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         Xhosa Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Is the Kafir population in Natal alien or aboriginal: A brief inquiry by John Bird, 1890
  2. The House of Phalo: History of the Xhosa People in the Days of Their Independence by J.B. Peires, 2003-10-31
  3. Warrior Chiefs of Southern Africa: Shaka of the Zulu. Moshoeshoe of the Basotho, Mzilikazi of the Matabele, Maqoma of the Xhosa (Heroes & Warriors) by Ian J. Knight, 1995-03
  4. Beachcombers of the African jungle by Jack Sholomir, 1958
  5. Interactive (Umhlangano) management (Global research monograph series) by Jay Nathan, 1998

1. Indigenous Issues - The Challenge Ahead
The challenge ahead Indigeneity discussed by UN Each August, indigenous peoples converge upon the UN Headquarters in New York to observe the international Day of the Worlds indigenous People. considered as First peoples alongside the Zulu and xhosa etc. in the new South africa.. While not openly

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The challenge ahead
Indigeneity discussed by UN
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2. South Africa Travel Guide, Language In South Africa, Peoples In South Africa, Re
of the 20 th century, Nelson Mandela, is xhosa. indigenous South african cuisine isnot wildly exciting But South africa does have the unmistakable advantage of
General Info Places of Interest Shopping Night Life ... Language South Africa has it all - natural beauty, a year-round sunny climate, abundant wildlife, beautiful beaches and superb facilities for sports and business. This beautiful, culturally and geographically diverse country is just emerging from years of skewed racial relations under apartheid. The international community has relaxed its sanctions, a popularly elected President is at the helm, and the whole country is agog with the promise of a better future.
Geography South Africa is located, as one might expect, on the southern tip of Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the Indian Ocean on the south and east. Along its northern border, from west to east, lie Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe, and to the northeast are Mozambique and Swaziland. Wholly-enclosed by South Africa, and situated in its eastern central plain, is the independent kingdom of Lesotho.

3. ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Library : Indigenous Peoples
stars and miles of freeways, and sometimes forget that the land was inhabited bylarge numbers of indigenous peoples before the The xhosa of South africa

4. Indigenous Peoples
Rural Health Care. indigenous peoples. Cultural Trauma. Telehealth. InterPsych are Friends in South africa. Their work is primarily with Zulu and xhosa communities that are victims
The page that will appear on your screen in about seconds
was graciously donated by: Dr. Beth Hudnall Stamm Veterans Affairs National Center
for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

5. Indigenous Peoples
is primarily with Zulu and xhosa communities that bead was widely traded in africa,hence the First Nations, and other indigenous peoples, including selected on
Traumatic Stress

Rural Health Care

Indigenous Peoples
Cultural Trauma



About The Author
Stress, PTSD

Notice 12/02/02 See the newly revised Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Scales Click For More ProQOL Information Stamm slides from National Forum on Health Disparity Issues for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Indigenous Peoples
This is a necklace made by Faye Thayer of Ft. Washakee, Wyoming. Faye is Eastern Shoshone. Beads were in prized in Native North America and were in use long before white contact. Archaeological information tells us that beads were in use as far back as history can be extrapolated. Native Beads were generally made of natural materials like wood, bone, shell, and metal. Europeans introduced colorful glass beads. In the Beads were used as currency for global trade rather than paper money. KwaZulu-Natal Programme for Survivors of Violence These are Friends in South Africa. Their work is primarily with Zulu and Xhosa communities that are victims of the Apartheid. The bead was made in Venice, probably in the mid 1700s. This type of bead was widely traded in Africa, hence the common name "African Trade Bead." The Waseskun Network These are First Nations Friends in Canada. Their work is primarily with men who have been in corrections. This is a French Ambassador Bead, given by visiting French traders as a gift of respect to tribal headmen. The most interesting aspect of this bead is that it is made of clear glass. This was a difficult affect to achieve prior to the time of thermostat controlled heat to melt the glass.

6. Indigenous People
indigenous peoples. Erica. 20 000 years ago, the San began rituals adorned many cave walls (africa 176). Women gathered 80 also encompassed the Zulu and xhosa). The inlanders, by
Indigenous Peoples Erica
20,000 years ago, the San began to roam the Kalahari Desert as Bushmen in small communities. They had no social classes, no rich or poor, no prescribed leaders of each tribe, and men and women were equal. Thousands of years in isolation thus caused them to develop a completely different culture as well as a language, full of clicks and consonants. Rock art depicting everyday life, hunting techniques, and religious rituals adorned many cave walls (Africa 176). Women gathered 80 percent of the foods (berries, edible plants, shellfish, and fish) and men hunted (wild game). Men also made clothing from various animal skins, formed wooden and stone tools and weapons, and created many different musical instruments (Library of Congress Country Studies Online). They lived in small social units with groups of families. They made general consensus decisions. Yet, they did not only interact with the peoples within their tribes; they traded, exchanged, and communicated with family links a long distance away (the coast). These were the rich beginnings of South Africa.
As the Dutch came to South Africa, the Khoi lands and people became encroached upon. Frequent battles arose, and finally, when the Dutch brought small pox, 90 percent of the Khoi in the Cape died, and the rest moved away. Meanwhile, the Boers (European descent) and the San were in conflict as the Boers took over the San land. And, later on, they fought with the Xhosa, who in the end won the right to their lands (library of congress). Although slavery did not really affect the South Africans as much as other African settlements, the arrival of the Europeans deeply changed their lives forever.

7. 1 Peoples Of South Africa
oneway street as the xhosa borrowed the ‘clicks’ and incorporated them intothe xhosa language Non-indigenous peoples in South africa White Europeans
Home History 322 lecture list Wallace G. Mills Hist. 322 1 Peoples of S. Africa Peoples of South Africa
- they were hunters and food-gatherers.
-they employed stone age technology, but they had very extensive and sophisticated knowledge of plants and animals in their environment.
- they were the cave painters in South Africa; they used similar themes and materials as were used by cave painters in the Sahara dating back about 30,000 years.
Khoikhoi (Hottentots)
- the Khoikhoi were pastoralists (cattle-keepers);
- they had some metals (copper and alloys); they may have acquired these in trade (some evidence of dispersion of metals from central Africa), but there are also evidences of smelting in number of areas of the north-western Cape and Namibia.
- pastoralism gave more control over food supply and somewhat more intensive exploitation allowed denser population and larger political/judicial systems; however, these systems often did not function continuously throughout the year. Annual migrations would bring people together for part of the year; then they would disperse to other grazing grounds for the remainder of the year. Thus, the degree of control and the level of cohesion were limited.
- the Khoikhoi were vulnerable to loss of cattle because their way of life and livelihood depended on this; yet cattle were practically the only commodity which they could trade for European goods. As dependencies on these goods grew, loss of cattle left few economic choices except to become labourers for the white settlers.

8. History 213/313 South And Southern Africa - Module 1
Europeans and indigenous peoples? Earliest History. The earliest peoples to inhabit Southern africa were the with other pastoralist peoples such as the xhosa. Raiding parties from
Welcome Unit Plan Other Resources Noticeboard ... Help
Module 1 (Week 1)
The Background: Colonisers and Colonised
Principal Themes
  • The nature of political authority and control.
  • Control of land.
  • Supply and control of labour.
  • Relationships between ethnic groups.
Focal Questions
  • Why did Europeans originally settle in Southern Africa?
  • European immigration continued throughout the period we are looking at, why?
  • What relationship was there between the control of land and the supply and control of a labour force?
  • Did this change during this period?
  • To what extent was slavery important in establishing a pattern of relationships between Europeans and indigenous peoples?
Earliest History The earliest peoples to inhabit Southern Africa were the San (hunter-gatherers) (the so-called "Bushmen") and the Khoi-Khoi (pastoralists) (the so-called "Hottentots"). Both were relatively small populations because of the nature of their life styles. From further north came the Bantu (Nguni, Sotho-Tswana) in the 4th-5th centuries. Organised in patrilineal clans, they knew the use of iron, and had highly organised agricultural systems based on crops and cattle. Reading For this background week you will be reading from the first textbook: Thompson (1990) A History of South Africa. At this point read chapter 1 through, (without taking copious notes).

9. Kaffir
Kaffir or Kaffer noun a black african (South african; offensive) a name appliedto certain indigenous peoples of S africa including the xhosa, and to the
Kaffir Bermuda Police - falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus Home
For a day by day account of life in the Bermuda Narcotics department, read an official diary:
Kaffir The following is hearsay … but I understand the report to be based on fact: During the 1990’s a former UK officer serving with the Bermuda constabulary for a number of years was accused of calling a black officer a ‘kaffer’.
  • Kaffir or Kaffer
    noun a black African ( South African offensive ) a name applied to certain indigenous peoples of S Africa including the Xhosa, and to the languages spoken by them ( historical also ( formerly Caffre or Kafir
As I have received this information second-hand, it is not possible to comment on the truth of the allegation however, the term ‘kaffer’ is not in regular usage in the UK, and certainly not in Bermuda. Outside of South-Africa (and I have only ever heard it used in films) I know of nowhere the word is used. Associating it with a UK officer serving in Bermuda appears odd in the extreme. No matter, that was the allegation.

10. Peoples Page
with the colonists and the other indigenous peoples, but the used to describe theBlack (Negroid) people of South africa. The most westerly tribe is the xhosa.
IN SOUTH AFRICA The peoples of South Africa. Home Page When the first Europeans appeared in southern Africa there were already three groups of indigenous peoples, the Bushmen, the Hottentots and the Bantu. There is ample archeological evidence to prove that other, presently unknown, people preceded these groups. The Bushmen were small of stature and lived by hunting. They did not recognise any grouping bigger than a family. Their language was mainly made up of click sounds. Although there are clear traces of Bushman occupation down to the most southerly areas, by the fifteenth century they were displaced to the north by the Hottentots. The Bushmen, or San as they are now known, have largely died out and the largest number remaining live in the Namibian desert. The Hottentots were, like the Bushmen, a light brown people but more pastoral by nature. They grouped into tribes and kept cattle and sheep. As they occupied the coastal areas at the time all the early contacts with the Europeans were with the Koi, as they are now known. Except for two tribes, the Griquas and the Korannas, the Hottentots are now largely extinct. Their numbers were reduced by battle with the colonists and the other indigenous peoples, but the most important factor was Smallpox, a disease to which they had very little resistance. The word Bantu is a generic term used to describe the Black (Negroid) people of South Africa. Although there are a number of tribes it is again clear that they all came from the north and by the 17th century they had reached the eastern part of the southern coast, perhaps as far as the Fish River. The Bantu also kept large herds of cattle. The most westerly tribe is the Xhosa. Their language contains more clicks than any other Bantu language, evidencing longer contact with the Koi and the San.

11. South Africa (04/02)
Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, xhosa, Zulu (all official indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South africa

12. Xhosa
the natural retreats of the xhosa people during the many Frontier Wars and 30s southern africa was torn apart by violent wars between the different indigenous peoples, the socalled
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[previous page] Along the East Coast, east of the present-day city of Port Elizabeth, patches of high forest abound on mountain slopes and in other scenic settings. The most notable of these is the Pirie Forest near King William’s Town. The forests of the Eastern Cape were the natural retreats of the Xhosa people during the many Frontier Wars that raged in this area. Some of the fiercest clashes took place here and the forests were left full of memories and spirits from these mighty battles. This was also the place where the great chief of the Xhosa , Zandile, was wounded and died, hidden beneath a blanket of leaves.
Historical Background
Historical evidence suggests that the Xhosa people have inhabited the Eastern Cape area from as long ago as 1593 and most probably even before that. Some archaeological evidence has been discovered that suggests that Xhosa-speaking people have lived in the area since the 7th century AD. By the mid 17th century, the Thembu tribe was settled around the Nbashi River with the original Xhosa tribe settled in the vicinity of the Kei River and beyond.

13. A Cultural Profile Of The Xhosa Of Tanzania
africa areas. The indigenous people they met on their migrations were the Khoisan (Bushmen and Nama or "Hottentot") peoples. The xhosa
SLRK Profiles Menu Strategy Leader Resource Kit Home People Profile
The Xhosa of South Africa Religion
: Christianity
: 25% African Traditional Religion
NARRATIVE PROFILE Location : The Xhosa people are black Africans who are mostly known as cattle herders and live in beehive shaped huts in scattered homesteads ruled by chiefs. They live primarily in the Eastern Cape areas called Ciskei and Transkei. Xhosa are also found all over the Republic of South Africa in various occupations. History : The Xhosa were part of the gradual Bantu migration movement from southern Zaire in various directions to cover most of Africa south of the Sahara. They are descended from a clan of the Nguni. By 1600 the Xhosa people by that name were in the Eastern Cape and from 1705 there were periodic minor clashes with the sparse Boers (Dutch-Afrikaner farmers). As the number of Boers grew and they expanded further north and east from the Cape, clashes increased. As South Africa shifted politically between British and Dutch rule, clashes with the Xhosa grew in magnitude, as with the Zulu in the Natal area farther north. In British South Africa traditional areas of the Xhosa and other peoples were preserved as autonomous territories. These later became administrative districts of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The Union remained part of the British Empire and Commonwealth until after WW II.

14. Legitimizing Spiritually-centred Wisdoms Within The Academy
in my indigenous languageisi-xhosa, because it many generations of European descentin africa and elsewhere to think of ourselves as indigenous peoples who are


African/indigenous philosophies: Legitimizing Spiritually-centred wisdoms within the academy Ivy Goduka, Central Michigan University Up Next Abstract Refereed paper presented at the Australian Indigenous Education Conference, Fremantle, 3-7 April, 2000. Introduction A generally disturbing assumption is that education on the continent of Africa was brought by Europeans. Such thinking conforms with the doctrines of terra nullius (empty land) or terra incognito (land without minds, thus, people devoid of culture, history and a civilization). These doctrines in turn led to the myth of ‘discovery’ of indigenous lands. Since the Middle Ages, Europeans had believed (as some still do) that some humans were so wild and uncouth that they wandered in the bushes and had no society of any kind. These creatures could on the one hand be classified as fauna and flora

15. South Africa
After driving away or subjugating the indigenous peoples, the Europeans peoples suchas the Zulus and the xhosa. to deal with the African peoples who lived in
Settler Colonies And White Dominions: South Africa Made up mainly of people of Dutch and French Protestant descent, the Boer community differed from the British newcomers in almost every way possible. The Boers spoke a different language, and they lived mostly in isolated rural homesteads that had missed the scientific, industrial, and urban revolutions that had transformed British society and attitudes. Most critically, the Evangelical missionaries who entered South Africa under the protection of the new British overlords were deeply committed to eradicating slavery. They made no exception for the domestic pattern of enslavement that had developed in Boer homesteads and communities. By the 1830s missionary pressure and increasing British interference in their lives drove a handful of Boers to open, but futile, rebellion, and drove many of the remaining Boers to flee the Cape Colony. In the early 1850s the hard-liners among the Boers established two republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, in the interior, which they sought to keep free of British influence. For over a decade they managed to keep the British out of their affairs. But when diamonds were discovered in the Orange Free State in 1867, British entrepreneurs, such as Cecil Rhodes, and prospectors began to move in, and tensions between Boers and British began to build anew. In 1880 and 1881, these tensions led to a brief war in which the Boers were victorious. The tide of British immigration into the republics, however, rose even higher after gold was discovered in the Transvaal in 1885.

16. School Of Oriental And African Studies Library: Philip, John
become a model for other indigenous peoples; while in in his Researches in South africa,resulted in a 18321833; accompanied Coloured and xhosa Christians to
Philip, John
Reference code(s)
: GB 0102 CWM/LMS Africa Miscellaneous Boxes 12-14
Held at School of Oriental and African Studies Library
Domain : archival
Title: Philip, John
Date(s) of contents
Level of description
: Fonds
Extent and medium : 2.5 boxes of archival material CONTEXT Name of creator(s) John Philip (1775-1851) Administrative/Biographical history See also:
John Philip, Researches in South Africa, illustrating the civil, moral and religious condition of the Native Tribes 2 vols (London: James Duncan, 1828).
Custodial history The papers were accumulated by the London Missionary Society and form part of the special series of papers which fall outside the Home and Regional series. Immediate source of acquisition Deposited on permanent loan with the records of the London Missionary Society by the Congregational Council for World Mission (later Council for World Mission) in 1973. CONTENT AND STRUCTURE Scope and content/abstract Papers, 1817-1951, of and relating to John Philip, comprising correspondence and papers, 1817-1849, including manuscripts and pamphlets, on his call to South Africa and the reluctance of his Aberdeen congregation that he should leave; the situation in South Africa and government policy, leading to the writing of his Researches; the ensuing court case (against William Mackay); the Wesleyan intrusion in Griqualand; also including editions of South African newspapers, 1824; letters from Robert Moffat concerning the mission station at Kuruman, 1845; manuscript papers by Philip concerning South Africa and the life of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton sent to Sir Edward Buxton, 1846; papers concerning Philip and South Africa, 1910-1951, including correspondence and press cuttings, some relating to William Miller Macmillan’s

indigenous, native peoples (africa); indigenous, native peoples (Europe); Ireland; xhosa(South africa); Zimbabwe. Specialty Coverage africa (variety of
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seals; Etosha Pan (Namibia); gorillas, mountain; indigenous, native peoples (africa); xhosa(South africa); Zambezi River; Zambia; Zambia (strong travel
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19. Welcome To South Africa
Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, xhosa, Zulu Currency from the earliest settlersand the indigenous peoples. Indian workers brought to South africa in the
Welcome To South Africa
Key Data
43,426,386 (July 1999 Estimate)
Area Total
Area Land
2,798 km
Mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights. Languages Official Languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu Currency 1 Rand (R) = 100 cents,US$1 equals 6.9 SA rand Boundaries Ethnic Divisions Botswana 1,840 km Indigenous African Lesotho 909 km European descent Namibia 855 km Mixed Mozambique 491 km South Asian Indian Swaziland 430 km Religions Christian, Hindu, Muslim

Afrikaans English Ndebele Pedi Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda xhosa Zulu. more.History The indigenous peoples of modern South africa established a

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