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         Spina Bifida Hydrocephalus Genetics:     more detail

41. Arkansas Genetics Program
control, and excessive fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus). the special needsof children with spina bifida? you may call theArkansas genetics Program at 1
What are Neural Tube Defects?
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord which affect children. They are first diagnosed at or before birth. They include a variety of abnormalities from separation of the spinal cord and surrounding tissues (spina bifida) to complete absence of the brain (anencephaly). How do Neural Tube Defects happen?
NTDs occur very early in pregnancy, about the 27 th How are children affected by these birth defects?
Babies with anencephaly (complete absence of the brain) are the most severely affected and usually die during the pregnancy or shortly after birth. Babies with abnormal brain development may be mentally retarded. Those who have fairly normal brain development but damage to the spinal cord, may have long term paralysis of the legs, loss of bowel and bladder control, and excessive fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus). How many children are affected?

42. Seeking Answers On Spina Bifida
at the UTH Medical School and Medical genetics Division director. in producing earlylearning deficits in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

43. Pediatric Neurosurgery
endorcinology, neuroradiology, neuropsychology, social support and genetics. and geneticfactors, such as spina bifida. Acquired hydrocephalus may be caused by
Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute About Us Our Expert Team Treatments/Programs ... For Physicians Search:
Cedars-Sinai Home page

Pediatric Neurosurgery

 The Program for Pediatric Neurosurgery The Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute recognizes that the prospect of neurosurgery on an infant or child is physically and emotionally trying for patients and their families. As such, the Institute has brought together a specialized team for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors, as well as other nervous system disorders, such as congenital malformations, spinal cord disorders, epilepsy, craniofacial surgery and hydrocephalus. Our team includes a dedicated pediatric neurosurgeon working with supportive specialists from pediatric oncology, neurology, endorcinology, neuroradiology, neuropsychology, social support and genetics. At the Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute, excellence starts with ensuring all patients needs are met by our team. Pediatric Brain Tumors The Institute provides state-of-the-art diagnosis and therapy for benign and malignant central nervous system tumors. By combining neurosurgical expertise with interoperative brain mapping and monitoring of tumor resection, the Institute's surgeons are able to maximize tumor removal while maintaining patient safety. Treatment is enhanced with access to the Institute's tumor vaccine program, which focuses on using the patient's own immune system in helping to control tumor growth. Furthermore, the Institute participates in National Institutes of Health (NIH) - sponsored clinical trials and the National Children's Oncology Group clinical trials, enabling the medical team to provide leading-edge care for pediatric patients and spinal cord tumors.

44. About NTDs
Disabilities (NCBDDD) Birth Defects and Pediatric genetics. mental retardation causedby hydrocephalus, a complication of spina bifida, is uncommon
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities ( NCBDDD
Birth Defects and Pediatric Genetics
Preventing Neural Tube Birth Defects:
A Prevention Model and Resource Guide
About NTDS
Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two most common NTDs. Anencephaly is a fatal condition in which the upper end of the neural tube fails to close. In these cases, the brain fails to develop completely or is entirely absent. Pregnancies affected by anencephaly often result in miscarriages, and the infants who are born alive die very soon after birth.
What Is it Like to Live With an NTD? Despite physical and mental challenges, many people with spina bifida live independently. Today, mental retardation caused by hydrocephalus, a complication of spina bifida, is uncommon because of early medical and surgical treatment. However, learning disabilities are common. Although medical care has greatly improved the survival rates and quality of life of children with spina bifida, the children and families affected live with varying degrees of physical and social challenges for life. Additional references on neural tube defects and a list of supportive organizations for parents and children affected by spina bifida are included in Appendix B. Who Is at Risk for Having a Baby With an NTD?

45. Centro Medico Teknon : Library
Translate this page genetics also seems to play a role. (Return to Top) Questions to Ask Your Doctor.Which form of spina bifida is involved? Is hydrocephalus present?

46. Genetic Questions
Virtual Round Table New frontiers in medicine genetics. The Right to be Different ,stated a) that people with spina bifida and hydrocephalus can live a
Virtual Round Table
New frontiers in medicine
Genetics Question
Genetic tests are already used and they will certainly increase over the next few years. The prediction of a future and/or possible illness raises new problems: the correct perception of risk, the so-called therapeutic gap (a euphemism for the absence of therapy), the emotional involvement of the family, the relationship between the benefit to be gained and the economic/social costs, and so on. Could you indicate three fundamental points that, in your opinion, should direct health service policies on the use of these tests?
3) Does the increased genetification of medicine may move medicine into a untenable situation? Often genes are blamed and genetic technology are hailed as a solution where genetic cures may not be applicable and genes are not the culprit but behaviour habits environmental exposers...
Brown, A., 1998, Amnesty's latest fear: how our genes may determine our fate in The Independent, Feb. 18th., p.19).
Stein, E., 1998a "Choosing the sexual orientation of Children in Bioethics, Vol12, No1, pp. 16

47. PUSD SE Medical Conditions Internet Links
spina bifida Fact Sheet (National Information Center for Children and hydrocephalus(MedicineNet). and Carrier Testing (American College of Medical genetics).
Peoria Unified School District No.11 Your browser does not support script Childhood
Diseases Disorders ... Syndromes NOTICE: The following Internet links are provided as a public service only. We do not sponsor or endorse any of these sites, nor do we guarantee the accuracy of the information in them.
Chicken Pox
Clef Palate German Measles Measles ... Whooping Cough Chicken Pox (Varicella) Cleft Palate German Measles (Rubella)
Measles (Rubeola) Mumps Other Conditions
Otitis Media

48. CIAO Clinical Information Access Online
Palate Foundation (CPF). , Association for spina bifida and hydrocephalus.-, British Society for Human genetics. -, Cancer Genome Anatomy

49. Weeks Of March 22, 29 And April 5, 1998
Eccles Institute of Human genetics, (801)581 spinabifida; Children with spina bifidaA Resource rowley/sb_kids.html; National hydrocephalus Foundation, (800
Show Number Air Week Title Program Description SHOW #143
(NOTE: Show #143 is a repeat of Show #133) Week of March 22, 1998 Geriatric Care: Sticht Center With Americans aged 65 and older comprising the fastest-growing segment of the population, and with the aging of the Baby Boom generation increasing that trend, new approaches to geriatric care will be a necessity in the 21st century. The recently-opened J. Paul Sticht Center on Aging and Rehabilitation, conceived by the Wake Forest University/Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, may represent a model of fresh ideas on elderly care. It's the only facility in the world offering acute care, rehabilitation, geriatric psychiatry, and transitional, or subacute care all under one roof. In addition, the Sticht Center is closely associated with two local nursing homes, providing a continuity of care. Basic research activities are also part of the comprehensive package. CONTACTS: Mark Wright, Senior PR Writer/Media Manager, (910)716-3382; Dr. William Hazzard, Director, Center on Aging, (910)716-2020 EVERYDAY BREAKTHROUGHS: Breast-Feeding Doctors may finally be catching up to what women have known about all along - the benefits of breast-feeding. Dr. Gary Freed at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine has instituted a pilot program to make sure all medical students and residents at the school learn about breast-feeding as part of their education. He has developed a variety of teaching tools, and hopes to interest other schools in including the instruction in their medical curricula. CONTACT: Nancy Kochuk, Public Affairs, UNC School of Medicine, (919)966-6046

50. MEDLINEplus: Genetics/Birth Defects Topics
genetics/Birth Defects Topics. Huntington's Disease; hydrocephalus; HypermobilitySyndrome see EhlersDanlos Testing; Rare Diseases; Sickle Cell Anemia; spina bifida;
Skip navigation
Genetics/Birth Defects Topics

Health Topics
Drug Information Encyclopedia ... U.S. National Library of Medicine

51. MEDLINEplus: Neural Tube Defects
in these MEDLINEplus related pages • Head and Brain Malformations • hydrocephalus• spina bifida • Brain and Nervous System • genetics/Birth Defects.
Skip navigation
Other health topics: A B C D ... List of All Topics
Neural Tube Defects
Contents of this page:




Search MEDLINE for recent research articles on
Neural Tube Defects
You may also be interested in these MEDLINEplus related pages:
Head and Brain Malformations

Spina Bifida Brain and Nervous System ... Genetics/Birth Defects Clinical Trials
  • Neural Tube Defects (National Institutes of Health)
  • Diagnosis/Symptoms
  • Amniocentesis (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also available in: Spanish Prenatal Testing: What's Involved and Who Should Consider It (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Prevention/Screening
  • MEDLINEplus: Folic Acid (National Library of Medicine) Triple Screen (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)
  • Research
  • Neural Tube Birth Defects Down by 19 Percent Since Food Fortification (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Specific Conditions/Aspects
  • Anencephaly (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Cephalic Disorders (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Chiari Malformation (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Encephaloceles (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Hydranencephaly (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) What You Should Know About Folic Acid (National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities)
  • 52. Clinical Genetic Services
    families should be referred to Medical genetics before initiating a such as Down syndrome,anencephaly, open spina bifida, hydrocephalus, congenital absence of


    Site Map

    Clinical Genetics Services
    in British Columbia

    Genetics as a Medical Specialty
    Clinical genetic services include the assessment and diagnosis of birth defects and genetic diseases, and the provision of genetic counselling. Specialized genetic services are delivered by a team consisting of genetic physicians from the U.B.C. Department of Medical Genetics, genetic counsellors, and support staff. Primary physicians refer families for medical genetics evaluation and consultation, and not for ongoing care or treatment.
    What is Genetic Counselling?
    Genetic counselling deals with the human and medical problems associated with the occurrence, or risk of recurrence, of a congenital anomaly or genetic disease in a family. This involves discussion of the complications, probable course and treatment of the condition, the recurrence of similar problems in future pregnancies, and of options available to avoid recurrence. The individual or family is counselled to choose the most appropriate course of action in view of their risk, their interpretation of the burden of the condition, and their own ethical and cultural orientation. Some birth defects and genetic diseases can be diagnosed in a fetus prior to birth, but most such conditions are not detectable. Prenatal diagnosis is available to pregnant women who are at increased risk of having a baby with a serious abnormality that can be identified in the fetus.

    53. Neural Tube Defects (NTD) - For Patients And Families - The Center For Human Gen
    spina bifida and hydrocephalus Association of Canada (SBHAC) 220388 hydrocephalusSupport Group, Inc. 404) 639-3534 Center for Human genetics NTD research
    For Patients and Families Neural Tube Defects (NTD) What are Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)?
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1 in 1,000 live births in the United States. An NTD is an opening in the spinal cord or brain that occurs very early in human development. The early spinal cord of the embryo begins as a flat region, which rolls into a tube (the neural tube) 28 days after the baby is conceived and when the neural tube does not close completely, an NTD develops. NTDs develop before most women know they are even pregnant. There are two types of NTDs. The most common type of NTDs are called the open NTDs. Open NTDs occur when the brain and/or spinal cord are exposed at birth through a defect in the skull or vertebrae. Examples of open NTDs are spina bifida (myelomeningocele), anencephaly, and encephalocele. The rarer type of NTDs are called closed NTDs. Closed NTDs occur when the spinal defect is covered by skin. Common examples of closed NTDs are lipomyelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, and tethered cord. NTD Prevention
    Researchers have found that 50-70% of NTDs can be prevented when women supplement their diet with folic acid, a water-soluble B vitamin. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends all women of childbearing age eat a diet high in folic acid or take a multivitamin with 0.4mg of folic acid each day, especially one month prior to conception through the first three months of pregnancy. This dosage is the amount found in most over-the-counter multivitamins. However, women who have had a previous NTD pregnancy are recommended to take an even higher dosage of folic acid prior to planning a pregnancy. They should increase the daily dose of folic acid from 0.4mg to 4.0mg, one month prior to conception through the first three months of pregnancy. The 4.0mg of folic acid should ONLY be obtained through a prescription from the doctor.

    54. Spina Bifida
    The genetics are odd in that the predisposition to have a child spina bifida patientswith good posture and dislocated hips do far better than hydrocephalus.
    Spina Bifida If ever there were a topic difficult to extract from a pure discussion of embryology , this is it. You may wish to read that section first, as we will not dwell on cause, here. This section is aimed at getting a perspective on the subject. In the most characteristic case, the skeleton spine formation is incomplete in the back to the degree that the spinal cord is not only exposed but extruded outside the body in a sac of covering tissue. That mass protruding from the low back is cystic (cyst = 'cele'). The nerve elements (myelo as in myelin is the nerve portion) might be intact, partially disrupted, or totally lost as a developed tissue. A myelocele is a bulge with nerve in it. If the spinal cord itself is intact and only the spinal cord coverings (meninges) are extruded outside then the sac is only a sac of meningal tissue with fluid. That is a meningocele If only the bones are defective and the spinal cord and its miningeal coverings are intact, and the skin is also intact, then the spina bifida (open spine) isn't open but rather occult ( spina bifida occulta If the incompletely infolded tissues get so developmentally lost as to not know what they are supposed to be, they often guess, and guess badly. We may see streaks of inappropriate vascular dense tissue (

    55. Spina Bifida Pix
    by Linda Rowley 935am genetics of Neutral PT 115pm Living with spina bifida panel,moderated by Development and Embryology 225pm hydrocephalus and Shunts
    University of Wisconsin
    Department of Neurological Surgery
    Pictures from Spina Bifida Conference: "Current Treatments and Innovations in Spina Bifida," 9/26/98, at the BioPharmaceutical Technology Center in Madison.
    (Left to Right) Meetra Nahavandi, Amir Nahavandi, Brittany Sander, Brett Sander, Johanna Boomer, Danielle Ebben, Bethany Ebben, Anna Ebben, with volunteer Micki Hill
    Alexander Parker, along with his parents, Nelda and Ron
    (Left-to-Right)Jesse Cohoon, Jon Whyte, Tricia Keip AGENDAS Adults and Teens
    8:30 am Registration
    9:00 am Welcome
    9:05 am "The Internet," presented by Linda Rowley
    9:35am "Genetics of Neutral Tube Defects," presented by Elizabeth C. Melvins, MS, CGC
    10:05am "Folate and Neutral Tube Defects," presented by Richard Pauli, M.D., Ph.D.
    10:20am Break 10:35am "Spina Bifida and Pregnancy," presented by Sabine Droste, M.D. 11:00am "Spina Bifida of Mice and Men," presented by David McLone, M.D., Ph.D. 12:00pm Lunch and exhibits 1:00pm "Physical Therapy (adults and children)," presented by James Miedaner, PT

    56. Public Pages - Other Resources
    International Federation for hydrocephalus and spina bifida. What is spinabifida? spinal Cord Injury. Neuroscience. Neurosurgical genetics Index.
    Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Index Intracerebral Aneurysm FAQ MGH Brain Aneurysm/AVM Center
    Brain Diseases and Disorders Alzheimer Disease Web, University of Melbourne Arnold Chiari Malformation
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders (CHADD)
    499 NW 70th Av., Suite 109
    Plantation, FL 33317 Phone: (800) 233-4050 Brain Surgery Information Center Brain Vascular Malformation Index Children's Brain Disease Foundation 350 Parnassus Ave., Ste. 900 San Francisco, CA 94117 Phone: (415) 565-6259 Southern Caregiver Resource Center San Diego, CA Phone: (800) 827-1008 Brain Tumors The American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) 2720 River Road, Suite 146 Des Plaines, IL 60018-4110 Phone: (847) 886-2282 E-mail: Benign Central Nervous System Tumor Index Links to information about meningioma, epidermoid, hemangioblastoma, and other benign brain, spine, and nerve tumors. Brain Surgery Information Center Brain Tumor Index Links to information about astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma and other brain tumors.

    in biochemistry and an MS in biochemical engineering (genetics). This is also trueof hydrocephalus (which is tube defect associated with spina bifida) and of
    These photographs were taken in Iraq
    Professor Siegwart-Horst Gunther (1993 - 1998) [SHG]
    Dr. Beatrice Boctor ( [BB]
    Karen Robinson (1999) - [KR]
    Robinson, a professional photographer, has graciously allowed use of her material on this site.
    Those wishing to re-use or reprint her photographs in any other format, site and/or hard copy publications,
    please contact her c/o
    I posted many of these pictures on the previous support site for the album, and asked for assistance in identifying the medical terms for the conditions. I was contacted by a number of people offering descriptions, including an anonymous source whose notes are added here in red font. I was also contacted by a Ms. Dixie Lawrence, who stated that she possessed a BS in biochemistry and an MS in biochemical engineering (genetics). Her notes are added here in orange font. Professor Gunther's classifications, where he specifically gave them, are reproduced in green font. My own initial notes and descirptions, sourced from conversations with the photographers, accurate in some cases but not in others, are reproduced here for the record in white font. Ms. Lawrence stated in her communications:

    58. Tokyo Medical University Genetics Link Pages
    Department of Paediatircs genetics Study Group (spina bifida/Syrinx/hydrocephalus Homepage at MGH
    Tokyo Medical University
    Department of Paediatircs
    Genetics Study Group
    Hironao NUMABE, M.D.

    Sorry! Only in Japanese.
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    ‹ØƒWƒXƒgƒƒtƒB[ _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX):
    ƒWƒ‹ƒhƒDƒ‰ƒgƒD[ƒŒƒbƒgÇŒóŒQ ƒgƒD[ƒŒƒbƒgÇŒóŒQ‹¦‰ï(National Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.):

    ƒWƒ‹ƒhƒDƒ‰ƒgƒD[ƒŒƒbƒgÇŒóŒQ(Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: –«‰^“®«ƒ`ƒbƒN)‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éê–åî•ñ‚àŠÜ‚ß‚½–L•x‚ȏî•ñ‚ª‰æ‘œ‚àŒð‚¦‚ďڍׂɎûÚ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éD –э׌ŒŠÇŠg’£«Ž¸’²Ç –э׌ŒŠÇŠg’£«Ž¸’²Ç¬Ž™Œv‰æ(ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA (A-T) CHILDREN'S PROJECT HOME PAGE):
    –э׌ŒŠÇŠg’£«Ž¸’²Ç(ataxia telangiectasia)‚Ì•a–¼‚Ì”­‰¹–@‚©‚çC ‚âˆãŽt‚ɑ΂µ‚Ä‚Ì f’fî•ñ ‚È‚Ç‚ª‹LÚ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éD ƒnƒ“ƒ`ƒ“ƒgƒ“•a ƒnƒ“ƒ`ƒ“ƒgƒ“•aŠ³ŽÒ‚̃PƒA(Caring for People with Huntington's Disease): ˆâ“`Šw“IŽ–€ (f’f‚àŠÜ‚Þ)‚Ìà–¾‚âŠÖ˜AƒŠƒ“ƒN‚à‹LÚ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éD _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): ‚âŠCŠO‚̃tƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‚̃TƒCƒg‚àŠÜ‚ß‚½ƒŠƒ“ƒNî•ñCf’fî•ñ‚È‚Ç‚ª‚³‚Ü‚´‚܂ȃŒƒxƒ‹‚ÅŽûÚ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éD ‹ØˆÏk«‘¤õd‰»Ç _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): ƒVƒƒƒCEƒhƒŒ[ƒK[ÇŒóŒQ _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): ‘½”­«d‰»Ç _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): ‘½”­«‹Ø‰ŠE”畆‹Ø‰Š _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): dÇ‹Ø–³—ÍÇ _Œo‹Ø“ï•a‚̏î•ñƒT[ƒrƒX(_Œo“ï•aî•ñƒT[ƒrƒX): Ž©•ÂÇŽ™‚̃XƒNƒ‰ƒbƒvƒuƒbƒN(Autistic Children's Home Page): Ž©•ÂÇŽ™‚̃lƒbƒgƒ[ƒN‚Ì‚½‚߂̃y[ƒWD _ŒoŠÇ•Â½•s‘S

    59. Medical Links
    Medical Center Division of Medical genetics National Center HyFI) hydrocephalus FactSheet Queensland Association for People with spina bifida or hydrocephalus
    Medical Links
    Table of Genetic Disorders

    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Division of Medical Genetics

    National Center for Environmental Health Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities

    March of Dimes - Birth Defects Foundation
    National Organization For Rare Diseases (NORD)

    Trisomy 13 Related Links
    Chromosome 13 Physical Mapping Project at Columbia University

    Trisomy 18 Related Links
    Trisomy 18 Forum

    Hydrocephalus Related Links Hydrocephalus Association Homepage The Hydrocephalus Foundation, Inc. (HyFI) Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet The Queensland Association for People with Spina Bifida or Hydrocephalus ... Hydrocephalus Trisomy 21 Related Links The Trisomy 21 Foundation Trisomy 21 Forum Trisomy 21 Fact Sheet Trisomy 21: A Genetic Biography ... Med Web - Down Syndrome Anencephaly Related Links Anencephaly Support Foundation Prevent Spina Bifida and Anencephaly Transplantation of organs from newborns with anencephaly Anencephaly Info ... A Description of Various Aspects of Anencephaly Congenital Nephrosis of the Finnish Type Medicine Net, ask the experts about Congenital Nephrosis of the Finnish Type

    60. Development Neurosurgery
    Definition spina bifida is a neural tube defect that can also occur, including hydrocephalus,chiari malformations has been found, but genetics and environment
    you are here: home neurosurgery ALS Brain Aneurysms/AVMs Brain Tumors Development Neurosurgery
    • Hydrocephalus Spina Bifida Chiari Malformation Syringomyelia ... Total Joint Replacement
      Development Neurosurgery
      Developmental neurosurgery includes a wide range of disorders that include hydrocephalus, spina bifida, chiari malformation and spyringomyelia and which may overlap. Hydrocephalus

      This accumulation causes the ventricles to swell and compress the surrounding tissue, which can harm the brain and have an impact on both physical and cognitive development.
      Cerebrospinal fluid is extremely important to the function of the brain and therefore the entire body. It normally flows in pathways from one ventricle to the next and outside the brain, down the spinal cord and into the bloodstream.
      The fluid acts as protection for the brain and spinal cord, delivers nutrients, removes waste and compensates for changes in blood volume within the brain.

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