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         Tswana Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Tswana - Revised Edition by Schapera, 1992-01-02
  2. Handbook of Tswana Law and Custom (Classics in African Anthropology) by Isaac Schapera, 2003-01-01
  3. Journeys with Flies by Edwin N. Wilmsen, 1999-11-01

1. Welcome To South Africa
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, tswana, Venda, Xhosa from the earliest settlersand the indigenous peoples. Indian workers brought to South africa in the
Welcome To South Africa
Key Data
43,426,386 (July 1999 Estimate)
Area Total
Area Land
2,798 km
Mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights. Languages Official Languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu Currency 1 Rand (R) = 100 cents,US$1 equals 6.9 SA rand Boundaries Ethnic Divisions Botswana 1,840 km Indigenous African Lesotho 909 km European descent Namibia 855 km Mixed Mozambique 491 km South Asian Indian Swaziland 430 km Religions Christian, Hindu, Muslim

2. South Africa
weather in south africa, south africa currency, south africa language, south africa cuisine, south africa people, south africa geography. South africa has it all natural beauty, a year-round indigenous South african cuisine is not wildly exciting, since Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, tswana and Venda.
West Africa
Other great Links

To the Government
Adventure Tours Durban Robert Burch: Photos Art of the Ndebele People ... African Wildlife More Links

Centre for Creative Arts

University of Natal

Looking for something? SA Web
SA Site Directory
Official Name Republiek van Suid-Afrika Located South : Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia Capital Johannesburg in name
Pretoria (administrative) Cape Town (legislative) Bloemfontein (juridical) Head of State President Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki Area 1,120,000 sq km Population 42.5 million Growth rate Languages Afrikaans, English and many local languages Currency Rand GNP per capita Inflation Airlines (advertise here) from Europe: from Asia: from USA: Hotels (advertise here) USAfrica Agent Country Advertiser If you want to become the Country Advertiser your logo comes here. USAfrica Research Information Enter your e-mail address to receive e-mail whenever this page is updated. Your e-mail address: WE COULD USE SOME HELP "Due to the many hits/visits, we frequently run against bandwidth stops, being 'out-of-cyberspace' for certain times a day. If every visitors would donate the small amount of $1.00, we could stay in the air, improve our site, and translate it into more languages". Looking forward to your response per e-mail to

3. 1 Peoples Of South Africa
Sotho/tswana are closely related language groups;; Venda; Pedi; Ndebele—to someextent a mixture of Nonindigenous peoples in South africa White Europeans
Home History 322 lecture list Wallace G. Mills Hist. 322 1 Peoples of S. Africa Peoples of South Africa
- they were hunters and food-gatherers.
-they employed stone age technology, but they had very extensive and sophisticated knowledge of plants and animals in their environment.
- they were the cave painters in South Africa; they used similar themes and materials as were used by cave painters in the Sahara dating back about 30,000 years.
Khoikhoi (Hottentots)
- the Khoikhoi were pastoralists (cattle-keepers);
- they had some metals (copper and alloys); they may have acquired these in trade (some evidence of dispersion of metals from central Africa), but there are also evidences of smelting in number of areas of the north-western Cape and Namibia.
- pastoralism gave more control over food supply and somewhat more intensive exploitation allowed denser population and larger political/judicial systems; however, these systems often did not function continuously throughout the year. Annual migrations would bring people together for part of the year; then they would disperse to other grazing grounds for the remainder of the year. Thus, the degree of control and the level of cohesion were limited.
- the Khoikhoi were vulnerable to loss of cattle because their way of life and livelihood depended on this; yet cattle were practically the only commodity which they could trade for European goods. As dependencies on these goods grew, loss of cattle left few economic choices except to become labourers for the white settlers.

4. Community Perspectives -- TBNRM Areas In Southern Africa
PRECOLONIAL METALWORKING IN africa A BIBLIOGRAPHY. MILLER T. MAGGS Originally compiled by Dr Tim Maggs and staff of the Natal Museum, Private Bag 9070, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South africa.
Study on the Development of Transboundary Natural Resource Management Areas in Southern Africa COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVES Simon Metcalfe The Biodiversity Support Program
BSP Communications
Our communications activities are designed to share what we are learning about how best to achieve conservation while doing it. To accomplish this, we try to analyze both our successes and our failures. We hope our work will serve conservation practitioners as a catalyst for further discussion, learning, and action so that more biodiversity is conserved. Our communications programs include print publications, web sites, presentations, and workshops. Visiting BSP Web Sites
We invite you to visit our general and program-specific web sites at the following addresses:
Biodiversity Support Program
Biodiversity Conservation Network
KEMALA: Supporting Indonesian NGOs for Community Based Natural Resource Management BSP Listserv
Register to receive e-mail updates about BSP through

5. South Africa (04/02)
Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South africa

Afrikaans English Ndebele Pedi Sotho Swazi Tsonga tswana Venda Xhosa Zulu. more.History The indigenous peoples of modern South africa established a

7. General Essay On The Religions Of Sub-Saharan Africa
its presence felt among the indigenous peoples who inhabited The choice of indigenoustraditions has been made The tswana London Routledge Kegan Paul, 1984
General Essay on the Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed and evolved over the last two to three thousand years in many different ways. While the traditions depicted in this chart provide examples of those that exist today, and that were affected by the expansion of European colonialism in the 19th century, peoples living in the vast area south of the Sahara desert had already sustained rich systems of belief and practice long before the arrival of Christianity and colonialism, and certainly in some cases befroe the Muslim expansion from the Arabian peninsula. Islam entered Sub-Saharan Africa in the eighth century, and within six hundred years of the prophet's death had penetrated from the Sahara to the Sudanic belt, and from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, making its presence felt among the indigenous peoples who inhabited this expanse. Other transplanted religions have had virtually no impact upon Sub-Saharan traditions. With the exception of Judaism, these did not make any permanent incursion into the region until the 19th or 20th centuries. The chart suggests three wide areas of religious beliefs and practices: (I) Indigenous African religions; (II) World Religions (Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Sikhism and Zorastrianism); (III) New Religious Traditions (African Independent Churches).

8. Untitled
sirakarana 1171 , chirakaraka 1171 ; tswana (Botswana) mokapana potable waterUsed by the indigenous peoples of south-western africa 1332 1507.
SEPASAL Database Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Sond.)C.Jeffrey Cucurbitaceae Fruit and leaves of Acanthosicyos naudinianus , Botswana (F.E.M. Cook) SYNONYMS Citrullus naudinianus (Sond.)Hook.f. Colocynthis naudinianus (Sond.)Kuntze Cucumis naudinianus Sond. VERNACULAR NAMES !Kung Bushmen (Africa, S.) - cha ; Afrikaans (South Africa)- gemsbok komkommer ; English - wild melon ; English (South Africa) - herero cucumber ; Kwangali (South Africa) - ruputui ; Lozi (Zambia) - lungwatanga ; Thonga (Mozambique) - sirakarana , chirakaraka ; Tswana (Botswana) - mokapana DISTRIBUTION Native - Angola, Mozambique , Zambia , Zimbabwe , Botswana , Cape Province, Namibia s.l. , Natal , Orange Free State, Transvaal. DESCRIPTORS DESCRIPTION Primary Producer; Terrestrial; Herb; Perennial; Prostrate/Procumbent/Semi-erect; Dioecious . Thorny/Spiny - unspecified parts. CLIMATE Subtropical, Hot and Arid SOILS Saline ; Sandy ; Dry. HABITAT Woodland , Grassland/Forb-Land , Wooded Grassland . Altitude 900-1350 m a.s.l. CHEMICAL ANALYSES Nutritional Analyses - infructescences , seeds , 'roots' ; Vitamin B1 (thiamine) - infructescences , 'roots' , Vitamin B2/Vitamin G (riboflavin) - infructescences , 'roots' , Vitamin B7/Vit. P-P (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid) - infructescences

9. MetaCrawler Results | Search Query = Kalahari San
tourism operations tend to involve indigenous peoples only to a which covers partsof Botswana and South africa. San People tswana, Zulu, Swazi Types of Art San

10. Bibliografía
1955 A Handbook of tswana Law and Custom 1994 indigenous peoples, international institutions,and the international of political tradition in equatorial africa.
R ED L ATINOAMERICANA D E A NTROPOLOGIA J URIDICA R EFERENCIAS A guas, A ntropología J urídica, B osques C onstitución, C onsuetudinario, P ueblos I ndígenas, P luralismo J uridico, S istemas C omunitarios, S ociología J urídica, T erritorios, N aciones U nidas. Bibliografía (lenguas inglesa y francesa) Bibliografía (Español) Declaraciones, Estudios Internacionales y Documentos Indígenas Bibliografía (Guatemala) ... B1 : Bibliografía (lenguas inglesa y francesa) Anaya, James Indigenous peoples in international law. Oxford University Press. Antweiler, Christoph Local knowledge and local knowing. Germany: University of Trier. Departament of Antropology. Assier Andrieu, Louis Le juridique des anthropologues. Droit et Societé (5)1987 91-110. Balandier, George Antropológicas. Barcelona: Ediciones Península. 1984 Antropologie Polítique. París: PUF 1988 Le desordre: Eloge du movement. París: Fayard Benda-Beckmann, F. von Understanding agrarian law in society. En: F. von Benda-Beckmann y M. van der Velde (Eds.) Law as a resource in agrarian struggles. Wageningen: Pudoc. 1-22 Benda-Beckmann, K. von

11. Südafrika Seminar
Translate this page tswana Dictionary, spricht für sich selbst. advocate the rights, voice and visionof indigenous peoples. Stanford University africa South of the Sahara, spricht'','pt2yhBiRsaTg','width=488,height=50'); Hallo alle Südafrika-Interessierte
Da wir bei der Suche nach Infos für unser Referat vornehmlich Websites verwendet haben, dachten wir uns, dass wir eine Linkliste für das gesamte Seminar veröffentlichen.
Um eine umfassende Quelle rundum das Thema Südafrika anzubieten, bedarf es umfassender Informationen.
Es wäre doch interessant, wenn Thesenpapiere etc. veröffentlicht werden könnten - also ab in die email damit, genau wie weitere Links, die ihr bei Recherchen gefunden habt. Die Seite soll nicht schön sein, sondern informativ. Deshalb das doch recht schlichte Design.
Einige der Seiten sind selbst bei uns im Wohnheim verdammt langsam (es ist ein weiter und beschwerlicher Weg nach Südafrika), demnach könnt ihr Euch bei einigen bestimmt erstmal einen Kaffee holen...
Christof, Jonas und Martin
Input in Form von emails bitte hier hin

I nhalt:

Tourismus Sonstige Infos Referate Bildungspolitik in Süd-Afrika Referat über die Bildungspolitik in SA von Britta und Anne Cordes Generelle Infos Botschaft der RSA Unter anderem die so hoch gelobten RSA-News Goethe Institut Jo'burg Kontaktadressen in RSA Südafrika von A-Z (Goethe Institut) University of Pennsylvania Encyplopaedia Britannica Eben ein lexikalischer Einblick Länderinfo der GTZ Projekte der GTZ MAX - das Yahoo! SA

12. 100gogo Expedition Of Africa, Africa's Super Predators & Mammals Safari
The other indigenous groups are all Bantuspeaking peoples, originally from establishingthe conquest states of the Zulu, Swazi, tswana, Ndebele (Matabele
Africa - The Birthplace of Modern Humans You either love it or hate it . . . Africa Map Click here to see large map
Features of Africa
Africa is the second-largest continent , after Asia, covering 30,330,000 sq km; about 22% of the total land area of the Earth. It measures about 8,000 km from north to south and about 7,360 km from east to west. The highest point on the continent is Mt. Kilimanjaro - Uhuru Point - (5,963 m/19,340 ft) in Tanzania. The lowest is Lake 'Asal (153 m/502 ft below sea level) in Djibouti. The Forests cover about one-fifth of the total land area of the continent.
The Woodlands, bush lands, grasslands and thickets occupy about two-fifth.
And the Deserts and their extended margins have the remaining two-fifths of African land. World's longest river : The River Nile drains north-eastern Africa, and, at 6,650 km (4,132 mi), is the longest river in the world. It is formed from the Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia, and the White Nile, which originates at Lake Victoria. World's second largest lake : Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the is the world's second-largest freshwater lake - covering an area of 69,490 sq km (26,830 sq mi) and lies 1,130 m (3,720 ft) above sea level. Its greatest known depth is 82 m (270 ft).

13. South Africa Travel Guide, Language In South Africa, Peoples In South Africa, Re
indigenous South african cuisine is not wildly exciting There are 11 official languagesin South africa. Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, tswana and Venda.
General Info Places of Interest Shopping Night Life ... Language South Africa has it all - natural beauty, a year-round sunny climate, abundant wildlife, beautiful beaches and superb facilities for sports and business. This beautiful, culturally and geographically diverse country is just emerging from years of skewed racial relations under apartheid. The international community has relaxed its sanctions, a popularly elected President is at the helm, and the whole country is agog with the promise of a better future.
Geography South Africa is located, as one might expect, on the southern tip of Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the Indian Ocean on the south and east. Along its northern border, from west to east, lie Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe, and to the northeast are Mozambique and Swaziland. Wholly-enclosed by South Africa, and situated in its eastern central plain, is the independent kingdom of Lesotho.

14. Holbrook Travel - Country Information - South Africa
increasingly segregated themselves from indigenous Bantu peoples intermarriage ofthese diverse peoples produced a Zulu, Xhosa, North Sotho, tswana and South

South Africa is the southernmost country in Africa, bordered on the north by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Swaziland; on the east and south by the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. Lesotho forms an enclave in the northeastern part of the country. The history of South Africa has been a history of conflict between its peoples. Now, the country faces a new challenge: The challenge to forgive the hatreds and injuries of the past; the challenge to join together to build a new future with freedom and opportunity for all. This new era has so far been remarkably peaceful and has surpassed all expectations. Population The Bantu peoples account for three quarters of the total population. White settlement began in 1652 with the arrival of the Dutch, who gradually spread into the interior as farmers. They developed their own language called Afrikaans, lived isolated lives, and increasingly segregated themselves from indigenous Bantu peoples, whom they encountered in the interior. French Huguenot and German settlers were later absorbed into this group, known as Afrikaners. In the early 1800s, British settlers began to arrive, and Indians came in the late 19th and early 20th century. The majority of Indians were brought as indentured laborers to work on the sugar plantations of Natal. A substantial Portuguese minority developed in the late 20th century. The intermarriage of these diverse peoples produced a large non-white population.

15. FOEover
the use of rhythm instruments of indigenous peoples of africa in developing an awarenessof indigenous culture, the africa, among Zulu, Xhosa,tswana and Swazi
focusing on the use of rhythm instruments of indigenous peoples of Africa
Lorna is an enthusiastic consultant and motivational facilitator specializing in developing an awareness of indigenous culture, the function of ancient belief systems, and the connection with today's communities and societies.
Her professional artistic and teaching career developed at an early age, while growing up in southern Africa, among Zulu, Xhosa,Tswana and Swazi tribal people. Lorna's life experiences and energy are reflected in her multi media creations which include a multitude of collective talents in jewelry design, sculptural and functional clay forms and ritual drums and rattles.
Her work is included in private collections in the united states, Canada, Africa, Japan, Russia, and Europe. Colleges, Galleries, Care giving facilities, Women's associations and Boards of education have invited Lorna to percent workshops , seminars and lectures for educators and staff, students, people with special needs and the public.

16. Saugestad
and Encounters in Southern africa. In Andrew indigenous peoples, National Modelsand Recent International Mothers in Changing tswana Society Implications
Sidsel Saugestad
Tlf: 77 64
E- post:
Biografiske data: Forskningsfelt: Publikasjoner:
- "'When I say Land I talk about my Mother.'Contemporary Perspectives on Indigenous Organisations and Encounters in Southern Africa."
In Andrew Bank (ed) The Khoisan Identities and Cultural Heritage Conference. Cape Town; University of Western Cape. 1998. - The Inconvenient Indigenous: Remote Area Development in Botswana, Donor Assistance and the First People of the Kalahari.
- Review articles on contemporary situation of Bushmen in Botswana
IWGIA's Yearbook The Indigenous World.1996, 1997, 1998.
Antropolognytt nr.4.
- Indigenous peoples and the challenges to Norwegian development assistance.
Paper given at the Opening Session, Indigenous Week, Oslo, Sept. 1997. Kronikk i Klassekampen 2 mars 1996. - "Setting history straight. Bushmen encounters in Cape Town". Indigenous Affairs No.4 1996. - "Lokalsamfunnsforskning - fra tema til teori" Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift nr.4 1996 - With Alan Barnard, Megan Biesele, et al. "Visual Ethics and John Marshall's 'A Kalahari Family'" Collective letter in Anthropology Newsletter 37(5), May 1996 pp.15-16

17. Untitled
One of the plaintive cries of african indigenous peoples is for about hunting rightsin southern africa, First, the In the l9th century, tswana chiefs declared
‘HUNTING IS OUR HERITAGE’ THE STRUGGLE FOR HUNTING AND GATHERING RIGHTS AMONG THE SAN OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Robert K. Hitchcock Introduction A major concern of San and other indigenous peoples in southern Africa is whether or not they will be able to maintain their rights to hunting and gathering in the face of major changes in land and natural resource conservation legislation and development projects that tend to favor mining, agriculture, and commercial livestock production. Unfortunately for those people who depend on hunting and gathering for part of their livelihoods, there are few states in Africa that permit their citizens to engage in hunting for subsistence purposes. Currently the only African country which has national-level legislation allowing subsistence hunting rights is the Republic of Botswana (Hitchcock 1996). Two other countries in Africa in the past allow specific groups of people who traditionally were hunter-gatherers to hunt for subsistence: (1) Namibia, where one group, the Ju/’hoansi San are allowed to hunt in what was Eastern Bushmanland (now Eastern Otjozondjupa) (Hitchcock 1996), and (2) Tanzania, where the Hadza in the Lake Eyasi region were allowed to hunt without paying fees under the country’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1974 (Newman 1970:59).

18. Institutt For Sosialantropologi - 1996
22 Gulbrandsen, Ørnulf africa South The counterhegemonic force of the tswana kgotlain Resources, Nations and indigenous peoples Case studies from Australasia
Det samfunnsvitenskapelige fakultet
Institutt for sosialantropologi
Produksjonsdato : 2001-01-30
Katalogtype: Kortformat. metodologija antropolo kega raziskovanja (anthropological research methods). Anthropological Notebooks. Red. umi, Irena; Kne evi -Ho evar, Du ka. Slovene Anthropological Society I(1995) 102-104 1996. ISSN 1408-0338 75 Minnich, Robert Gary Partition and Integration of the Three Country Region. - Project secretariat: University of Klagenfurt, Section for Ea Southeast European History. 12 s 1996. 76 Minnich, Robert Gary Percepcija pripadnosti (perceptions of identity). Dept. of Geography, School of Liberal Arts, University of Ljubljana 1996. 77 Minnich, Robert Gary The individual as author of collective identities: reconsidering identity formation within a multilingual borderland. SLORI (Slovene Research Institute) - Val Canale seat 159-175 Tarvisio-Trbi -Tarvis, Val Canale, Italia 1996. Ve jezi

19. He Applicability Of The Aboriginal Tit
as the Basters, Damara, nama, Herero, tswana, Bushmen, Ovambo and suppression ofthe peoples of Namibia of dispossession of land of indigenous communities can
The applicability of the doctrine of aboriginal title in Namibia: A case for the Kxoe community in West-Caprivi, Namibia Norman Tjombe Legal Assistance Centre, Namibia
presented at the Southern African Land Reform Lawyers Workshop 21 February 2001, Robben Island, South Africa
Introduction The doctrine of aboriginal title has not received a lot of attention in Namibia. As a matter of fact, the doctrine found its way into the Namibian Courts only in 1997 when the Kxoe community in the western Caprivi region of Namibia challenged the Namibian Government on their land and environmental rights. The case never proceeded any further, probably because of the Namibian Government would have had to defend racist laws and apartheid practices of the South African and German colonial governments - indeed a very uncomfortable defence for a independent Namibia. Aboriginal title presents very important legal consequences for the claimant community, such as claiming compensation for land expropriated without just compensation or simply to reclaim their land. In independent Namibia many minority and indigenous communities are faced again with land dispossession.

20. TDS; Passports, Visas, Travel Documents
descending from the earliest settlers and the indigenous peoples. Indian workers broughtto South africa in the Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, tswana, Venda, Xhosa
South Africa
Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: Africans (black), whites, coloreds, and Asians. Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories. Africans comprise about 78% of the population and are divided into a number of different ethnic groups. Whites comprise about 10% of the population. They are primarily descendants of Dutch, French, English, and German settlers who began arriving at the Cape in the late 17th century. Coloreds are mixed-race people primarily descending from the earliest settlers and the indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South Africa in the mid-19th century to work on the sugar estates in Natal. They constitute about 3% of the population and are concentrated in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. Education is in a state of flux. Under the apartheid system schools were segregated, and the quantity and quality of education varied significantly across racial groups. Although the laws governing this segregation have been abolished, the long and arduous process of restructuring the country's educational system is just beginning. The challenge is to create a single nondiscriminatory, nonracial system that offers the same standards of education to all people. Nationality: Noun and adjectiveSouth African(s).

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