelons of the political sphere using two concepts borrowed from social choice theory—weak and strict monotonicity.

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