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         Xhosa Indigenous Peoples Africa:     more detail
  1. Is the Kafir population in Natal alien or aboriginal: A brief inquiry by John Bird, 1890
  2. The House of Phalo: History of the Xhosa People in the Days of Their Independence by J.B. Peires, 2003-10-31
  3. Warrior Chiefs of Southern Africa: Shaka of the Zulu. Moshoeshoe of the Basotho, Mzilikazi of the Matabele, Maqoma of the Xhosa (Heroes & Warriors) by Ian J. Knight, 1995-03
  4. Beachcombers of the African jungle by Jack Sholomir, 1958
  5. Interactive (Umhlangano) management (Global research monograph series) by Jay Nathan, 1998

81. Cape_town_okavango_delta_tour
an opportunity to learn about the cultures of South africa’s indigenous peoplesby visiting The xhosa with their beautiful thatched homes and red blankets
Cape Town, Okavango Delta, and Victoria Falls A sample itinerary for 2 passengers. Approximate cost is $4500 per person. Day 1: Depart home airport to connect with SAA flight to Cape Town. Depart Miami airport on SAA, South Africa Airways, flt: 204 5:00 PM. Day 2: Arrive Cape Town 12:40 p.m. You will be greeted at the airport by a driver from Cape Rainbow Tours and transferred to the Grootbos Nature Reserve where you will stay for two nights. Dinner, bed, breakfast and all activities at the Reserve are included. After settling into your comfortable accommodations, you may arrange to go for a walk or a drive with the resident naturalist to observe the unique flora of the fynbos . One of the seven major plant communities on earth, this narrow strip of fynbos on the southern tip of Africa contains more species of plants per acre than an Amazon basin rainforest. Four bicycles are available for you to reserve for use. Day 3: September is the peak period for whale watching on the southern coast of Africa. During this period the Southern Right Whales arrive from Antarctica to give birth and raise their young. It is often possible to see them from a vantage point on the cliffs overlooking the shore. Weather permitting, you will take a boat to Seal Island where you may see more whales, Southern Fur Seals, Jackass Penguins, and perhaps even a Great White Shark or two! Overnight at Grootbos. Breakfast, dinner, and all activities included. Day 4: After another morning walk or ride to observe the birds, plants, and animals at the reserve, you will depart Grootbos at 9:00 a.m. You will be picked up at Grootbos by your guide from Cape Rainbow Tours and taken to visit the beautiful and informative Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens south of Cape Town. Kirstenbosch was established as a center for the preservation and study of the indigenous flora of Southern Africa. All year round one can enjoy glorious living displays of wild flowers and the magnificent collection of cycads, silver trees and other shrubs, plants, and trees. As time allows you will be able to visit other sites you choose on the Cape peninsula. At 6:00 p.m. you will be taken to your hotel, the Lion’s Head Lodge.

82. MOST Ethno-Net Publication: Anthropology Of Africa
that the incorporation of the various indigenous African peoples The school Xhosaon the other hand have in bringing such culturally diverse peoples together.
    Anthropology of Africa and the Challenges of the Third Millennium
    - Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts, PAAA / APA, 1999
An Anthropologist’s View of Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts in Africa I.V.O. Modo
Department of Social Anthropology/Sociology National University of Lesotho P.O. Roma 180 ABSTRACT

Ethnicity denotes an extreme consciousness of and loyalty to a particular linguistic and cultural group unidentified with any other group (Udoh 1998:38). Such groups usually possess myth of origin, traceable to an epical ancestor or ancestress. With a strong ruling house such ethnic groups like the Yoruba, Edo, Fante were able to organize themselves into Empire or Kingdoms, conquering and incorporating other lesser ethnic groups as vassals. With the coming of colonial masters, treaties were signed with such kingdoms wherever they existed; especially during the 17th and 18th centuries (Bradbury et al 1965; Igbafe 1972). Origin of ethnicity in Africa
Ethnicity in post-colonial Africa is principally a response to the new social structure the indigenous people found themselves in during the colonial era and at independence. The cultural upbringing is seriously at variance with the social processes of the modern era. Bohannan (1957) speaks of the philosophy of limited good among the Tiv of Nigeria. All goods are communally owned and so the possession of a good by one person is the loss of that good by another. This concept is applicable to every tribe in most circumstances. Ethnic discrimination has its root in the favouritism shown to kin group members as could be seen from the principle of segmentary opposition among the Tiv of Nigeria (Bohannan 1969) or Nuer of Southern Sudan (Evans-Pritchard 1940).

83. The Pre-colonial Roots Of Soccer In South Africa
Zulu and xhosa boys began learning at an early and some still believe, that Africanpeoples (until very the centuries old tradition of indigenous athleticism.
by Peter Alegi, 1997.
The Pre-colonial Origin of Soccer's Popularity in Modern South Africa
There was little time for leisure during the agricultural season between planting and harvesting. The leisure activities that did take place occurred in the late afternoon and evening hours, when men played a local version of the mancala board game, drank beer, or smoked dagga. Women had less leisure time than men, but, nevertheless, liked to participate in story-telling, singing, and dancing. When more time became available in the (dry) winter months men organized hunting parties, activities aimed at fulfilling both subsistence and leisure objectives. In a society where leisure was not seen as shameful, and time corresponded to the rhythm of the seasons and lunar cycles, the period between the harvest and the new planting season, presented rural South Africans, especially younger ones, with time to dedicate to leisure and sport. In a book by the uninspired title of The Essential Kafir , published in 1904, Dudley Kidd observed in Zululand that "[t]he boys have great fencing matches with sticks, every boy using two sticks, one to parry with and one for thrusting. They manage the sticks with wonderful agility, and it is a practice which is useful to them through life." Though most sources discuss boys' stick fighting, it appears that girls and male adults also fought with sticks. British Catholic missionary and self-proclaimed 'Zulu expert' A.T Bryant, in his monumental ethnography

84. Repatriation And Reburial Information
Indexed link to resources and articles pertaining to the return of ancestral Indian remains.Category Society Ethnicity Repatriation and Reburial...... of Ethics for dealing with indigenous peoples which includes Our Ancestors' Remains Resources indigenous Network Group in Britain, where two xhosa chiefs may
Many groups, especially indigenous peoples, have profound concerns about the ethical and respectful treatment of the dead by archaeologists, physical anthropologists and museums. The issue is complicated with concerns ranging from academic freedom to the rights of the dead. There is a continuum of opinion about these matters. If you know of additional material that should be on this web site or have constructive suggestions, please contact Larry J. Zimmerman NAGPRA Case Studies Ethics Codes ... Other
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990)
Text of NAGPRA from ArchNet. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Information
The National Archaeological Database contains copies of NAGPRA, Repatriation Notices, NAGPRA Board minutes and a variety of other information surrounding the law and its regulations. nagpra-l
Nagpra-l is a listserv for discussion of issues surrounding NAGPRA and its implementation. To subscribe, send a mail message to

85. Robben Island - General Information
The South Ndebele, together with the Zulu, xhosa and Swazi, belong distinguishes theSouth Ndebele, from other indigenous South African peoples, is their
General South Africa is a big country, occupying over a million square kilometres of the Southern continent, its 3 000 -km coastline lapped by the cold waters of the Atlantic in the West and, in the east, by the warm waters of the Indian Ocean. More than that it is a country of remarkable diversity with its population - ' The Rainbow Nation '- embracing a bewildering mix of clours, creeds, customs and languages. Variety and contrast are visible in the nation and in the land itself, and in the character of the towns and cities and rural areas. Some of the still existing tribes would include the Zulu Nation, the Xhosa, the Swazi (all three are related, belonging to the Nguni group of people); the Northern Sotho, the Southern Sotho and the Tswana, the South Ndebele and the North Ndebele, the Venda and Lemba; and the Shangaan-Tsonga. No matter how many generations removed, members of a tribal clan are still "brothers and sisters" and share common roots. According to oral history, the name Zulu literally means "sky", and was the name given to the son of Malandela and Nozinja, who lived in what was later to become known as Zululand or, in the Zulu language, KwaZulu. An interesting situation developed when young Zulu, who was his mothers' "favourite", grew to be a man. His eldest brother, Qwaba, became jealous of him and planned his end. His mother however, came to the rescue and took Zulu away.Supported by an Induna ( headman ) named Mpungose he made his way in the world and - as it happened - establish the Zulu clan.

86. Business & Human Rights: Mining Industry 1991-2000
The World's indigenous peoples (Russel Barsh, White Paper ENVIRONMENT G-7 indigenousGroups Lament Record After Rights (a 72-page xhosa-language / English
back to home Business and Human Rights: a resource website Mining industry: General materials 1991-2000 See also other materials on "Mining industry" U.S. Backs Tribe, Rejects Gold Mine Proposal (Tony Perry, Los Angeles Times , 17 Nov. 2000) On the Ground Research: A Research Agenda for Communities Affected by Large-Scale Mining Activity Submitted to the International Development Research Centre (MiningWatch Canada / Mines Alerte, 6 Nov. 2000) Whose Globe? The plight of local people gets a voice in corporate boardrooms (Paul Raeburn and Sheridan Prasso, Business Week , 6 Nov. 2000) Philippine Indigenous Tribe Urges Calgary Mining Company to Respect Their Land Rights: Subanen Representatives Tour Canada (MiningWatch Canada / Mines Alerte, 4 Nov. 2000) Rio Tinto: blockades and strikes hit Kalimantan mines [Indonesia] - The past months have seen unprecedented direct action by local people and mine workers protesting against injustice at Rio Tinto's PT KEM and Kaltim Prima mines. Down to Earth Newsletter , Nov. 2000)

87. Australian Immigration - 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference - Dr Angela I
and present, they are transplanted and indigenous and link called Cape coloured ormixed race peoples,an Afrikaans speaking people of KhoiKhoi, xhosa and white
Information about special visa arrangements for Middle East citizens. To advise the department about a person working or living illegally in Australia, please contact a compliance office The department operates a national telephone inquiry line on , for the cost of a local call anywhere in Australia. Overseas, please contact your nearest Australian diplomatic office Home 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings Preface ... Conference Speeches
1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney
Music as a Force for Social Change
Dr Angela Impey
Ethnomusicologist, South Africa Our stories are collaborations of past and present, they are transplanted and indigenous and link us to family and culture throughout the country and throughout the world,and our artists are making the most of them. Picture a dark, dank, dilapidated hall in downtown Johannesburg. In it there are no adornments save a few rows of broken plastic chairs and one or two bare electric lightbulbs hanging from the ceiIing in the centre of the room. On one end of the hall there is a low wooden stage in front of which is positioned a wooden table and a single chair. It is a Saturday night, approaching midnight. People are slowly drifting off the dark streets and into the hall. The majority of those who enter are men. They are Zulu migrant workers who live in the city for periods of up to 10 months of the year, working in factories, on the gold mines or in the inner city as company security guards.

88. Untitled Document
1713 a disease against which this indigenous people had 4.a) The xhosa's and theirleaders' Robben Island contact with some of the Black peoples of Southern
Timeline continued: 1. South Africa Prior to European Arrivals
The spread of the Khoikhoi pastoralists into the Cape inevitably resulted in conflict of interests with the aboriginal San hunter-gatherer inhabitants of the area. A major source of conflict was competition for game. Although the Khoikhoi were herders, they relied heavily on the spoils of the hunt for their daily nourishment. Despite the obvious source of protein that their herds represented, the Khoikhoi usually slaughtered their cattle only on special ceremonial occasions. Also, despite the fact that milk from their herds was an important supplement to their diet, its production was often irregular and, moreover dependent on the state of the pasture and the presence of new-born calves in the herds. But while the Khoikhoi started competing with the San for game, their sheep and cattle were exacerbating the problem even further by denuding the pastures on which the indigenous game - such as zebra, antelope and wildebeest - was dependent. Consequently, as the San watched the vast herds of wild game dwindle, they felt increasingly justified in killing or stealing the alien animals that had displaced their traditional quarry. This in turn set up a deadly cycle of raid and counter-raid, sometimes culminating in full-scale warring between these groups - all of which lasted for many centuries. Finally, the contact and conflict between the Khoikhoi and San had far-reaching effects on both cultures. On the one hand, the Khoikhoi began to form themselves into larger and better organised groups in order to form a united, stronger front against the cattle-raiding San. The San, in turn, were faced with three alternatives: some fled the continual fighting and retreated into less hospitable mountain and desert areas; others established themselves into robber bands which subsequently preyed on the herds of the Khoikhoi; while others made their peace with the Khoikhoi and entered their society as servants, hunters, herders and warriors. Many who chose the third option gradually acquired stock, and later, when they married Khoikhoi women, they were gradually accepted as fully fledged members of these communities.[back to

89. 10 Ngwato
term became unacceptable both to the xhosa (as well became the term to refer to indigenouspeoples of the In South africa, ‘native’ had long been used in
Wallace G. Mills Hist. 316 10 Ngwato The Ngwato
African Political Systems

- one of the 1st things to notice is that the pattern of residence is very different as compared to the Nguni, such as the Zulu.
Nguni pattern
- i.e., normally, all members of a homestead are usually relatives by birth or marriage of the homestead head. In practice, except for very rich men, most homesteads did not have all of the above in each homestead.
- homesteads are separated from each other and are usually located on land which they use; thus, the population is dispersed and similar to the pattern of farm families in North America, although the latter have much larger land holdings and are much more dispersed residentially.
Ngwato pattern
- the political system is more typical than the Zulu model. Certainly, the role and powers of the king are much more typical.
- notice that the Sotho-Tswana peoples did have an age-regiment system long before the northern Nguni began to adopt it. Thus, the inspiration for that innovation was almost certainly these neighbours rather than some unknown white man.
- also, the institution itself did not necessarily lead to a militarisation of society. The militarisation of northern Nguni societies seems to have been more a product of the economic and political situation which emerged there than it was the result of the borrowed innovation itself.

90. Regarding Africa
exist in eg rivers (among the xhosa), or in in the historical victory of our indigenouspeoples vs the Is there a subtext here in which africa remains the
Date Thread
Regarding Africa
05 February 1999 08:03 UTC
Date Thread Home

91. Südafrika Seminar
Translate this page xhosa, Kurze Einführung. forums that advocate the rights, voice and vision of indigenouspeoples. Stanford University africa South of the Sahara, spricht für'','pt2yhBiRsaTg','width=488,height=50'); Hallo alle Südafrika-Interessierte
Da wir bei der Suche nach Infos für unser Referat vornehmlich Websites verwendet haben, dachten wir uns, dass wir eine Linkliste für das gesamte Seminar veröffentlichen.
Um eine umfassende Quelle rundum das Thema Südafrika anzubieten, bedarf es umfassender Informationen.
Es wäre doch interessant, wenn Thesenpapiere etc. veröffentlicht werden könnten - also ab in die email damit, genau wie weitere Links, die ihr bei Recherchen gefunden habt. Die Seite soll nicht schön sein, sondern informativ. Deshalb das doch recht schlichte Design.
Einige der Seiten sind selbst bei uns im Wohnheim verdammt langsam (es ist ein weiter und beschwerlicher Weg nach Südafrika), demnach könnt ihr Euch bei einigen bestimmt erstmal einen Kaffee holen...
Christof, Jonas und Martin
Input in Form von emails bitte hier hin

I nhalt:

Tourismus Sonstige Infos Referate Bildungspolitik in Süd-Afrika Referat über die Bildungspolitik in SA von Britta und Anne Cordes Generelle Infos Botschaft der RSA Unter anderem die so hoch gelobten RSA-News Goethe Institut Jo'burg Kontaktadressen in RSA Südafrika von A-Z (Goethe Institut) University of Pennsylvania Encyplopaedia Britannica Eben ein lexikalischer Einblick Länderinfo der GTZ Projekte der GTZ MAX - das Yahoo! SA

92. South Africa
joined with British to defeat the xhosa, and in forced labor was imposed on indigenouspeoples through slavery European interest in South africa stimulated by

93. 09 502A
This course will survey the history of South africa, with emphases on indigenouspeoples, European colonization, the development East africa. xhosa Translator.
Fall 1997
Tuesdays 6-8:40 PM
A 202
Table of Contents:
Instructor: Dr. Jeff Chamberlain Course Requirements Course Description ... Tentative Course Schedule
Instructor: Dr. Jeff Chamberlain
Office: Tower Hall S317 Office Phone: Home Phone: Office Hours: M/W 11-12 Noon; T/R 9-10 AM E-mail Address:
see Dr. J.'s Homepage (with all of its silliness)
Return to Table of Contents.
Course Description:
This course will survey the history of South Africa, with emphases on indigenous peoples, European colonization, the development of Apartheid, and the "new South Africa." Return to Table of Contents.
Course Objectives:
  • To give you a good overall understanding of the people, ideas, and events of the history of South Africa. To acquaint you with the principle issues and historiographical problems of the subject. To develop your ability to "do history" be working on research skills, critical thinking, and debate. To develop your communication skills (oral and written) by using discussion, presentation, and writing assignments. To acquaint you with the resources available for the study of this and other history topics on the World Wide Web.
  • 94. Untitled
    2. CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY Southern africa was originally inhabited by indigenouspeoples whose main groups including Zulu, Sotho, xhosa and Tswana

    95. Untitled
    some, such as the xhosa and Zulu of South Building on the traditional indigenoussystems These suggestions landscape will stimulate African peoples to divert
    Nation Building in Modern Africa: Problems and Prospects Dr. John Addai-Sundiata Department of Sociology University of Cape Coast, Ghana email: John Addai-Sundiata Paper presented at Eastern Washington University Cheney, Washington May 1998 Click for Map of Africa Introduction: Africa's Past Africa is a huge continent which occupies 20% of the earth's land surface. Today, there are 52 sovereign nations on the continent, with about 2,00 tribal or ethnic societies, each of which has its own unique language, culture and traditions. some, such as the Xhosa and Zulu of South Africa, Yoruba and Hausa in Nigeria, or Ashanti and Dagomba in Ghana, occupy thousands of square miles, while other tribes are small in numerical strength and territory. The population of Africa in 1987 stood at 600 million (U. S., 244 million) out of which 50% were 15 years old or less. Again, the majority are peasants, and the average literacy rate is ca. 57%, but then, the variations differ from one country to the other. Geographically, Africa is said to be the oldest continent and it bears topographical imprints to that status. It is also acknowledged as the cradle of human civilization, and this is evidenced by Louis Leakey's discoveries in East Africa in 1924 of the fossilized remains of the creative Proconsul, identified by evolutionary scale, which lived some 25 million years ago. Later discoveries of Homo habilis ("skillful man") and Australopitheus Africanus (about 2 million years ago). who, as the forerunners of Homo Sapiens (modern man), lay the foundations of XXXX civilization in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

    96. Arthur's S. A. Clipart
    The indigenous people clipart with special thanks to Barbara Arthur's South AfricaPeoples and Places. GIF WARRIOR.GIF, windmill.gif windmill.gif, xhosa.gif xhosa
    web hosting domain names email addresses related sites ... Contact Me ARTHUR S COLOUR SOUTH AFRICAN CLIPART Traditional Homes,Places and the Indigenous People The indigenous people clipart with special thanks to Barbara Tyrrel Arthur's South Africa Peoples and Places
    corbelled.gif Crush.gif Dance.gif declerk.gif Diviner.gif dovecote.gif headgear.gif Hoeing.gif Hutmake.gif Khoihse.gif Matmake.gif mill.gif NDEBEL.GIF NDEBEL1.GIF NDEBEL2.GIF NDEBEL3.GIF Ndebele.gif nelsonm.gif nganegirl.gif nganemaid.gif nganewar.gif

    97. African Environment And Conservation On The Internet
    An annotated guide to internet resources on African conservation and the environment.
    Topics : Environment Search: Countries Topics Africa Guide Suggest a Site ...
    Africa to Suffer Most under Global Warming
    Panafrican News Agency (Dakar) article February 20, 2001. "Scientists studying the impact of global warming are forecasting that the phenomenon would further increase disease, famine and poverty in Africa."
    Africa Water Page
    Part of the Water Page . Founded by South African civil engineer/consultant, Leonard Abrams "dedicated to the water sector in Africa. Issues addressed include water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management, and a variety of other issues." Has full-text documents (govt. white papers, articles, etc.)
    Reqires free registration to access. Was a virtual game preserve which closed down. Read the first part of the webcam's rise videoing live from waterholes in the Djuma Game Reserve (South Africa). The site hopes to reappear. In the meantime Djuma operates two Web cams at

    98. South African Languages | Khoesan Languages
    languages; and (iii) sign language ; and (b) promote and ensure respect for— (i)all languages commonly used by communities in South africa, including German
    KHOE (KHOI), NAMA AND SAN According to legislation the Pan South African Language Board established by national legislation must—
    (a) promote, and create conditions for, the development and use of—
    (i) all official languages;
    (ii) the Khoi, Nama and San languages ; and
    (iii) sign language ; and
    (b) promote and ensure respect for—
    (i) all languages commonly used by communities in South Africa, including German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu; and
    (ii) Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa. FROM: South African Constitution (1996) - Founding Provisions
    Family: Khoesan
    Group: Ju or Northern Khoesan Subgroup: not applicable Number of speakers: 3 500 (Crawhall, Nigel 2000) KHOEKHOEGOWAP / KHOI / HOTTENTOTS / NAMA / NAMAN / NAMAKWA / NAMAQUA / DAMA / DAMARA / DAMAQUA / TAMA / TAMMA / TAMAKWA / KHOEKHOE / BERDAMA / BERGDAMARA / KHOI Family: Khoesan Group: Central or Khoe Subgroup: Khoekhoe There are two extinct South African languages from the same family and subgroup, these being Xirigowap and !Goragowap, known in English as Griqua and Korana respectively. It is possible that there are isolated unidentified individuals who still speak these languages as an L1. There are no communities who speak these extinct languages.Khoekhoegowap is an ancient language, related to others from its family, such as Naro to the east and Khwedam to the north. However Khoekhoegowap is distinct and not mutually intelligible.

    99. AAC Database - Full View Of Document
    Sourasky Central Library. Full View of Document. To mail a Bibliographicrecord to your Email account. System No, 1532777. Author, Kidd, Dudley.
    Sourasky Central Library
    Full View of Document
    To mail a Bibliographic record to your E-mail account.
    System No Author Kidd, Dudley Title Kafir socialism and the dawn of individualism : an introduction to the study of the native problem / by Dudley Kidd Location
    London : A. and C. Black, 1908
    xi, 286 p.
    Subject Xhosa (African people); Zulu (African people); Indigenous peoplesSouth Africa; Society, Primitive;
    Language ENG
    Library use only - Click the icon to prepare the document for download to the

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