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1. PFD BITES AND STINGS!
Introduction and guide from the City of Phoenix, Arizona on snake, insect, gila monster and africanized Category Health Conditions and Diseases bites and stings...... bites and stings. Snakes Gila Monsters Insect Bites Africanized HoneyBees. SNAKES. Return to top of bites and stings. GILA MONSTERS.
http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/FIRE/bitessna.html
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BITES AND STINGS
Snakes
Gila Monsters

Insect Bites

Africanized Honey Bees
SNAKES
About 45,000 people are bitten by snakes every year in the United States. Of those, 7,000 involve poisonous snakes, and of those treated, only about 15 die. More than half of the poisonous snakebites involve children, and most occur between April and October. Of the poisonous bites in the United States, 55 percent are from rattlesnakes, 34 percent from copperheads, 10 percent from water moccasins, and onepercent from coral snakes. Rattlesnake bites account for 70 percent of the fatalities and between 95 and 98 percent of the bites occur on extremities. Each year the Samaritan Regional Poison Center has more than 65 calls about rattlesnake bites. There are 11 species of rattlesnakes identified in Arizona. A pit viper snake has a heat sensing "pit" located between the nostril and eye on each side that is used to locate and trail prey. Rattlesnakes can grow up to six feet in length. Baby rattlesnakes are capable of a venomous bite from birth. Nonpoisonous snakebites are not considered serious and are generally treated as minor wounds; only poisonous snakebites are considered medical emergencies. Symptoms generally occur immediately, but only about one third of all bites manifest symptoms. When no symptoms occur, probably no venom was injected into the victim. In 50 percent of coral snake bites, no venom is injected because the coral snake has to chew the skin for envenomation to occur. In as many as 25 percent of all venomous pit viper bites, no venom is injected, possibly because the fangs may be injured, the venom sacs may be empty at the time of the bite, or the snake may not use the fangs when it strikes. Poisonous snakebite venom contains some of the most complex toxins known; venoms can affect the central nervous system, brain, heart, kidneys, and blood.

2. MEDLINEplus: Insect Bites And Stings
Insect bites and stings. Contents of this page
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/insectbitesandstings.html
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Other health topics: A B C D ... List of All Topics
Insect Bites and Stings
Contents of this page:
General/Overviews

Pictures/Diagrams

Prevention/Screening

Treatment
...
Teenagers

Search MEDLINE for recent research articles on
Insect Bites and Stings
You may also be interested in these MEDLINEplus related pages:
Bites and Stings

Lyme Disease
Tick Bites West Nile Virus ... Injuries and Wounds General/Overviews
  • Insect Bites and Stings (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Venomous Critters
  • Pictures/Diagrams
  • Life Cycles
  • Prevention/Screening
  • First Aid for Bee and Insect Stings (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Food and Insect Sting Allergies: Are Allergies Shots Really Effective? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) How to Use Insect Repellents Safely (Environmental Protection Agency) Insect Repellent Use and Safety: Questions and Answers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Mosquito Repellents: To DEET or Not to DEET (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Stinging Insects in the Garden (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
  • Specific Conditions/Aspects
  • Can I Get Infected with HIV from Mosquitoes?
  • 3. MEDLINEplus: Bites And Stings
    bites and stings. Contents of this page
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bitesandstings.html
    Skip navigation
    Other health topics: A B C D ... List of All Topics
    Bites and Stings
    Contents of this page:
    General/Overviews

    Prevention/Screening

    Treatment

    Organizations
    ...
    Teenagers

    Search MEDLINE for recent research articles on
    Bites and Stings
    You may also be interested in these MEDLINEplus related pages:
    Insect Bites and Stings

    Immune System/AIDS
    Injuries and Wounds General/Overviews
  • "Don't Worry, They Won't Bite" (American Veterinary Medical Association) Venomous Critters
  • Prevention/Screening
  • Animal-Associated Hazards (National Center for Infectious Diseases)
  • Specific Conditions/Aspects
  • Animal Bites (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Day at the Beach: Marine Dermatology (American Academy of Dermatology) Human Bites (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Snakebites: Reducing Your Risk (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also available in: Spanish Venomous Snake Bite (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
  • Treatment
  • Bites and Scratches (Nemours Foundation) Also available in: Spanish Cat and Dog Bites (American Academy of Family Physicians)
  • Lists of Print Publications
  • NCIPC Bibliography of Articles on Dog Bites (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control)
  • Organizations
  • American Academy of Family Physicians
  • Children
  • Cat Scratch Disease (Nemours Foundation) Dog Bites: How to Teach Your Children to Be Safe (American Academy of Family Physicians) How to Stay Safe Around Animals (Nemours Foundation) Safety Around Animals (American Academy of Pediatrics)
  • Teenagers

    4. BITES AND STINGS
    THE HOMOEOPATHIC FIRST RESPONDER bites and stings Animal bites can cause serious tissue damage as well as infection. Any time there is a bite by an animal there is a danger of rabies and tetanus.
    http://www.simillimum.com/FirstAid/TheFirstResponder/FirstAidin/BitesandStings.h
    THE HOMOEOPATHIC FIRST RESPONDER Back to Homoeopathic First Responder
    BITES AND STINGS
    Materia Medica APIS (2*). This remedy is indicated when a Many feel that this remedy is a specific for bee stings as it is made from the honey bee. This remedy has been used for anaphylactic shock from bee and other stings. It is useful in the stings of jelly fish and centipedes. The individual may become drowsy, confused, and apathetic. They are also thirstless. ARSENICUM (2). Indicated when a bite has become infected by dead tissue or animal substances have remained in the wound causing sepsis. The lesion takes on a dark, black, unhealthy look and moves toward gangrene. The patient becomes restless anxious, fussy and is prostrated. It is useful in poisonous spider bites that take of a blackish hue. BEllADONNA (2). This remedy is useful for bites and stings where there is rapid swelling and violent symptoms. There is redness, heat, throbbing, and burning, or redness spreading out in streaks. The face is flushed, eyes glaring, pupils dilated, the body fevered, and an excited mental state. There may even be delirium where the individual becomes furious, rages, and bites and strikes. It is often use in the bites of dogs and is reputed to be useful in the prevention and treatment of rabies (Lyssin). CALADIUM (1). This remedy is recommended for those individuals who seem to have a

    5. Venomous Bites And Stings
    Venomous bites and stings Venomous bites and stings are injected poisons. Many of Australia's creatures are particularly poisonous, with eleven of the world's twelve most venomous snakes residing here.
    http://www.parasolemt.com.au/Manual/venom.html

    6. Virtual Naval Hospital: Pediatric Emergency Manual: Bites And Stings
    Pediatric Emergency Manual bites and stings Department of Pediatrics San Antonio Uniformed Services HEC Pediatric Residency Peer Review Status Internally Peer Reviewed Mechanisms of Injury
    http://www.vnh.org/PediatricEmergencyManual/BitesStings.html
    Pediatric Emergency Manual
    Bites and Stings
    Department of Pediatrics
    San Antonio Uniformed Services HEC Pediatric Residency

    Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
  • Mechanisms of Injury
  • Children may be at increased risk for severe reactions to stings and envenomations due to an increased dose of venom per kg.
  • There are several mechanisms for the toxic effects of bites and stings:
  • Immunologic, including IgE mediated anaphylaxis and serum sickness (Ab-Ag complex).
  • Hemotoxic
  • Neurotoxic
  • Most venoms are toxic due to a combination of the above factors
  • Purveyors of Venom
  • Snakes Several different types of snakes must be differentiated due to the varying effects of their venoms.
  • Pit Vipers
  • These account for the majority of significant envenomations in the United States. Included are
  • Rattlesnakes (60%)
  • Water moccasins:
  • Copperheads (30%)
  • Cottonmouths (10%)
  • Many rattlesnake bites are provoked and thus involve the upper extremities
  • Pit viper venom is voluntarily injected by venom gland contraction. It generally contains digestive enzymes. Depending on the species there may be other components. The Mojave rattlesnake makes Mojave "toxin", a neurotoxin which may lead to paralysis and respiratory arrest. There may be varying hemotoxins which profoundly decrease platelet and clotting factors.
  • Treatment
  • First Aid Management
    • Initiate BLS as necessary (ABCs)
    • Move the patient to a health care facility as rapidly as possible
    • Minimize movement of an affected extremity and keep the extremity below the level of the heart
  • 7. A Homeopathic Perspective On BITES AND STINGS- Dana Ullman, M.P.H.
    A Homeopathic Perspective on bites and stings
    http://www.homeopathic.com/ailments/new/Bites.htm
    A Homeopathic Perspective on Bites and Stings
    (Excepted from Homeopathic Medicine for Children and Infants, Tarcher/Putnam)
    The information provided here is not only applicable to children but to most people with bites and stings.
    REMEDIES LISTED IN CAPITOL LETTERS REPRESENT MORE FREQUENTLY INDICATED REMEDIES APIS: This medicine is good for red, inflamed insect bites from which children experience burning or stinging pain that is worse by heat or warm applications and relieved by cold or cool applications. Hypericum: If children develop sharp or shooting pains from a bite or sting, consider this remedy. LEDUM: This is the most common medicine for itching bites or stings from mosquitoes, bees, wasps, spiders, and rats. The itching from the bite or sting is relieved by cold applications and is sensitive to touch. Staphysagria: When mosquito or other insect bites itch excessively or become large welts, this medicine should be given.
    HES Home Page
    Email HES

    8. West Virginia Poison Center 1-800-222-1222
    Provides emergency treatment advice on accidental exposures to medications and household substances, plant ingestions, snake, spider and other insect bites and stings, chemical spills, occupational exposures, and drug overdoses.
    http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/charleston/wvpc
    West Virginia Poison Center
    The West Virginia Poison Center provides comprehensive emergency poison information, prevention, and educational resources to West Virginians 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Each call to the poison center is answered by a Specialist in Poison Information who is specially trained in the management of poisoning emergencies.
    To contact the West Virginia Poison Center dial:
    Please email Rina Foy with any comments/suggestions regarding the WVPC website at Rina Foy. Please do NOT email poison emergency questions but call the toll free emergency hotline listed above.
    About the WVPC Hospitals We Serve Educational Materials Your Home Plants Bites and Stings Hazardous Materials Lead Poisoning Inhalant Abuse Pets K i d s C o r n e r Links "Prevention Central" - Your Community Bulletin Board Poison Prevention Week Test Your Poison IQ Governor Announces New Telephone Number Media Information Satisfaction Survey Pesticide Information West Virginia Poison Center and HIPPA Compliance
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    9. Insect Bites And Stings
    Summertime update on bites and stings Summer brings balmy outdoor days but also possible dangers from bites and stings by insects and other creatures.
    http://www.quickcare.org/skin/insect.html
    Since there are dozens of insects whose bites or stings cause problems, we will simplify this topic by splitting them into two categories: venomous and non-venomous. The charts below explain the main differences.

    Biting/Stinging Insects Venomous
    Non-Venomous Wasps
    Hornets
    Yellow Jackets
    All Bees
    Fire Ants Chiggers
    Fleas
    Lice
    Scabies
    Bed Bugs Ticks Mosquitoes
    Characteristics of Bites/Stings Symptoms Venomous Non-Venomous Itching Pain Allergic reactions Swelling/redness Sometimes Always Common Can be intense Always Uncommon Rare Mild or absent What's the Difference Between a Bite and a Sting? The differences are due to the nature of the bite or sting. Venomous insects attack as a defense mechanism, injecting painful, toxic venom through their stingers to punish you so you’ll stay away next time. Non-venomous insects bite and usually inject anti-coagulant saliva in order to feed on your blood. Although local irritation and "allergic" reactions do occur from non-venomous bites, severe reactions such as anaphylactic shock only happen from venom stings. When honey bees sting, they leave the stinger and venom sack attached (see the box on stinger removal in the

    10. Insect Bites And Stings
    This health education site explains all you need to know about insect bites and stings,including prevention, selfcare, specific recommendations for effective
    http://quickcare.org/skin/insect.html
    Since there are dozens of insects whose bites or stings cause problems, we will simplify this topic by splitting them into two categories: venomous and non-venomous. The charts below explain the main differences.

    Biting/Stinging Insects Venomous
    Non-Venomous Wasps
    Hornets
    Yellow Jackets
    All Bees
    Fire Ants Chiggers
    Fleas
    Lice
    Scabies
    Bed Bugs Ticks Mosquitoes
    Characteristics of Bites/Stings Symptoms Venomous Non-Venomous Itching Pain Allergic reactions Swelling/redness Sometimes Always Common Can be intense Always Uncommon Rare Mild or absent What's the Difference Between a Bite and a Sting? The differences are due to the nature of the bite or sting. Venomous insects attack as a defense mechanism, injecting painful, toxic venom through their stingers to punish you so you’ll stay away next time. Non-venomous insects bite and usually inject anti-coagulant saliva in order to feed on your blood. Although local irritation and "allergic" reactions do occur from non-venomous bites, severe reactions such as anaphylactic shock only happen from venom stings. When honey bees sting, they leave the stinger and venom sack attached (see the box on stinger removal in the

    11. Flairpath Are The Sole UK Distributors Of Aspivenin, Bringing Instant And Painle
    Aspivenin brings relief to all types of bites and stings, including those from insects, wasps, bees, snakes, and spiders. Includes ordering instructions.
    http://www.flairpath.com
    International distributors of: Flairpath Marketing are International distributors of Aspivenin®, a unique and natural treatment that brings instant relief from bites and stings. Aspivenin is a special vacuum mini-pump that painlessly draws poison from insect stings and insect bites . The Aspivenin treatment works on all bites and stings as well as snake bites, bee stings, wasp stings, mosquito bites, spider bites, jellyfish and scorpion stings, and snakebites. Aspivenin is the ideal product for all travellers and holidaymakers. Over 5 million are now in use throughout the world. For full information about Aspivenin and how it can treat all bites and stings , click here: Aspivenin Aspivenin® is now available to customers worldwide via our secure credit card ordering and international mail order service on our Order Page. Flairpath Limited, 6 Dunedin Drive, Caterham, Surrey CR3 6BA, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1883 342254 Fax: +44 (0) 1883 341172 E-mail: sales@flairpath.com Aspivenin Testimonials

    12. Bites And Stings
    bites and stings. Topics on this page include What is the immediate treatmentfor bites or stings? How can stings and bites be prevented? Ants.
    http://wellness.ucdavis.edu/safety_info/poison_prevention/poison_book/bites_and_
    Bites and Stings
    Topics on this page include:
    What is the immediate treatment for bites or stings?
    How can stings and bites be prevented?
    Ants
    Bees, hornets, wasps ...
    Northwestern brown spider or the hobo spider
    E very year, thousands of calls are made to the Poison Center regarding insect bite information or treatment advice. While all insects can bite or sting, some are more bothersome and dangerous than others. Bites from fleas, mosquitoes and the common horsefly can cause pain, itching and swelling at the site - an unpleasant experience but not necessarily dangerous, unless an infection occurs.
    What is the immediate treatment for bites or stings?
    If breathing difficulties, difficult swallowing and/or body-wide itching develop, the patient is having a severe allergic reaction. Immediately call 9-1-1 for assistance. Otherwise, wash the bite or sting area well with soap and water to help prevent infection. If stung or bitten on fingers or hand, remove any rings or jewelry in case of swelling. Your local pharmacist can help you select the best over-the-counter medications to help treat insect and spider bites.
    How can stings and bites be prevented?

    13. Bites And Stings: Bite And Sting Information At IVillage.com
    bites and stings Bite and sting information, advice and support at allhealth.com. You'll find interactive tools, friendly message boards and expert opinions on bites and stings. you are here iVillage.com parenting child health first aid bites and stings. bites and stings
    http://s.ivillage.com/families/lnav/bites?redirect=http://www.ivillage.com/topic

    14. Summertime Update On Bites And Stings
    Summertime update on bites and stings. Summer brings balmy outdoor days but alsopossible dangers from bites and stings by insects and other creatures.
    http://www.convoke.com/markjr/summer.html
    Summertime update on bites and stings
    For any signs of systemic (whol e body) involvement and a severe allergic reaction (with hives, pallor, weakness, nausea, vomiting, breathing problems) seek emergency medical aid. Animal bites, for instance by a bat, skunk, raccoon, fox, cat or dog, always carry some danger of infection, especially if the bite is deep, and possible risk of rabies.
    Allow some bleeding, to help cleanse the wound.
    Wash wound site with soap and water for several minutes to remove the animal s saliva and rinse well with running water.
    If wound is on armor leg, apply a firm bandage.
    Get medical attention even for a small animal bite to see if further care is warranted and whether there is a need for tetanus and/or rabies vaccination. Snake bites can be a danger in Northern Canada. They are puncture woun ds with swelling and local skin discolouration. Although the vast majority of snakes are not poisonous, some bites can cause violent reactions with pain, nausea, vomiting, weakness, vision blurring, sweating, difficulty breathing, speech slurring, paralysi s and convulsions. Stay calm and reassure the casualty, persuade him or her to lie down and move the affected part as little as possible.

    15. Don't Let The Bugs Bite
    bites and stings from insects, including spiders, ticks, mites, mosquitoes, flies, fleas, ants, bees, and wasps, are common in children. Know how to prevent and treat common ones, and when to not over react.
    http://pediatrics.about.com/library/weekly/aa060201a.htm
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    Don't Let the Bugs Bite Part 1: An introduction to insect bites and stings More of this Feature Prevention of Insect Bites and Stings
    Treatments for Insect Bites and Stings

    Join the Discussion How do you deal with common summertime problems, such as insect bites and stings and poison ivy? Post your tips and suggestions for other parents... Pediatrics Guide
    Related Resources Preventing Foodborne Illnesses
    Backyard Pool Safety
    Insect Repellents Sun Protection ... Poison Ivy From Other Guides Insect Allergies Insects/Spiders Elsewhere on the Web Fighting Fleas and Ticks Insect Stings and Bites Bee, Wasp and Insect Stings Insect Stings ... Anaphylaxis Insect bites and stings are very common in children, especially during the spring and summer months. Among the arthropods that often bite and sting are spiders, ticks, mites, mosquitoes, flies, fleas, ants, bees, and wasps. While most insect bites only result in mild local reactions, they can cause more serious conditions, such as anaphylactic reactions and Lyme disease.

    16. Entomology - Bites And Stings Of Medically Important Venomous Arthropods
    bites and stings of medically important venomous arthropods. RichardS. Vetter and P. Kirk Visscher Department of Entomology, University
    http://spiders.ucr.edu/dermatol.html
      Bites and Stings of medically important venomous arthropods
      Richard S. Vetter
      and P. Kirk Visscher
      Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 USA Published in the International Journal of Dermatology, volume 37, page 481-496, July 1998,
      INTRODUCTION
      Toxicologically, there is far more diversity in spider venoms than in the venoms of Hymenoptera and scorpions, so that the correct identification of spider bites has special significance. Spiders are rarely correctly identified by bite victims or their physicians and are readily transported by human commerce out of their native range. There are stellar reviews of the toxicology of arthropod venoms and poisons , as well as an excellent quick guide to bites and stings of arthropods
      BITE VS. STING
      THE STINGING HYMENOPTERA
      Evolution of the sting The most common stinging animals are in the insect order Hymenoptera (meaning "veil wings"), which includes the bees, wasps and ants. The most primitive Hymenoptera possess ovipositors to insert eggs into plant tissue. In some parasitic groups this structure and glands associated with it have been modified to inject venom to paralyze other insects which are used as food by the developing larvae. (These parasitic wasps comprise the largest number of species in the Hymenoptera, and are extremely beneficial to agriculture as biological control agents of agricultural pest insects.) The stings of these parasitic wasps are not usually very painful to humans, and their venom has low mammalian toxicity

    17. Entomology - Spiders And Other Arachnids
    bites and stings of medically important venomous arthropods. An article on medicalaspects of the bites and stings of venomous arthropods, including spiders
    http://spiders.ucr.edu/
      Spiders and other Arachnids at UC Riverside
      UCR research and extension on Spiders and other Arachnids
    Spider myths
    The myth of the brown recluse bite
    Even in areas where Brown Recluse spiders do not occur, doctors and the public frequently diagnose a variety of lesions as brown recluse spider bites. The following articles written for different audiences address this issue: An amusing yet educational rant regarding the lack of BR in California"The Myth of the Brown Recluse"
    "The Myth of the Brown Recluse"
    A peer-reviewed article for the general public in UCDavis Pest Notes
    "Brown recluse and other recluse spiders"

    18. Bites And Stings - OutdoorPlaces.Com
    bites and stings can be divided into five distinct groups. Insect bitesand hornets and mosquitoes. Spider and scorpion bites and stings.
    http://www.outdoorplaces.com/Features/Backcountry/stings/
    Park Finder Backcountry Hiking Mountaineering ... Community Discussion Group Top Ten Foods
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    Ten Fall Hiking Tips
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    Tourons Discussion Group Altitude 101 Frostbite Hypothermia Lightning Safety Paddling With Kids Buying The Right Canoe River Rafting Danger Caving Basics Horses vs. Hikers Floyd's Archive Search Our Site Read our Privacy Policy We advise you to read our Terms of before using this site. Stings And Bites When you are out camping in the great outdoors sooner or later you're going to get stung or bitten by any number of flying, creeping, crawling, or swimming creatures. Whether it is the sting of a scorpion in the southwestern desert, the bite of a copperhead in the Adirondacks of New York, the sting of a Portuguese Man of War at Padre Island National Seashore, or a bee sting in the alpine meadows of Glacier National Park, you should always be prepared whether you are camping in a recreational vehicle or hitting the wild backcountry. Bites and stings can be divided into five distinct groups. Insect bites and stings, like those from ticks, chiggers, flies, ants, bees, wasps, hornets and mosquitoes. Spider and scorpion bites and stings. Like those from a variety of spiders, the more famous being the black widow and the brown recluse, and a variety of scorpions. The next is marine life stings. This can be from jellyfish, Portuguese Man of War, or stingrays. Snakebites can be from any number of snakes, both venomous and non-venomous. And finally animal bites from little critters like bats, rats, squirrels and chipmunks.

    19. THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 23, Ch. 308, Bites And Stings
    Section 23. Poisoning hyperlink to list of chapters in current section. Chapter308. bites and stings. Topics. Venomous Snakes. Venomous Lizards. Spiders.
    http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section23/chapter308/308a.htm
    This Publication Is Searchable The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Section 23. Poisoning Chapter 308. Bites And Stings Topics Venomous Snakes Venomous Lizards Spiders Bees, Wasps, Yellow Jackets, Hornets, Ants ... Marine Animals
    Venomous Snakes
    Only about 15% of the 3000 species of venomous snakes throughout the world are considered poisonous to humans (see Table 308-1
    Venom Chemistry and Pathophysiology
    Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. Although enzymes play an important role, the toxic properties of the venom can be due to certain smaller polypeptides. Most venom components appear to bind with multiple physiologic receptor sites in a victim. Thus, the arbitrary classification of snake venoms as "neurotoxins," "hemotoxins," and "cardiotoxins" is superficial and can lead to serious errors in clinical judgment. The venom of most North American pit vipers Coral snake (elapid) venom contains primarily neurotoxic components, which result in neuromuscular blockade. The lack of significant proteolytic enzyme activity accounts for the minimal symptoms and signs seen at the bite site.
    Symptoms, Signs, and Diagnosis

    20. BITES AND STINGS
    Common FirstAid Procedures bites and stings. JELLYFISH, STINGRAY, AND OTHER MARINEANIMAL BITES Stings from marine animals are only rarely life-threatening.
    http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/texts/guide/hmg14_0004.html
    Common First-Aid Procedures
    BITES AND STINGS Dog bites are the most common type of animal bites. Dogs attack more than a million Americans annually and about half of these incidents involve children. All children should be taught to avoid strange dogs, and dog owners should properly restrain their pets at all times, keeping them on leashes when walked and muzzled if they have a propensity to bite. Unleashed dogs should be kept in a secure enclosure at other times. These measures not only protect people from bites but they also benefit pets by preventing them from becoming lost or hit by automobiles┬Ścommon fates for animals allowed to roam freely. All animal bites require some level of treatment, depending on the nature and severity of the wound. Animal and human mouths are home to many bacteria that can cause harm when they penetrate the skin. If the person has not had a tetanus shot in the past 5 years, consult a physician. If the person has circulatory problems or diabetes, a physician should also be consulted, even if the bite appears to be minor. RABIES Rabies is on the increase in the United States. The Southeast, Middle Atlantic and Northeast states report it at epidemic levels among raccoons, skunks, and bats. Less commonly, rabies may be carried by coyotes, foxes, and larger rodents such as ground hogs. Therefore, any bite from a wild animal should be examined promptly by a knowledgeable doctor.

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