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  1. Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey by Fergal Keane, 1996-09-01

1. IPACC - Regional Information: Central Africa
The indigenous peoples of Central africa are forest indigenous peoples are threatenedby the political instability in on the dominant groups, the tutsi and Hutu

2. FWDP -- African Documents
Kingdoms Of africa. africa was the homeland of several great civilizations. dominate the indigenous Bantu. Other Kushites are believed to be ancestors of the tutsi peoples of modern
The Fourth World Documentation Project
African Documents
  • Documents by Dr. Richard Griggs on the Great Lakes conflict in Eastern Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, and Tanzania:
  • The Cultural Dimensions of Environmental Decision-Making by Dr. Richard Griggs
  • MOROCO85.TXT - Statement by Morocco at the UNWGIP 4th Session - April 1985
  • NUBA1.TXT - The Crisis in Nuba Mountains - Genocide against the Nuba by Sudan
  • NUBA2.TXT - Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad info sheet and help request
  • PARKIPNY.TXT - The Indigenous Peoples Rights Question in Africa - Statement before UNWGIP by Moringe Parkipuny, Member of Parliament, Ngorongoro, Tanzania
  • OGONI.TXT - Background material on the Ogoni Nation in Nigeria consisting of UNPO and Amnesty International Reports
  • REHOBOTH.TXT - On the Discrimination of the Rehoboth Basters - A paper to the UN by European immigrants to Namibia trying to claim to be "Indigenous Peoples"
  • 3. WRM Bulletin Nº 62 - Africa / September 2002
    Parc des Volcans (the oldest park in africa, created in Batwa (socalled Pygmies)are the indigenous peoples of south The tutsi moved into the area after 1550.
    WRM Bulletin To download the bulletin in RTF format click here
    For free subscription

    Previous issues
    Issue Number 62 - September 2002
    Focused on Indigenous Peoples Index Viewpoint Asia Americas ... General
    LOCAL STRUGGLES AND NEWS - Cameroon: Bagyeli struggling to be heard Since the 19th century the land rights of forest dwellers in Cameroon have not figured in the major decisions by the rulers. All forest lands, defined as vacant and without owners "vacant et sans maitres" became property of the state, and many forests were then opened for timber exploitation, which closed those areas for hunting by Bagyeli, Baka, and other so-called "Pygmy" hunter gathering communities, whose presence across Southern Cameroon predates the colonial State. Secondly, new restrictions on hunting and forest access in Bagyeli traditional areas near the border with Equatorial Guinea were brought about by the gazettement of Campo Ma'an National Park. The protection of this important area, which is traversed by a road used to export timber, forms part of the environmental compensation for the pipeline. However, its new status as national park means that Bagyeli hunting and gathering communities who have operated there since recorded history face being criminalised for continuing to pursue their livelihoods. These examples illustrate a total disregard of local land tenure and livelihood systems by those who prepared the pipeline plans.

    4. Africa:Forests Under Threat
    Oil palm is indigenous to the Nigerian coastal plain TNCs, the Niger Delta's biodiversityand peoples mean nothing World Bank first and the Hutututsi civil war
    Publications Africa: Forests under threat index MALI
    The value of biodiversity in a fragile environment Known by its historical past because of the vast and powerful empire that surprised European visitors in the XIV century, nowadays the Malian territory comprises more than 1,200,000 square kilometres in West Africa, over the Sahara desert in the north, the Sahel grasslands in the centre and the savannah region in the south. In the Sahel, human life as well as that of the flora and fauna follow the Niger River's annual flood cycle, with high water levels between August and November. More plentiful rainfall and water courses - including the Niger River - in the southern region give place to a more lush biodiversity. With more than 58% of its land desert and another 30% threatened by the continued encroachment of the Sahel, Mali faces desertification and deforestation as two capital environmental problems, both of them strongly related to the loss of biodiversity. The wide variety of plants and animals from the forests and other ecosystems containing trees - like the savannah - constitute an important component of household food supply. In many villages and small towns, the "hidden harvest" from forests and trees is essential for food security since it provides a number of essential dietary products. For example, the fruit of Saba senegalensis is widely eaten in Mali. The failure of the plantation projects using alien fast growing species in order to mitigate the effects of the drought registered in the decade of 1970, was due to the fact that they did not recognise that for many rural people the non-timber forest products are important to their social and economic survival. Thus they preferred native species to alien ones, no matter how fast they could grow.

    5. Unpo - Batwa
    Information on the Batwa people.Category Regional africa Rwanda Society and Culture...... country in Central East africa, occupying 26,338 and one million people, mainly tutsi,were killed Batwa founded the Community of indigenous peoples of Rwanda
    Member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation UNPO BATWA (RWANDA)
    Click on flag for larger picture! Geographical Features: Rwanda is a landlocked mountainous country in Central East Africa, occupying 26,338 km². Land use is about 35 % arable, 20 % pasture and 11 % forest.
    Principal exports for Rwanda are coffee, tea and tin. In the north Rwanda borders Uganda, in the east Tanzania, in the west in borders Zaire, in the south Burundi. Population: With some 7.3 million inhabitants, Rwanda was one of the world’s most densely populated countries before the genocide and war in 1994. The Batwa made up only 0.4 %,some 29,000 people, whereas the Hutu and Tutsi comprised 85 % and 14 % respectively of the total population in Rwanda.
    It is estimated that between 500,000 and one million people, mainly Tutsi, were killed during the genocide and another two million fled the country. Rough estimates for the present Batwa population, based on a provisional census carried out by the UNPO in late 1994,indicate that up to 10,000 Batwa died. Another 8,000 to 10,000 fled, leaving the post-war Batwa population in Rwanda between 10,000 and 20,000. Culture and Language: Like all Rwandans, the Batwa speak Kinyarwanda, and in religion, the differences are negligible.

    6. U.S.-Africa Issues - National Museum Of African Art Debuts Historic Congo Photo
    ago by a European photographer traveling among the tutsi people in of western andwhite attitudes towards the indigenous peoples of central africa who were
    IIP Home Africa Issues Tuesday 10 December 2002
    National Museum of African Art Debuts Historic Congo Photo Exhibit
    Images of colonial Africa enthrall Washington audiences By Bruce Greenberg
    Washington File Staff Writer Washington She peers majestically though disinterestedly down from a high-tech projection screen overlooking all who enter, an image of Africa captured long ago by a European photographer traveling among the Tutsi people in what is now Rwanda. She was queen mother to King Mutara III Rudahigwa, captured on film by an obscure Russian named Casimir Zagourski, who devoted the last twenty years of his life to recording the lives of the peoples of the Belgian Congo, known as the Congo Free State, at the turn of the last century. The two have been restored to life in a new exhibit "In and Out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 1885-1960" that opened at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art December 6 and running through March 16, 2003. Zagourski's collection comprises a major portion of the exhibit, but there are photographs taken by anonymous amateurs, missionaries, colonial officials, curious tourists and jaded aristocrats and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth of Belgium. As a whole, they unearth a time capsule of western and white attitudes towards the indigenous peoples of central Africa who were by and large regarded as children and treated as chattel.

    7. Africa | Basic Facts > History > Eastern Africa
    theory is that more advanced Cushite peoples from the Ethiopian highlands came todominate the indigenous Bantu. to be ancestors of the tutsi peoples of modern

    Northern Africa

    Western Africa

    Central Africa

    Southern Africa
    Eastern Africa
    Farther to the south, in Rwanda and Burundi, a cattle-raising pastoral aristocracy founded by the Bachwezi (alternatively called Tutsi Bututsi, or Bahima, in this area) ruled over the settled Bantu peoples from the 16th century onwards.
    Source of information [
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    For Site Owners Link Exchange Program

    8. Rwanda
    tutsi scholars worked with European intellectuals to prove was responsible for alltrue development in africa. o The inferior Twa were the indigenous peoples.
    Dependency and Development: Introduction to the Third World
    Anth/IS 301 Dr. Lewellen This is the outline of a PowerPoint presentation given in class. It is not meant as a substitute for the images or lecture and discussion that accompanies it. For exams, students are responsible for all the material, not just that contained here.
    Rwanda: Legacy of Colonialism
    "When I came out, there were no birds," said one survivor who had hidden throughout the genocide. "There was only sunshine and the stench of death." In the thirteen weeks after April 6, 1994, from half million to a million people perished in the Rwandan genocide, perhaps as many as three quarters of the Tutsi population. At colonialism's peak, much of the world was in Europe's hands.
    In 1885 a conference was held in Berlin that arbitrarily divided Africa among the European powers. The Germans colonized Rwanda at the turn of the century, but lost it to Belgium after World War I. Forerunners of the people who are now known as Hutu and Tutsi settled the region over a period of two thousand years.
    o They had a single language and common culture.

    9. GfbV's Mandate
    Sudanese peoples and Nuba in Sudan, tutsi and Batwa colonialism, the borders in Asia,africa or South World Bank, the rights of indigenous peoples are eithert
    last update: 16/02/2000
    Urgent Projects Worldwide

    For peace in Europe

    Arms Trade as a Cause for Minority Conflicts
    Free Trade against Human Rights
    Write to us when you would like to know more

    A round the globe minorities are oppressed and persecuted. From the destruction of the Armenians and Assyrians in Turkey to the holocaust of the Jews, Sinti and Roma, the deportation of the peoples of the Caucasians during Stalin’s dictatorship until the genocide of the Amazonian Indians, Eritreans, South Sudanese peoples and Nuba in Sudan, Tutsi and Batwa in Ruanda, Chittagong Hill Tract tribal people as well as East Timorese and West Papuans, these are some examples of the persecution and destruction of minorities in the 20th century. During colonialism, the borders in Asia, Africa or South America were drawn according to the strategies and economic interests of the European “motherlands”. Because ethnic and cultural contexts were mostly ignored in this process, the peoples were divided - for example, the Kurds who today live in four different states in the Middle East. For Peace in Europe A s war in declining Yugoslavia broke out in 1991, after 46 years of peace in Europe, the GfbV campaigned vehemently for an end to the Serbian attack on Croatia and Bosnia, the genocide of the Bosnian muslims as well as the terror directed against the Albainians in Kosovo. In addition, the GfbV sharply condemned the Russian assault on Chechnya as it was tolerated by the Western governments as Russian “internal affairs”. After the Dayton Peace Agreement in December 1995, we campaigned against the decision of the German Minister of the Interior to rashly deport more than 300,000 Bosnian refugees and exilees from Germany while up to 3,000 war criminals still held civil and military positions in the Serbian occupied area of Bosnia. We demanded that the Dayton security forces undertake the imprisonment and delivery of the war criminals to the tribunal in the Haag, as well as the establishment of freedom of movement and democracy in Bosnia.

    10. Publications
    of Twa relations with the Hutu and tutsi and presents the As the problem is presentin africa, Asia and Forest Industries, indigenous peoples and Human Rights.
    Publications and Documents New! En voie de disparition ? Les droits des autochtones en Afrique : Le cas des Twa du Parc national de Kahuzi-Biega, en République démocratique du Congo Albert Kwokwo Barume The list below details in date order, recent and past FPP documents that are available on request from Julie Manning at . Electronic links for viewing key documents will be installed in the near future. Purchasing pounds sterling, US dollars, or in Euros , payable to Forest Peoples Programme. We regret we cannot accept credit card payments or any other foreign currency payments. Discounted rates are available for qualifying NGOs. Please contact us to enquire whether your organisation is entitled to a reduced price. Please include postage: UK orders: post free, Overseas: under £50 add £3.50; over £50 add £7.50 under $75 add $5.50; over $75 add $12.00 Order from: FPP, 1c Fosseway Business Centre, Stratford Road, Moreton-in-Marsh, UK, GL56 9NQ fax: 44 (0)1608 652878 tel: 44 ( 0)1608 652893 email:

    11. 'New Right', Neo-pagans, Ecology And Indigenous People
    and social unit in precolonial africa It sometimes sizeable herd of cattle wascalled tutsi and was And indigenous peoples themselves, how do they look upon
    'The Right to be Different'
    The alarming interest of the "New Right" in indigenous peoples
    Nederlandse versie SIMPOS home page A well-known expression of indigenous peoples is: "The Earth does not belong to us, we belong to the Earth." Man is only a small part of Creation, and he should not be its ruler. This view communicates a respectful, humble attitude towards nature. But with some evil will, this expression of relatedness with all that lives can easily be associated with dangerous "Blut und Boden"-thinking. In this regard, it could be instructive to look back in history to see how feelings of connection to nature have been misused in pre-Second World War Germany. Today, again, radical-rightist groups are standing up which pride themselves in saying that their conduct is being guided by "the laws of nature". Next to that, they claim to be big proponents of cultural self-determination, even - or expressly - for indigenous peoples. The National-Socialists promoted a return to a more simple, healthier and natural lifestyle, and introduced the concept of a "Nordic peasantry" organically tied to the earth. Part of that became a scientifically grounded Volksreligion, which proclaimed the sacredness of nature, and which celebrated man's immanent unity with the "mysteries of the blood". It was Hitler himself who declared that men "owe their higher existence ... to the knowledge and ruthless application of nature's stern and rigid laws." One Nazi author put it this way: "man is a link in the chain of living nature just as any other organism." This "religion of nature", the roots of which go back to German Romanticism and Idealism, was a core element of National Socialist ideology. An ideology which was based on anti-modern sentiments, but nevertheless formed the base for building a technologically ultra-modern, extreme nationalist and genocidal state.

    12. The Daily University Star ONLINE Opinions
    factor in the demise of the indigenous peoples of the the exception of Ethiopia andLiberia, africa was under The tutsi ethnic group moving into the region in
    European influence contributed to problems in Zaire, Rwanda
    Dexter Gabriel
    As currents of political instability sweep the African continent and European nations become angels of mercy and promoters of peace, I must conclude that we live in a world of cruel ironies. The situation in Africa did not erupt overnight, where mindless savages rise up to slaughter each other and remedy some tribal bloodlust. What is happening in Africa is a complex story with intricate roots of human flaws, spiritual collapse, struggles for survival and heinous exploitation. Even taking into account human frailty and environmental pressures, the most destructive element to Africa has been foreign aggression. Some may balk at this, but in comparison, I doubt anyone would disagree that the weightiest factor in the demise of the indigenous peoples of the Americas has been European contact. It began with the sweeps of Arabs into the eastern and northern parts of the continent and Europeans from the west. The ensuing slave trades depopulated entire societies while creating and magnifying animosities between others. Tens of millions were displaced. Chaos ensued as people fled slave traders and fought over scarce resources. Contrary to popular myth, Africans did not benefit from participation in these trades; as a collective, it would leave the continent vulnerable. Europeans wanted to capitalize on this weakness. By World War I, with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, Africa was under European control. The effects of mass exploitation and cultural devastation of this period have yet to be fully analyzed.

    13. Term Papers - Term Papers - Africa - 007-050
    Papers On africa Page 51 of 75. like the “reservations” of North America’sown indigenous peoples. the history of Rwanda, the tutsiHutu conflict which
    *** Find A Paper Here *** - Personal Finance - Corporate Finance - Economics - Economic Theory - Economic History - International Economics - International Finance - Misc. Economic Issues Africa Anthropology Argumentative / Pro-Con Essays - Artists, Art Genre - Famous Works Of Art - Social Issues In Art - Political Issues In Art - Art From Ancient Cultures - Graphic Arts - Photography Asian Studies - The Phillipines - India - Miscellaneous Astronomy Biographies Black Studies - Black Social Issues - Black Politics - Black Philosophy - Racism - Historical Figures Business Management - Management Theory - Advertising Issues - Business Ethics - Human Resource Issues - Management Of Info Systems - International Business - Management Theory - Applied Operations Mgt. - Management And Business - Consumer Behavior - Marketing - Marketing Case Studies - Business Plans - Technical Writing Samples - Misc. Issues In Business

    14. The Killing Fields
    a set of group rights for the world's indigenous peoples. 250 nations may be egregiousbut typical for africa. either state control (eg, Hutu VS tutsi in Rwanda
    Stiftelsen Skånsk Framtid Stiftelsen Skånsk Framtid
    Documentation Project

    (File 1116saro.htm) b>
    The Conceptual Killing Fields
    Dr Richard A Griggs, Political Geographer, University of Cape Town
    Before dying blindfolded and dangling from a rope, Ken Saro-Wiwa uttered his last words:" Lord take my soul, but the struggle continues. " Those who would now protest his death in the singular language of "human rights" and simply forget his struggle for group rights are blinded in the conceptual killing fields: an arena of indoctrinated thinking in which one cannot conceptualise nation-killing ( geno nation cide =to kill). This leader of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People was an official of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation and a representative to the annual UN-sponsored conference to draft a set of group rights for the world's indigenous peoples. The "struggle" was against cultural genocide. Saro-Wiwa's cultural identity and that of the 500 000 people he represented was Ogoni, one of some 6 000 to 9 000 internationally unrecognised nations that are subjected daily to various forms of genocide engendered by " nation-building " processes (often a euphemism for state-building by nation-destroying). From the Polar Nations of the North (

    15. Untitled
    Are indigenous peoples merely not inferior less than 30% of people from parts of africa,eastern and The tutsi of central africa, the Bedouin of the desert, the
    Even if it were proved - which it is not - that the incidence of men of potentially superior brain power is greater among the members of certain races than among the members of others, it would still tell us nothing about any given individual and it would be irrelevent to one's judgment of him. A genius is still a genius, regardless of the number of morons who belong to the same race. If races exist, then one must be supreme. Much of the Race Does Not Exist cant stems from the following logic (if you can call it logic): "If there really are different racial groups, then one must be The Master Race, which means - oh my God - that Hitler Was Right! Therefore, we must promote whatever ideas most confuse the public about race. Otherwise, they will learn the horrible truth and they'll all vote Nazi." # RACIAL DIFFERENCES Are indigenous peoples merely not inferior? In truth, on their own turf many ethnic groups appear to be somewhat genetically superior to outsiders. Many people appear to confuse the concepts of genetic superiorities (plural) and genetic supremacy (singular). The former are circumstance-specific. For example, a slim, heat-shedding Somalian-style body is inferior to a typically stocky, heat-conserving Eskimo physique in Nome, but it's superior in Mogadishu.
    In contrast, genetic supremacy is the dangerous fantasy that one group is best at everything. Before the European explosion began in the 15th Century, it seemed apparent that no race could be supreme. Even the arrogant Chinese were periodically overrun by less-cultured barbarians. The recent European supremacy in both the arts of war and of peace was partly an optical illusion masking the usual tradeoffs in talents within Europe (e.g., Italian admirals were as inept as English cooks). Still, the rise and reign of Europe remains the biggest event in world history. Yet, the era when Europeans could plausibly claim supremacy over all other races has been dead for at least the 60 years since Hitler, of all people, allied with Japan.

    16. Land And Spirituality In Africa
    between the spiritualities of the indigenous peoples and the land of land ownership,distribution and control in africa. between the Hutus and the tutsi can be
    The Earth as Mother
    Land and Spirituality in Africa Articles in this series: Land: Breaking bonds and cementing ties
    by Edmore Mufema Spirituality, land and land reform in South Africa ... Rev. Rupert Hambira In 1996, Indigenous People met during the Conference on World Mission and Evangelism held in Salvador Bahia Brazil. One year later, the World Council of Churches’ Indigenous Peoples’ Programme (WCC/IPP) in cooperation with the Botswana Christian Council also held a workshop under the theme "Spirituality, Land and the Role of the Churches in the Struggle for the Indigenous Peoples’ Rights" in Gabarone. From that meeting came a call to continue building spiritual,cultural and political identities within the churches in the countries where Indigenous Peoples are located. The areas of critical concern identified were land, protection of rights under international law, preservation/promotion of culture, decision making processes, advocacy, spirituality and networking. In February 1998, some Indigenous Peoples participants who had been at the Gabarone workshop and other representatives from Africa, attended a consultation on "Land and Spirituality" in Karasjok, Norway. Here the world-wide Indigenous Peoples community exchanged ways in which their spiritualities and lands were threatened. From this sharing, ideas of cooperation and responsibilities were discussed. The Indigenous meeting and the statement of Karasjok became a strong challenge to convene in Harare to identify the critical issues affecting African Indigenous Peoples in general. Before the WCC’s eighth Assembly in Harare, "Land and Spirituality: The African Context" was the theme chosen for the workshop the same theme used in Karasjok, Norway. It showed the connectedness between the spiritualities of the Indigenous Peoples and the land on which they originated.

    17. School Reports - Research Reports And Papers On Africa - 007-020
    Papers On africa Page 21 of 30. like the “reservations” of North America’sown indigenous peoples. the history of Rwanda, the tutsiHutu conflict which
    school reports
    Yes!! We DO Have Essays On Your Topic!!
    All essays listed below are $ /page with SAME DAY DELIVERY!!
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    Papers On Africa
    Page 21 of 32 North Africa
    send me this paper

    A 5 page paper which discusses various elements of North Africa. The paper addresses population, political conditions, economic conditions, occupations, and other pertinent information. The following also discusses how this region can improve its position from a domestic and global perspective. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
    Filename: RAafrnth.wps
    Nursing’s Global Implications
    send me this paper

    8 pages of slide contents and speaker notes for an 8-slide Power Point presentation on this topic, specifically as it is affected by the worldwide nursing shortage. The shortage of available nurses in developing countries puts even more pressure on accessibility of health care, and it encourages nursing education to be truncated so that students can fill vacancies more quickly. The situation likely is worst in Africa, particularly in those nations in which the AIDS epidemic is worst. The presentation uses Ethiopia to illustrate. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
    Filename: KSnursGlobalPP.rtf

    18. Term Papers Term Papers - Help With Africa - 007-016
    study the nations of Southern africa, along with the “reservations” of North America’sown indigenous peoples. history of Rwanda, the tutsiHutu conflict
    P A P E R T O P I C S The following papers are all available for SAME DAY DELIVERY! Reports are only $ /page + FREE bibliography!!! Make your selection below: Papers On Africa
    Page 17 of 27 BACK NEXT Nelson Mendela, "an ordinary man."
    send me this paper

    (5 pp) Personal tribal history, and sheer force of will propelled Nelson Mendela into politics; it is unlikely that apartheid would have been abolished with his tenacity, and organizational skills. To say that the right person was in the right place at the right time is not to negate any of Medela's skills, but neither can time and situation be ignored. According to Brink (2000), Mandela himself argues, that "I was not a messiah, but an ordinary man, who had become a leader because of extraordinary circumstances." Bibliography lists 6 sources
    Filename: BBmndla.doc
    Ngangura Mweze's "Life Is Rosy" / "La Vie Est Belle"
    send me this paper

    5 pages in length. La Vie Est Belle (Life Is Rosy) by Ngangura Mweze is a wonderfully funny story about love, social acceptance and the trouble people will go to achieve both in their lives. Director Mweze took a story line completely different from the typical African cinematic representation and offered the public a more carefree approach to life than is so common of African films. Indeed, Mweze has a reputation of reaching out and inviting his audience to experience with him the sometimes intense and often comical sense of being that is clearly portrayed within his cinematic work, with La Vie Est Belle serving as a fine example. No bibliography.

    19. News Watch | Native Style Guide
    Indian. Sometimes preferred term for indigenous peoples of the In africa, avoid referringto different ethnic groups as Hutu and tutsi are ethnic groups, just
    S T Y L E G U I D E
    The following is a list of terms or phrases you may come across when covering Indian Country. Refer to this style guide to ensure that your coverage is accurate and fair. Sources: Native American Journalists Association; The American Indian and the Media, edited by Mark Anthony Rolo; Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A history of Native American contributions to the media, by Mark Trahant. For the complete News Watch Diversity Style guide, go to American Indian Synonymous with "Native American." Some indigenous people in the United States prefer "American Indian" over "Native American." Best to ask individual preference. When possible, use national affiliation such as Navajo, Hopi, Cherokee. Use "native-born" to describe someone who is born in the United States, but isn't American Indian. American Indian Movement Activist organization known as AIM. Founded in 1968 to promote civil rights for Native Americans. AIM has sought recognition of treaty rights through sit-ins and highly visible protests. In 1972, AIM organized the "Trail of Broken Treaties," converging on Washington, D.C., before the presidential election. AIM has branches across the United States. brave Avoid. Offensive term when used as a noun to describe American Indian males.

    20. Africa
    theory is that more advanced Kushite peoples from the Ethiopian highlands came todominate the indigenous Bantu. to be ancestors of the tutsi peoples of modern
    Africa Some 5 million years ago a type of hominid, a close evolutionary ancestor of present-day humans, inhabited southern and eastern Africa. More than 1.5 million years ago this toolmaking hominid developed into the more advanced forms Homo habilis and Homo erectus. The earliest true human being in Africa, Homo sapiens, dates from more than 200,000 years ago. A hunter-gatherer capable of making crude stone tools, Homo sapiens banded together with others to form nomadic groups; eventually these nomadic San peoples spread throughout the African continent. Distinct races date from approximately 10,000 BC. Gradually a growing Negroid population, which had mastered animal domestication and agriculture, forced the San groups into the less hospitable areas. In the 1st century AD the Bantu, one group of this dominant people, began a migration that lasted some 2000 years, settling most of central and southern Africa. Negroid societies typically depended on subsistence agriculture or, in the savannas, pastoral pursuits. Political organization was normally local, although large kingdoms would later develop in western and central Africa. see Aksum, Kingdom of

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