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         Facial Paralysis:     more books (44)
  1. Facial Paralysis: Rehabilitation Techniques
  2. Facial Paralysis [In Japanese Language] by Beat Takeshi, 1994
  3. Facial Paralysis - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References by ICON Health Publications, 2004-09-28
  4. Paralytic lagophthalmos: gold-weight implantation.(FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINIC): An article from: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal by James R. Tate, J. David Kriet, et all 2006-09-01
  5. Reanimation of the Paralyzed Face (American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) by Lawrence P. Burgess, Richard L. Goode, 1994-01-15
  6. The Invisible Smile: Living without facial expression by Jonathan Cole, Henrietta Spalding, 2009-01-15
  7. The Facial Nerve: May's Second Edition
  8. Disorders of the Facial Nerve: Anatomy, Diagnosis, and Management by Malcolm Graham, 1981-09
  9. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America: Rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis, Volume 5, No. 3, August 1997
  11. Surviving Bell's Palsy: A Patient's Guide to Facial Paralysis Management by J.P. Dambach, 1997-10-01
  12. Delayed facial paresis following tympanomastoid surgery in a pediatric patient.(ORIGINAL ARTICLE)(Case study): An article from: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal by Marc C. Thorne, Brian P. Dunham, et all 2010-08-01
  13. Peripheral facial palsy: Pathology and surgery by Karsten Kettel, 1959
  14. When Facial Paralysis Affects the Way You Look: Managing the Change in Your Appearance by Alex Clarke, 1998-05

1. Facial Nerve
Department of Neurology at this medical school offers anatomy and diagnosis information for facial paralysis conditions like Bell's palsy. Follow a diagnosis outline. Facial Paresis Right. Widened palpebral fissure. Onset. Paralysis Progresses over 3 to 72 hours

Search Index Links ... Patient Info
Bell's palsy

Differential diagnosis
Facial nerve: Anatomy
  • 2 roots
    • Motor from facial nucleus
    • Nervus intermedius
      • Preganglionic parasympathetics (from superior salivatory nucleus)
    • Major branches
      • Nerve to stapedius
      • Chorda tympani: Taste
      • Motor branches
    • Facial nerve: Anatomical Diagram
    Bell's Palsy
    • Epidemiology
      • Lifetime prevalence: 6.4 per 1,000
      • Incidence: Increased with age
        • Overall: 0.5 per year per 1,000
        • Age 20: 0.1 per year per 1,000
        • Age 80: 0.6 per year per 1,000
      • Male = Female
      • Recurrence: 7%
      • Side: Right in 63%
      • ? Increased incidence with diabetes
    • Clinical Features
      Facial Paresis: Right
      Widened palpebral fissure
      • Onset
        • Paralysis: Progresses over 3 to 72 hours
        • Pain (50%): Near mastoid process
        • Excess tearing (33%)
        • Other: Hyperacusis; Dysgeusia
      • Signs
        • Facial weakness
          • Unilateral Degree: Partial (30%); Complete (70%)
          Stapedius dysfunction (33%): Hyperacusis
        • Lacrimation: mildly affected in some patients
        • Taste: No clinically significant changes in most patients
      • Prognosis better
        • Incomplete paralysis
        • Early improvement
        • Slow progression
        • Younger age
        • Normal salivary flow
        • Normal taste
        • Electrodiagnostic tests normal
          • Nerve excitability
          • Electrogustometry
        • Course
          • Improvement onset: 10 days to 2 months Plateau: 6 weeks to 9 months Residual signs
            • Synkinesis: ~50% Face weakness: 30% Contracture: 20% Crocodile tears: 6%
            Treatment of Bell's palsy
            • Corticosteroids within one week of onset
            • Prednisone 80 mg qd x 5 days; then taper over 1 week

2. Bell's Palsy Home Page - National Centers For Facial Paralysis - Specialists In
Bells Palsy treatments specialists in the rehabilitation of paralyzed facial muscle with over 60 Category Health Conditions and Diseases Bell s Palsy......Bells Palsy Treastments The National Centers For facial paralysis,Inc. (Specialists in the Rehabilitation of Paralyzed Facial
Specialists in the Rehabilitation of Paralyzed Facial Muscle Contact NCFP This site was last modified: May 03, 2002
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3. MEI: Facial Nerve Paralysis Patient Brochure
A discussion of facial nerve problems with illustrations, from the Michigan Ear Institute.Category Health Conditions and Diseases Cranial Nerve Diseases...... FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS. A DISCUSSION OF FACIAL NERVE PROBLEMS. There are a numberof surgical procedures that are helpful for patients with facial paralysis.
Twitching, weakness or paralysis of the face is a symptom of some disorder involving the facial nerve. It is not a disease in itself. The disorder may be caused by many different disease, including circulatory disturbances, injury, infection or tumor. Facial nerve disorders are accompanied by a hearing impairment. This impairment may or may not be related to the facial nerve problems. Hearing is measured in decibels (dB). A hearing level of to 25 dB is considered normal hearing for conversational purposes. FUNCTION OF THE FACIAL NERVE The facial nerve resembles a telephone cable and contains hundreds of individual nerve fibers. Each fiber carries electrical impulses to a specific facial muscle. Acting as a unit this nerve allows us to laugh, cry, smile or frown, hence the name, "the nerve of facial expression". Each of the two facial nerves not only carries nerve impulses to the muscles of one side of the face, but also carries nerve impulses top the tear glands, saliva glands, to the muscle of a small middle ear bone (stapes) and transmits taste fibers from the front of the tongue and pain fibers from the ear canal. As such, a disorder of the facial nerve may result in twitching, weakness or paralysis of the face, dryness of the ear or the mouth, loss of taste, increased sensitivity to loud sound and pain in the ear. An ear specialist is often called upon to manage facial nerve problems because of the close association of this nerve with the ear structures. After leaving the brain the facial nerve enters the temporal bone (ear bone) through a small bony tube (the internal auditory canal) in very close association with the hearing and balance nerves. Along its inch and a half course through a small bony canal in the temporal bone the facial nerve winds around the three middle ear bones, in back o the eardrum, and then through the mastoid to exit below the ear. Here is divides into many branches to supply the facial muscles. During its course through the temporal bone the facial nerve gives off several branches: to the tear gland, to the stapes muscle, to the tongue and saliva glands and to the ear canal.

4. Facial Paralysis
Core Curriculum Syllabus. facial paralysis. III. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OFPERIPHERAL facial paralysis Extracranial Traumatic Facial lacerations;
Core Curriculum Syllabus
  • Anatomy of the facial nerve and fallopian canal
    • Intracranial nerve arises near pons and courses 12mm to porus acousticus.
    • Meatal portion (10 mm) is anterior to the superior vestibular nerve and superior to the cochlear nerve.
    • Intratemporal portion
      • Labyrinthine segment (3-4 mm) passes through narrowest part of the fallopian canal. Common site of pathology: temporal bone fractures and Bell's palsy.
      • Tympanic segment runs from geniculate ganglion to pyramidal turn (11 mm).
      • Mastoid segment descends 13 mm to exit the stylomastoid foramen.
    • Extracranial portion
      • Nerve extends 15-20 mm from stylomastoid foramen to pes anserinus.
      • Variable branching patterns.
    • Clinical comment: The course of the facial nerve through the posterior fossa, temporal bone, and parotid gland renders this cranial nerve vulnerable to many neoplastic, traumatic, and infectious events. Disorders of the nerve provoke some interest in other medical specialties, but because of his background in head and neck anatomy and pathology and skill in temporal bone surgery, the otolaryngologist is most qualified to diagnose and manage paralysis of the facial nerve. Nevertheless, all clinicians should be able to recognize a peripheral paralysis and initiate proper evaluation.
  • Anomalous Courses
    • Most common anomaly: dehiscence of facial canal.

5. Eyelid Surgery In Facial Paralysis (Bell's Palsy)
of some surgical procedures currently available. Site is accessible for people with low vision.......'s.html
Eyelid Surgery in Facial Paralysis (Bell's Palsy) Patients with facial paralysis either from Bell's Palsy or neurosurgery such as for acoustic neuroma can certainly benefit from eyelid surgery. The facial paralysis, usually on just one side of the face, can cause many different problems of the eyelid and facial skin and muscles. Because the forehead on the paralyzed side of the face has no wrinkles and is unable to raise that eyebrow, the eyebrow droops, which tends to push the eyelid tissues down either over the eyelashes or over the eye. Although the eyelid itself can open, it has difficulty closing, leading to exposure of the eye, decreased blink, dry eye and in severe cases, corneal ulcers and loss of the eye with perforation from infection. The lower eyelid, because it lacks muscle tone from the loss of nerve stimulus, droops and may even start to turn out (ectropion). The cheek and mouth muscles also droop, which can lead to drooling and trouble with eating and drinking, not to mention loss of the smile on the affected side. Some of these conditions can be corrected with eyelid surgery.

6. Facial Paralysis Support Group
Support Group in Pittsburgh, PA for individuals with facial paralysis to shareexperiences, insight and information. Facial Nerve facial paralysis

Sorry - until further notice there are no meetings scheduled for the
Facial Paralysis Support Group in Pittsburgh, PA
We hope the following links will be helpful to you.
Please Sign Our Guestbook

Would you like to read other guest's comments
Links Support Groups
Other Conditions

Smile Exercises

Support Groups
About Face
Let's Face It Acoustic Neuroma Association Cochlea! (Meniere's Forum) ... Support Groups (National Health Information Center) Trigeminal Neuralgia Association: Greater Pittsburgh Support Group
Cyber Soul-Mates A Window on my Mind I AM Normal! RESOURCES for Californians (and others) What is Moebius Syndrome? Do you have a home page relating to facial paralysis? Please E-mail
Top of Page Top of Links Facial Paralysis (Baylor College of Medicine) Facial Paralysis (CliniWeb) Facial Nerve Diseases (Oregon Health Sciences University) Facial Nerve Paralysis (Washington U. School of Medicine) Facial Nerve Paralysis (U. of Texas Medical Branch) Facial Nerve Center (Univ of Pittsburgh Medical Center) Physical Therapy for Facial Nerve Disorders (UPMC) Coping With A Facial Nerve Disorder (House Ear Clinic) Management of Facial Paralysis after Intracranial Surgery (MGH/MEEI/Harvard) Bell's Palsy (NIH) Bell's Palsy (U. of Chicago - University Health Systems)

7. Spring1998
The Pittsburgh center describes relaxation techniques and tips for improving photographs of the paralyzed face. Also biographies of staff members at the time the newsletter was published.
Spring 1998 Vol . 1, No. 2 In this issue: Who's Who?
Loosen Up: Four Techniques to Promote Facial Muscle Relaxation

"Seen:" from the Facial Nerve Center

To Be Presenting:
Who's Who? Dr. Ernest K. Manders recently served as Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics in the College of Medicine of the Pennsylvania State University in Hershey. He is currently Professor of Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Manders was born in Ocean Falls, British Columbia, Canada, and immigrated to the United States. He is now a naturalized US citizen. Dr. Manders received his undergraduate education at Harvard College and then attended Harvard Medical School. After a surgical internship at the University of Michigan, he worked for two years as a Research Associate in the Laboratory of Viral Oncology at the National Institutes of Health. He then returned to the University of Michigan where he completed his training in general surgery and plastic surgery. He joined the faculty at Penn State in 1981, and the University of Pittsburgh faculty in 1997. His wife Sandra and he have four children, three sons and a daughter, of whom they are very proud. Mrs. Manders served on the local school board. Dr. Manders is a member of the American College of Surgeons, the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, the American Association of Plastic Surgeons, the Plastic Surgery Research Council, and is an honorary member of the Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons of Southern Africa, and the Brazilian Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons.

8. Helping Patients With Facial Paralysis: 12/97
Article by Tim Stephens on reconstructive surgery for a patient with facial paralysis. Relevant to the small proportion of people with Bell's palsy who do not regain normal facial movement.
Issue of
December 3, 1997

Saving face: Specialized surgery helps patients with facial paralysis BY TIM STEPHENS Gary Torresani grew up with a lopsided face, the result of a facial nerve accidentally severed during an ear operation when he was three months old. Surgeons reattached the cut ends of the nerve during a subsequent operation in 1952, when the boy was five years old, but he never regained full movement on the left side of his face. For most of his life, Torresani simply coped with his impairment, thinking there was nothing more to be done for it. By the mid-1980s, however, the facial paralysis had worsened so much he had a hard time speaking clearly and holding liquids in his mouth. He had also suffered some hearing loss. In 1987, a doctor referred him to Dr. Richard Goode, a professor of surgery (otolaryngology/head and neck) at Stanford who runs a clinic for treating facial nerve injuries. Goode has now operated on Torresani twice ­ first in 1987 and again in 1997 ­ and the improvements both times were dramatic, said Torresani, who lives in Los Gatos. "The operation in 1987 profoundly changed the things I could do," he said. "If I had known about this and had been able to do it even five years earlier, it might have drastically changed my life."

9. Bell's Palsy InfoSite & Forums: Bells Palsy / Facial Paralysis FAQs
Information including diagrams about the causes, symptoms, effects and treatment of Bell's palsy. Also information on Ramsey Hunt Syndrome and other types of facial paralysis.
Bells palsy is a condition that causes the facial muscles to weaken or become paralyzed. It's caused by trauma to the 7th cranial nerve, and is not permanent.
The condition is named for Sir Charles Bell, a Scottish surgeon who studied the nerve and its innervation of the facial muscles 200 years ago.
Bells palsy is not as uncommon as is generally believed. Worldwide statistics set the frequency at just over .02% of the population (with geographical variations). In human terms this is 1 of every 5000 people over the course of a lifetime and 40,000 Americans every year.
The percentage of left or right side cases is approximately equal, and remains equal for recurrences.
The incidence of Bells palsy in males and females, as well as in the various races is also approximately equal. The chances of the condition being mild or severe, and the rate of recovery is also equal. WHAT CONDITIONS CAN INCREASE THE CHANCE OF HAVING BELL'S PALSY?

10. Bell's Facial Paralysis
Describes in detail how TCM practitioners in China solve Bell's facial paralysis with traditional Chinese strategies and herbs.
You are browsing: Bell's Facial Paralysis
Bell's facial paralysis is one of the commonest peripheral facial paralyses which occurs suddenly and mostly after exposure to cold wind. 85¡ª90% of the patients get recovered spontaneously. If falls into the category of "zhen zhong feng" (true wind-stroke) in TCM. Main Points of Diagnosis 1. It often occurs in autumn and winter or between spring and summer, mostly in the middle-aged. The disease usually attacks one side of the face. 2. The attack comes all of a sudden. At the beginning the patient feels numb at one side of the face, pain around the ear and tenderness in the mastoidale region. The mouth becomes wry, the nasolabial groove no longer seen and the facio-buccal region relaxed and strengthless. It's impossible to have the cheeks blown up. The eyeballs are still exposed when the eyes are shut. It's difficult to frown and speak. Salivation comes down from the corners of the mouth. The sense of taste is lost but the sense of hearing is hypersensitive. Differentiation and Treatment of Common Syndromes 1. Internal Treatment.

11. Facial Paralysis
facial paralysis. A paralysis or weakness of one side of the face can be an alarming and depressing event in ones

12. Acute Facial Nerve Paralysis
Other DDx which are less common Central facial paralysis. primarily disorder.Conditions Associated with facial paralysis. Otitis Media.
Acute Facial Nerve Paralysis PD Warrick BScPhm, Meds '98 McMaster University Reviewed by Barry Maber MD FRCSC, Clinical Associate Professor (Otolaryngology), College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan Anatomy The complex anatomy of the seventh cranial nerve and its subsections must be understood in order to discriminate among the peripheral causes of facial nerve palsy, and to differentiate these from central etiologies. Subsections of the Facial Nerve
  • Supranuclear - from the precentral (motor) and postcentral (sensory) gyri through the genu of the internal capsule to the facial nucleus in the pons (ipsilateral and contralateral nucleus for upper face, contralateral only for lower face) Nuclear - facial nerve travels dorsomedially toward 4 th ventricle, loops laterally around abducent nucleus, then exits anterolaterally and inferiorly at the medullopontine junction Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) - travels with nervus intermedius (NI), alongside CN V, VIII to internal auditory canal Intratemporal
      Internal auditory canal (ICA) - travels anterosuperiorly with NI within canal for 5-12 mm alongside cochlear, vestibular nerves; lateral-most portion is surrounded by thicker periosteum

13. Facial Paralysis: Topography Of The Facial Nerve
Core Curriculum Syllabus. Syllabusfacial paralysis. 1. nucleus offacial nerve, 2. spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. 3. superior
Core Curriculum Syllabus
nucleus of facial nerve spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve superior sailvary nucleus solitary tract porus acusticus internus meatal foramen greater petrosal nerve sphenopalatine ganglion maxillary nerve lacrimal gland deep petrosal nerve vidian nerve innervation of glands of nose and palate (motor fibers for levator palati muscles) anastamosis with minor petrosal nerve stapedial nerve chorda tympani auricular branch stylomastoid foramen lingual nerve submandibular ganglion submandibular gland sublingual gland Return FACIAL PARALYSIS
Return Table of Contents
Return to BCOM Otolaryngology Home Page
Baylor College of Medicine. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Communicative Sciences.

14. Ãæ̱¼°Ã漡¾·ÂÎÍø
Information about Dr. Zhengqi Lou and details about a Chinese remedy for the cure of facial paralysis.
Email Me
Email Me

Canadian surgeon Dr Ronald Zuker performed nerve graft surgery to remedy Sara's leftsided facial paralysis.;;;;

16. What Is Facial Paralysis/Bell's Palsy? - National Centers For Facial Paralysis -
Bells Palsy Treastments The National Centers For facial paralysis,Inc. Treatment. What is facial paralysis and What are the Causes?

What is Facial Paralysis and What are the Causes?
Symptoms of Facial Paralysis Recovery and Residual Cases Treatment What is Facial Paralysis and What are the Causes? The most common cause of facial paralysis is Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is an idiopathic "viral" attack on the facial nerve occurring in approximately 11 persons out of 10,000. The virus most commonly associated with Bell's palsy is the Herpes Simplex-1 Virus (known as HS1). Recent studies show strong clinical evidence that HS1 is the primary cause of previously known idiopathic Bell's palsy. Nearly 80% of all Bell's palsy patients studies were found to have this virus present. Other possible causes of facial paralysis include (but are not limited to): Infection
Lyme Disease

Neoplastic Acoustic Neuroma ) or other tumors, i.e. parotid glomus jugulare , facial, etc. Trauma
Mobius Syndrome

Neurologic Gullian-Barre Syndrome Metabolic
Symptoms of Facial Paralysis The paralysis is usually unilateral but is it not uncommon for bilateral involvement. Most paralyses are a once in a lifetime event, however it is not uncommon for patients to experience multiple attacks. Following the first attack, the facial

17. Facial Paralysis
Bell's palsy properly known as "idiopathic facial paralysis " is by far the most common cause of facial paralysis, but
Find a Doctor Index of Patient Information Clinic Maps and Directions
Ambulatory Healthcare Pathways for Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Terence M. Davidson, M.D.

Facial Paralysis
Facial Paralysis Algorithm
  • Most prescribe steroids. The benefit is controversial. Conversely, 60mg of Prednisone for 7-10 days has only minor risks.
  • The prognosis is so poor for Herpes Zoster Oticus cases that specialty consultation is required for patient satisfaction (that all possible was done) and for the PCP's medical legal protection.
  • Possible Lyme disease in endemic areas. Overview of Facial Paralysis One must begin with the statement that Ònot all that does not move is Bell's." Bell's palsy properly known as "idiopathic facial paralysis," is by far the most common cause of facial paralysis, but it is a diagnosis of exclusion. Some of the causes of facial paralysis such as trauma are obvious, but others such as neoplasms are as commonly missed as they are diagnosed. Certainly, a good ENT exam will include palpation of the parotid and an examination of the ear, looking for chronic otitis media or other abnormality. There are those that believe that most Bell's palsy is caused by a Herpes virus, and that the appropriate treatment is prednisone, usually 60 mgs a day for 5-7 days, followed by 3 days of 40 mgs and 3 days of 20 mgs. Those who believe it is herpetic, will treat with acyclovir or one of the other antiviral medications. A thorough head and neck exam, including cranial nerves is always required. Herpes zoster can present similarly, has a poor prognosis and must be treated aggressively with antiviral agents. Multiple cranial nerve involvement speaks for herpes infection and argues for antiviral therapy.
  • 18. Facial Paralysis
    The Neurology and Neurosurgery Forum ask the doctor medical forum for patients hosted by Med Help Intl. ranked one of the best hospitals in America. Subject facial paralysis. Forum The Neurology and Neurosurgery Forum
    Welcome to
    Med Help International

    A not-for-profit organization Questions in The Neurology Forum are being answered by doctors from
    The Cleveland Clinic , consistently ranked one of the best hospitals in America. Subject: Facial paralysis
    Forum: The Neurology and Neurosurgery Forum
    Topic Area: Bell's Palsy
    Posted by Lynette Robinson on December 02, 1998 at 23:12:05:
    I am a 47 year old female, 5-3, 108 lbs. Approximately 12 months ago I
    suffered what appeared to be a chronic sinus infection with
    severe headaches and facial pain. My physician treated this with six different antibiotics with no success. he eventually performed an MRI which revealed no sinus infection. He eventually diagnosed the problem as "facial neuralgia" and prescribed elavil. The problem eventually subsided. Recently in the past two weeks I have developed facial numbness. My mother has suffered from Bells Palsy in the past although it went away. My problem has developed to the point where the entire left side of my face has become numb and my left eye is dry. I also have a TMJ problem which I have had

    19. Facial Paralysis Support Group Guestbook
    15 My Emailg4651@starpower,net, Comments I have been dealing with facial paralysissince March 1996, due to a large acoustic neuroma removal on the left side.
    Guestbook Comments
    (Information on these pages is NOT to be used for mailing lists or any similar purpose!)
    Pat Emerson
    My Email:
    I had an AN removed 32 years ago. 5 years ago I found a Great Dr. in Pittsburgh that has helped me Smile. Her name is Dr. Jessie VanSwearingen (412) 647-1227 and I'm going the physical therapy route, but she works with Dr. Manders, who is a Plastic Surgeon (a good one), I feel as though she has worked mircles - just call her and talk I really think she is the best - REMEMBER SMILE!!!!
    My Email:
    What a great site!! Only wished I had found this a year ago. I had a AN tumor removed 18 months ago, which has left my face paralyized. I also (3 months ago) had a face nerve cross over. Anyone else out there like to chat?
    Pat My Email: Comments: Bells Palsy - Jan. 16,2000 - Massage treatments, Acupuncturew/stimulation and decompression surgery on Mar. 6 - left with extreme synkinesis. Any info on this would be helpful and appreciated. BARBARA My Email: GGERRYG@AOL.COM

    20. Facial Paralysis - Institute For Athletic Medicine
    facial paralysis. Now there’s hope for those who talking, eating, drinking.About the facial paralysis Clinic. Fairview’s facial paralysis
    Facial Paralysis
    Now there’s hope for those who believe their eyes or smile are forever changed by illness, disease or trauma. Introducing Fairview Rehabilitation Services’ Facial Paralysis Clinic: specialized rehabilitation for people who have facial nerve damage resulting in facial paralysis. Our faces are key to nonverbal communication, visually underscoring who we are, what we’re thinking and how we’re reacting to the world around us. Fairly or not, others often judge us by the face we present. The physical and emotional consequences of facial paralysis are significant. Inability to control facial expression interferes with interpersonal communication, impacting individual spirit and confidence. The physical effect interrupts movements and expressions that once came naturally — closing an eye, smiling, talking, eating, drinking.
    About the Facial Paralysis Clinic
    Fairview’s Facial Paralysis Clinic is based on retraining neuromuscular and oral-motor techniques that help to diminish paralysis and improve control of the muscles of the face and mouth. Rehabilitation emphasizes control and coordination by improving facial symmetry and strength as well as reducing involuntary facial movements caused by synkinesis, or “cross-wiring,” of the nerves. The program is led by physical therapists and speech-language pathologists who understand the complex facial anatomy, nerves and muscles. Fairview’s Facial Paralysis Clinic is unique in the Twin Cities because it brings together the rehabilitation expertise of speech-language specialists and physical therapists. New scientific evidence suggests electrical stimulation may not produce optimal results, and that traditional therapy methods such as gross facial exercises are ineffective. That’s why this clinic focuses on specific muscular retraining that works to diminish paralysis and improve control of facial movements. Medical staff emphasize education and individualized home programs.

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