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  1. Brachial Plexus Palsy
  2. 51 Tips for Coping with Cerebral Palsy by Dale Mann, 2009-08-02

81. A-BRAS Home Page (english)
Informations sur la paralysie du bras et de la main du nouveauné (POPB ou ParalysieObstétricale du plexus brachial et Erb's palsy) causes, récuperation
Page Content :
Most of our site is now in French. We will be adding few pages.
You can access other sites dealing with Brachial Plexus Injuries,
Please see our selected links (most of them are in English) :
  • Other sites : Erb's palsy and births
  • Back to A-BRAS's home page
    Top of the page
    Content ... Site map Repair of BPP
    The A-BRAS follows the works made by specialized surgeon teams in brachial plexus repair and pain relief. It attended several conferences both on OBPI and TBPI (obstetrical and traumatic brachial plexus injuries). These participations confirm that many options are available and that only qualified surgeons are able to decide the stategy to be used : each injury is so different. We urge all specialized teams, some are not fully participating in this effort, to compare their results in these conferences, so that the best practices are selected.
    As a support group, detailled surgery procedures are not intended to be described, only general principles can be presented. Those and an overview of consequences of OBPI are presented in a 24-page booklet entitled (French only) : "Early Care of Erb's Palsy".
  • 82. Birth Injury - Birth Injuries - Medical Information
    brachial plexus injury; Cerebral palsy; Bruising/forceps marks; Caput succedaneum;Cephalohematoma; Facial paralysis; Fractures; Subconjunctival hemorrhage.
    Primary Care
    Elective Care


    ... Toxic Mold Birth Injury Links Birth Injury News, Articles
    BIRTH INJURY - BIRTH INJURIES During the birth process, the baby may suffer a physical injury. It is estimated that between two and seven babies out of 1,000 will become injured during the birth process. Birth injury can be related to the size and position of the baby during labor and delivery. Birth injuries can also be related to maternal pre-existing health problems, fetal health problems, or doctor and/or medical staff negligence. The most devastating birth injuries are those that cause some type of brain damage or death.
    What are some of the more common birth injuries?
    • Brachial plexus injury Cerebral palsy Bruising/forceps marks Caput succedaneum Cephalohematoma Facial paralysis Fractures Subconjunctival hemorrhage
    What is brachial plexus birth injuries?
    The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms may include a limp or paralyzed arm, lack of muscle control in the arm, hand, or wrist, and lack of feeling or sensation in the arm or hand. Although injuries can occur at any time, many brachial plexus injuries happen during birth; the baby's shoulders may become impacted during the birth process causing the brachial plexus nerves to stretch or tear. There are four types of brachial plexus injuries: Avulsion - the most severe type, in which the nerve is torn from the spine;

    83. Brachial Plexus
    A brachial plexus injury (Erb's palsy) is a nerve injury. The nervesthat are damaged control muscles in the shoulder, arm, or hand.
    UNDERSTANDING BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURIES A brachial plexus injury (Erb's Palsy) is a nerve injury. The nerves that are damaged control muscles in the shoulder, arm, or hand. Any or all of these muscles may be paralyzed. Children with brachial plexus injuries are affected in different ways. Here are some examples:
    • Some children have no muscle control and no feeling in the arm or hand. Some children can move their arms, but have little control over the wrist and hand Other children can use their hands well but cannot use the shoulder or elbow muscles.
    Your child's disability depends on which nerves are injured and how severely they have been damaged. What is the Brachial Plexus? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves. It conducts signals from the spine to the arm and hand. These signals cause the arm and hand muscles to move. (Brachial means arm, and plexus refers to a network of nerves.) What Causes Brachial Plexus Injuries?

    84. THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 19, Ch. 260, Disturbances In Newborns And
    Erb's palsy is an upper brachial plexus injury causing adduction and internal rotationof the shoulder with pronation of the forearm; ipsilateral paralysis of

    85. Birth Injury: Shoulder Dystocia
    Shoulder Dystocia and Erb's palsy in the Newborn 34 Medifocus GuideFind More Like This. Shoulder Dystocia with brachial plexus Injury.

    86. Injured Newborn
    Thank you for taking the time to learn more about brachial plexus birth injuries,also known as Erb's palsy, Duchenne's palsy and Klumpke's palsy.
    • Current statistics show that thousands of babies are injured each year during the birthing process resulting in an impairment to the brachial plexus, a group of nerves that control one arm and hand. Occasionally, a bilateral injury occurs which will involve both arms and hands. Most of these brachial plexus nerve injuries are mild and will resolve with full function of the affected arm in a short time. However, a minority of babies with brachial plexus injuries will end up with a permanent disability. New studies also show that some of the children who were considered to have temporary/mild brachial plexus injuries, are showing up at specialized clinics at later ages, with deformities that may or may not be able to be corrected. Birthing practitioners and pregnancy books rarely discuss this birthing emergency and these injuries with expectant mothers. There are warning signs that may be linked to the increased risk of this specific birthing injury. More importantly, there are steps an expectant mother and a high-risk practitioner may be able to take to possibly reduce the risk of injury.
    Thank you for taking the time to learn more about brachial plexus birth injuries, also known as Erb's Palsy, Duchenne's Palsy and Klumpke's Palsy.

    87. The Keenan Law Firm - Shoulder Dystocia Lawyers
    What causes brachial plexus and Erb's palsy injuries? Many instances of shoulderdystocia can be anticipated and prevented if the warning signs are heeded.
    Shoulder Dystocia and Erb's Palsy The birth of a child is an awe-inspiring event. So often Mother Nature and skilled doctors work together to provide a smooth entry for the baby into the world. However, it is well-known that many births have complications, and sometimes those complications lead to injuries. Some are preventable, some are not. One of the most common birth injuries is known as Erb's Palsy. This condition is the result of Brachial Plexus and Shoulder Dystocia during the delivery. Simply put, the nerves in the shoulder get stretched, compressed, or torn when the doctor pulls too hard on the baby (usually the baby's shoulder has been stuck behind the mother's Pubis Symphysis bone). What causes Brachial Plexus and Erb's Palsy injuries?
    What are the risk factors?

    How do I know if negligence is a possibility?

    What are our legal rights?
    What are the treatment options?
    What causes Brachial Plexus and Erb's Palsy injuries? Many instances of shoulder dystocia can be anticipated and prevented if the warning signs are heeded. There are some instances of shoulder dystocia that cannot be anticipated. However, injury to the infant can still be prevented if the appropriate steps are taken once the shoulder dystocia occurs. Under no circumstances should pressure be applied to the upper abdomen. This is called fundal pressure and may cause serious injury to both the mother and the baby.

    88. Miami Children's Hospital Medical Services
    Expertise. brachial plexus (Erb's palsy) and other peripheral nerve injuries;Congenital hand and upper limb deformities and deficiencies;
    Our Philosophy Approximately one in every 700 infants is born with a congenital upper extremity abnormality. In addition, birth injury, cerebral palsy and trauma cause upper limb problems in countless other children. Miami Children's Hospital, through its multidisciplinary Pediatric Upper Extremity Program, provides comprehensive care and rehabilitation for infants, children and young adults with congenital and acquired disorders of the upper limb. Because no single surgeon can provide all of the necessary expertise to manage many complex problems, a team of surgical and rehabilitation specialists tailors an individualized treatment program for each child. State-of-the-art diagnostic and rehabilitation services are provided by a variety of highly skilled experts at Miami Children's Hospital. This collaborative effort makes the Miami Children's Hospital Pediatric Upper Extremity Program unique. Furthermore, each patient's care is overseen by the surgical director and a clinical coordinator, who work closely with the family to help them understand and select the best treatment options for their child. A large number of medical specialists have been integrated into the program to ensure that the total needs of each child are met.

    89. Wilmer's Favorite Links
    brachial plexus Resources Information for people with brachial plexus injuries(Erbs palsy). National brachial plexus/Erb's palsy Association, Inc.
    AAOP , the American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists Amputee Web Site BAPO , British Association of Prosthetists and Orthotists, sites of interest Department of Veterans Affairs I-CAN , International Child Amputee Network ISPO , the International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics Prosthetics Research Study Reach , the Association for Children with Hand or Arm Deficiency Related Prosthetic-Orthotic HTML's University of Strathclyde World Information on Disability , many useful links List will be extended.
    Useful on Medical Subjects
    Medsite A Medical Search Engine Hand Surgery Resources on the Web A lot of useful Links listed Brachial Plexus Resources Information for people with brachial plexus injuries (Erbs palsy) National Brachial Plexus/Erb's Palsy Association, Inc. List will be extended. Back to: Wilmer's Homepage Author: Revised: April 15, 2002

    90. Brachial Plexus Injury
    Complete palsy is an injury to the entire brachial plexus. All the nervesof the brachial plexus are involved in one way or the other.
    Brachial Plexus Injury A Brachial Plexus Injury is an injury to the nerves in the neck that control shoulder, arm, hand, and finger movement. These nerves can be stretched, avulsed, or ruptured due to large amounts of stress put on the neck. Please see my drawing of the Brachial Plexus. Adults can get this injury through forced trauma, such as a car or motorcycle accident. An example of someone we all know with adult onset of BPI is Former Senator Bob Dole. Babies can get this injury during birth due to Shoulder Dystocia, hard labor, or Physician error, i.e. too much force put on the head and neck to remove the baby from the birth canal. Approximately 3 in 1000 babies are born with Brachial Plexus Injuries. Our son, Caleb, has this injury due to Shoulder Dystocia, which is the term used for the baby's shoulder getting lodged behind the mother's pelvic bone. See Caleb's Birth Story , for more information on his story. Also, from Caleb's Birth Story, follow my links to other great information. There are several kinds of Brachial Plexus Injuries: Erb's Palsy is an injury to the nerves that control your upper arm movement. These nerves, C5, C6, and C7, control shoulder movement, Biceps, and Triceps. Often times a person suffering from Erb's will hold his arm inward and his wrist out in what is commonly known as a "waiter's tip".

    91. Treatment Of Brachial Plexus, Mayo Clinic In Rochester, Minn.
    Treatment of brachial plexus at Mayo Clinic in Rochester. brachial plexusinjuries, or lesions, are caused by damage to those nerves.
    Mayo Clinic Locations: Arizona Florida Minnesota Mayo Clinic ... Medical Services Brachial Plexus Brachial Plexus Treatment Obstetric Palsy Traumatic Injuries Appointments ... Medical Services
    Treatment of Brachial Plexus at Mayo Clinic in Rochester
    The brachial plexus is a network of nerves derived from the spinal cord that controls the muscle movements and sensation in the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, are caused by damage to those nerves. The nerve damage can be caused by birth-related or traumatic injuries, or be the result of primary neurogenic or locally invasive tumors, compression or irradiation. Mayo Clinic offers an interdisciplinary, cooperative approach that allows specialists from the following areas to design a treatment and recovery plan unique to each patient:
    Types of Nerve Injuries
    There are three types of nerve injuries to the brachial plexus:
    • Stretch
      The nerve has been damaged but not torn. This is the most common type of brachial plexus injury and fortunately, the nerve may in many of these cases heal itself without surgical intervention. Depending on the degree of injury to the nerve, scar tissue may form resulting in a neuroma. A neuroma may prevent the nerve from conducting signals to the muscles.

    92. MEDLINEplus: Peripheral Nerve Disorders
    Organizations National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Children Erb'sPalsy (brachial plexus Injury) (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons).
    Skip navigation
    Other health topics: A B C D ... List of All Topics
    Peripheral Nerve Disorders
    Contents of this page:
    From the NIH




    Search MEDLINE for recent research articles on Peripheral Nerve Disorders:
    Peripheral neuropathy

    Brachial plexus

    You may also be interested in these MEDLINEplus related pages: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Degenerative Nerve Diseases Pain Thoracic Outlet Syndrome ... Brain and Nervous System From the National Institutes of Health
  • Peripheral Neuropathy (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
  • General/Overviews
  • Neuropathy (American Medical Association) What Is Peripheral Neuropathy? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
  • Clinical Trials
  • Peripheral Nervous System Diseases (National Institutes of Health)
  • Diagnosis/Symptoms
  • Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Velocities (Muscular Dystrophy Association)
  • Pictures/Diagrams
  • Atlas of the Body: The Nervous System (American Medical Association)
  • Specific Conditions/Aspects
  • Autonomic Neuropathy (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Brachial Plexus Injuries (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Burners (American Academy of Family Physicians) Burning Sensation in Feet (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Cervical Radiculopathy (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Dysautonomia (Autonomic Dysfunction) (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
  • 93. - Text Only -
    Association for Science in Autism Treatment Batten Disease Support and Research AssociationBrachial plexus/Erb's palsy Information Brain Injury Association of
    Exceptional Parent Magazine -
    Association Links - listed alphabetically Ablenet Foundation
    Access-Able Travel Source


    Advocates Across America
    United Brachial Plexus Network
    (Erb's Palsy Information )
    United Cerebral Palsy

    United Cerebral Palsy Associations of New Jersey, Inc.

    United Cerebral Palsy Chicago

    United Cerebral Palsy of New York City
    WE MOVE: Worldwide Education and Awareness for Movement Disorders

    Questions or Problems? Contact

    94. Neonatology On The Web: Brachial Plexus Injuries In The Newborn
    Michelow BJ, et al. The natural history of obstetrical brachial plexuspalsy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 93(4)675681, April 1993.
    Neo Home New Clinical Computers ... Links
    Brachial Plexus Injuries in the Newborn
    Prepared by Pamela Mouser, MS-4, UCLA School of Medicine
    for CSMC NICU Teaching Rounds, 1/14/97
    Brachial plexus injuries include weakness or total paralysis of muscles innervated by the brachial plexus C-5 to C-8 and T1. Erb's Palsy refers to involvement of C5 and C6 +/- C7 resulting in proximal muscle weakness. Klumpke's Palsy refers to involvement of C8 and T1 resulting in weakness in the intrinsic muscles of the hand. Isolated Klumpke's Palsy rarely occurs in the newborn period (0.6% of cases in one study). Total plexus palsy involves both the lower and upper roots.
  • 0.5 to 2.0 per 1000 live births [1], 0.37-0.87 per 1000 live births [2].
  • 10 to 20 times more common than spinal cord injuries.
  • 90% [1] or 58-72% [2] of cases are Erb's Palsy.
  • In 10% the entire brachial plexus is involved [2].
  • Ipsilateral diaphragm is involved in 5% of cases of Erb's Palsy.
  • Horner's Syndrome via T1 sympathetic injury occurs in 1/3 of total plexus palsies.
  • Bilateral injury in 8-23% [2].
  • 95. Children's Hospital Boston - Brachial Plexus Program
    to infants and children with acute and chronic brachial plexus palsies.Related Child Health A to Z Topics Surgery&Pr

    96. Shoulder Dystocia Attorneys
    The most common types of birth injury that occur include Cerebral palsy, BrachialPlexus palsy, Erb’s palsy, Klumpke’s palsy, and Horner’s Syndrome. is working to help you locate a shoulder dystocia attorney near you. Contact us today to find out what legal rights you may have regarding shoulder dystocia.
    Birth Injury The more severe the birth injury is, the more life-threatening and the more damage is probably done. The birthing process is a complicated event that involves compression, contraction, torques, and traction. The size of the baby, the presentation, and the neurological immaturity all affects the chances of birth injury from occurring. Certain instruments to assist in the birthing process, predisposing injury, and medical malpractice can all contribute to birth injuries. The Center for Shoulder Dystocia Information represents attorneys throughout the United States providing information and legal advice for victims. top
    Medical Malpractice Attorney Source

    Cerebral Palsy Lawyer Attorney
    United National Cerebral Palsy Lawyer ... Birth Injury Trauma Attorneys

    97. Lecture Curricula
    NERVE PALSIES Ulnar nerve palsy; Radial nerve palsy; Median nerve palsy; Brachialplexus; Obstetrical palsy; Tendon transfers in tetraplegia; Tendon transfers in
    Christine M. Kleinert Institute
    for Hand and Microsurgery Home About Fellowships
    at CMKI
    ... Microlab
    * Requires KKA network login name and password
    Fellowship Lecture Curricula
    The lecture plan is flexible, with changes based on ongoing evaluation, questions that arise in conferences, and the presence of visitors from other hand surgery units.
    Yearly Meetings and Workshops
    • Focus on Anatomy (normally held in late summer/early autumn) is an in-depth review of one aspect of upper-extremity anatomy. A Flap Course is offered yearly unless Focus on Anatomy is on Flaps. Internal Fixation workshop Wrist Arthroscopy EMG/NCS
    Cyclic Lectures
    • Case presentations Journal Club
    • Monthly:
    • Biomechanics Anatomy lab dissection Evidence-based medicine series
    • Quarterly: Periodic:
    • Question review
    Specific Core Lectures
    • Hand Wrist Elbow Shoulder Brachial plexus Cervical spine Nerve compression
    • TRAUMA
    • Debridement Contaminated wounds I Contaminated wounds II Amputation Arthrodesis in trauma, Joint transfer Mutilated hand Pediatric mutilated hand Nail bed Fingertip Skin Grafts Cross and reverse cross finger flaps Local regional flaps of the hand Emergency free flaps Dorsal hand reconstruction Soft tissue coverage-traumatized limb Thumb replant/immediate pollicization/immediate transfer Chemical, radiation, frostbite injuries

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    100. Medical Negligence- Click For Lawyer!
    . Medical Negligence Click on the state of your choice to finda link to a legal professional to serve your legal needs
    Medical Negligence
    Click on the state of your choice to find a link to a legal professional to serve your legal needs:
    Alabama Conneticut Idaho Louisiana ... Virginia Medical Negligence

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