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         Field Theory:     more books (100)
  1. Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell: Second Edition (In a Nutshell (Princeton)) by A. Zee, 2010-02-21
  2. Quantum Field Theory by Mark Srednicki, 2007-02-05
  3. The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume 2: Modern Applications by Steven Weinberg, 2005-05-09
  4. The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume 3: Supersymmetry by Steven Weinberg, 2005-05-09
  5. God Theory, The: Universes, Zero-Point Fields, and What's Behind It All by Bernard Haisch, 2009-04-01
  6. An Introduction To Quantum Field Theory (Frontiers in Physics) by Michael E. Peskin, Dan V. Schroeder, 1995-10-02
  7. The Quantum Theory of Fields, Volume 1: Foundations by Steven Weinberg, 2005-05-09
  8. Quantum Field Theory of Many-body Systems: From the Origin of Sound to an Origin of Light and Electrons (Oxford Graduate Texts) by Xiao-Gang Wen, 2007-10-18
  9. Conformal Field Theory (Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics) by Philippe Francesco, Pierre Mathieu, et all 1996-12-13
  10. Quantum Field Theory by Claude Itzykson, Jean-Bernard Zuber, 2006-02-24
  11. Field Theory : A Modern Primer (Frontiers in Physics Series, Vol 74) by Pierre Ramond, 2001-12-21
  12. Quantum Field Theory by Franz Mandl, Graham Shaw, 2010-05-25
  13. Mathematical Aspects of Quantum Field Theory (Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics) by Edson de Faria, Welington de Melo, 2010-09-27
  14. Science and the Akashic Field: An Integral Theory of Everything by Ervin Laszlo, 2007-05-03

1. 12: Field Theory And Polynomials
Shop here for field theory (Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Vol 158) and find more books by Steven Roman. For a limited time, get free shipping on orders over $25!
Search Subject Index MathMap Tour ... Help! ABOUT: Introduction History Related areas Subfields
POINTERS: Texts Software Web links Selected topics here
12: Field theory and polynomials
Field theory considers sets, such as the real number line, on which all the usual arithmetic properties hold - those governing addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The study of multiple fields through Galois theory is important for the study of polynomial equations, and thus has applications to number theory and group theory. Tools in this area can also be used to show certain Euclidean geometry constructions are impossible, and that certain functions have no elementary antiderivative! Specifically, a field is a commutative ring in which every nonzero element is assumed to have a multiplicative inverse. Examples include the real number field R, the complex numbers C, the rational numbers Q, finite fields (the Galois fields with p^n elements for some prime p), the p-adic numbers Q_p, and various fields of functions such as the collection of meromorphic entire functions. All these examples are of characteristic zero except the finite fields (if there is a finite set of 1's which add to zero, the cardinality of the smallest such set is the characteristic, a prime). Some themes of field theory are then immediately apparent.

2. Electromagnetic Field Theory Internet Textbook Project
undergraduate or graduate student, Electromagnetic field theory is a textbook on the theory of electrodynamics, at
Uppsala University
Department of Astronomy
and Space Physics
Visitors since January 7, 1997: 138981
Last modified: 2003-01-01 at 18:01:19
by Bo Thidé
This site is Java/Javascript free
ITT721 - Tf4T, MN1, gradU
Classical Electrodynamics
On-Line Textbook
The Electromagnetic Field Theory Textbook Project
Welcome! You have just found the World-Wide Web site for the advanced electrodynamics Internet textbook project. Please feel free to browse around. On these pages we will develop and present a modern, high-quality on-line textbook on advanced electrodynamics, entitled Electromagnetic Field Theory , free for anybody to download and to contribute to Intended for the advanced undergraduate or graduate student, Electromagnetic Field Theory not treat the elementary and technological aspects of electromagnetism to any significant extent as these matters are already covered in intermediate-level textbooks such as Roald K. Wangsness, Electromagnetic Fields , John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471859125 (1987).

3. MPP Field Theory
Homepage of the Research Group in field theory at the MaxPlanck-Institute for Physics, Munich  . The field theory group is active in a number of different areas

Theory Group

Research Group in Field Theory
Current Research Areas
The field theory group is active in a number of different areas:
Renormalisation group analysis of the Standard Model assuming relations between the various parameters (Reduction of couplings). ii) Conceptual and mathematical problems of Quantum Field Theory on the lattice;
Non-perturbative computation of observables (running couplings etc.) in Qunatum Chromodynamics and development of suitable computational schemes (improved action). iii) Classical gravitating solitons and their quantisation;
Stochastic quantisation on Hilbert bundles and aspects of Weyl geometry. iv) The role of symmetries in theories of elementary particles and the representation of space-time manifolds. v) Quantum groups and quantum spaces.
Current Members
Permanent Staff
Peter Breitenlohner

Wolfgang Drechsler
(Emeritus since 1999)
Dieter Maison

Heinrich Saller
Erhard Seiler Peter Weisz ... Wolfhard Zimmermann (Emeritus since 1996) Postdoctoral Fellows Pushan Majumdar Doctoral Students Fabian Bachmaier Ilham Benkaddour Karen Elsner Pavel Fileviez Perez
some of us collaborate with the Graduiertenkolleg Mathematik im Bereich ihrer Wechselwirkung mit der Physik Back to Theory Home Last updated by wwwth 04-Dec-2002

4. A Unified Field Theory Of Design
Information Interaction Design A Unified field theory of Designby Nathan Shedroff. One of the most important skills for almost
Information Interaction Design:
A Unified Field Theory of Design

by Nathan Shedroff Information Interaction Design. In other circles, it is called simply Information Design, Information Architecture, or Interaction Design, Instructional Design, or just plain Common Sense. Many people create or engineer interactions, presentations, and experiences for others. Almost all interactionswhether part of a book, a directory, a catalog, a newspaper, or a television programcan be created or addressed by one process. This process can be used to produce every CD-ROM, kiosk, presentation, game, and online service. It can also be used for every dance, music, comedy, or theater performance. While the traditions and technologies may change with every discipline, the process does not.
next Note: This paper is now a chapter in the book Information Design, edited by Bob Jacobson and published by MIT Press. back to thoughts Nathan Shedroff

5. Algebraic QFT Homepage
A collection of resources for algebraic quantum field theoryCategory Science Physics Quantum Mechanics Quantum field theory......Algebraic Quantum field theory. The Homepage of Local Quantum Physics. II. Institutfür Theoretische Physik, Univ. Hamburg. Luruper Chaussee 149, D22761 Hamburg.
Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
The Homepage of Local Quantum Physics
Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg
The Group Seminars Diploma Theses Doctoral Theses ... Local Quantum Physics Crossroads
Back to the Homepage of II. Institut Last modified: Tue Dec 11 16:56:28 MST 2001
Joachim Freund (

6. Annotated Physics Encyclopædia: Quantum Field Theory
Quantum field theory. Physics Main Help Your comments What is Quantumfield theory, and What Did We Think It Is? (hepth/9702027), 17pp. Category Science Physics Quantum Mechanics Quantum field theory
The Net Advance of Physics:
Igor Ivanov
Quantum Field Theory
Physics Main Help Your comments
General QFT resources Introductory Relat ivistic Quantum Fields and Relativistic Quantum Fields 1 - HTML course, from Univ of Sussex
What is Quantum Field Theory, and What Did We Think It Is?
(hep-th/9702027), 17pp. by Steven Weinberg - almost without formulas
Advanced topics Quantum Field Theoty Part III, ps.gz file - 100-pages lecture course from Univ of Cambridge
A Course of Field Theory
from Univ of Leiden, 140 pp, with problems, 1.5Mb ps file (lectures), 0.5 Mb ps file (problems)
Quantum Field Theory program at IAS
- a large number of lectures covering advanced and subtle issues of QFT; mainly in ps files
Lecture Notes in QFT
- a collection of ps.gz lectures notes on various aspects of QFT, QED etc
Quantum Electrodynamics Introductory Quantum Field Theoty Part III, ps.gz file - 100-pages lecture course from Univ of Cambridge, includes Feynman diagrams and QED
Advanced topics CORE - COmpendium of RElations (hep-ph/9507456) - 110 pages of formulas useful in theoreticla particle physics including Pauli, Gell-Mann, Dirac matrices calculus, full SM lagrangian and Feyman rules, kinematics, matrix elements, cross sections and decay rates etc.
Specific Mathematical methods in QFT Introductory Light Front Dynamics - QFT at the light-front Renormalization Made Easy - by John Baez Advanced topics Evolution of the Bogoluibov Renormalization Group - (hep-th/9909024), by D. Shirkov., 44 p. renormalization group approach in QFT and other fields of physics

7. Lecture Notes And Problem Set For A Course In Field Theory
Alexander S Zazerskiy presents his unified MaxwellLorentz field as a new physical paradigm. From the Field Model of Electron to the Unified field theory
Prof. Pierre van Baal, Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden
In the fall of 2002 we meet Monday afternoons 13:45-16:45, room HL 204, starting 9 September. The course is in the format of a working group. For a description of how this is organized see below. We will follow this schedule . The exercise class meets Wednesday mornings 10:00-13:00 (see the schedule for the room number). The Teaching Assisitant is Daniel Nogradi This course will bring you to the point of the formulation of the standard model of electro-weak and strong interactions, for the renormalisation of which 't Hooft and Veltman earned their 1999 Nobel prize in Physics
Lecture notes and problem set
  • Read this first 5 page extract with full index in PostScript (147 kb) or PDF (157 kb)
    You are allowed to download the full text, but no part of the notes and problems should be reproduced or made electronically available by others without permission of the author.
  • Lecture notes as PostScript (1.4 Mb) or PDF (1.1 Mb) file.

8. MIT Physics Department -- Field Theory
field theory. Research is also being conducted on nonperturbative aspects offield theory related to the weak interaction part of the standard model.

Physics Research at MIT
Astrophysics Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Biological and Medical Physics ... Elementary Particle Physics Experimental: Collider Experiments Particle Physics and Astrophysics Theory: Field Theory String Theory and Gravitation General Relativity and Cosmology Quantum Statistical Mechanics ... Research Centers and Facilities
Field Theory
Members of the CTP are also engaged in studies of field theory both classical and quantum mechanical with the aim of providing descriptions of physical phenomena within elementary particle, condensed matter, and gravitational physics. Their emphasis is on the unexpected and mathematically intricate structures that have been encountered, whose physical relevance is significant but little understood. Recent work has also focused on models in dimensions lower that the physical number, studying them for two central purposes: to obtain insights into the structure of theories, with the hope of using this information in physical investigations; and to find actual physical systems that are accurately described in a reduced dimensionality. Recent accomplishments in this area include unraveling soliton structure in Chern-Simons theories that are relevant to planar systems, such as the quantum Hall effect and (perhaps) high Tc superconductivity. It has also been possible to explicate the causal structure in the presence of cosmic strings contrary to recent assertions, cosmic strings, which may have arisen in an early-universe phase transition, do not support time travel.

9. Electromagnetic Field Theory Internet Textbook Project
Titlepage. The Electromagnetic field theory Exercises Book Project. This is a companionvolume to the new, modern, online textbook Electromagnetic field theory.
Uppsala University
Department of Astronomy
and Space Physics
Visitors since January 7, 1997: 41184
Last modified: 2000-11-15 at 20:11:54
by Bo Thidé
This site is Java/Javascript free
ITT721 - Tf4T, MN1, gradU
Classical Electrodynamics
On-Line Exercises Book
The Electromagnetic Field Theory Exercises Book Project
Welcome to the World-WIde Web site for the exercises book of the electrodynamics Internet textbook project! This is a companion volume to the new, modern, on-line textbook Electromagnetic Field Theory Our goal is to, eventually, to establish a comprehensive (and correct!) Internet resource with solved problems in advanced Classical Electrodynamics. Currently, The Electromagnetic Field Theory Exercises is, at best, an embryonic approximation of an "alpha version" of such a resource.
Download Here
The current VERY PRELIMINARY and VERY BUGGY draft version was uploaded Wednesday, 15-Nov-2000 20:39:36 MET . Download it here (caveat emptor!):

10. A Simple Unifed Field Theory
Welcome to Boblock's (ER Le Clear) simple unified field theory. I exchanged severalemails with Boblock back in 1998. email . SIMPLE UNIFIED field theory.
Welcome to Boblock's (E.R. Le Clear) simple unified field theory . I exchanged several emails with Boblock back in 1998. He was suffering from lung cancer at that time. Since his web account was cancelled, and I haven't heard from him since, I have to assume the worst.
Although I don't really agree with his ideas presented here, I find many of them interesting, and I think it would be a pitty if they were forgotten. Fortunately I saved his site on my HD so here it is, with a few minor design improvements made by me.
If you have any questions about this theory, I'm sorry, but I won't be able to answer them. Feel free to mail questions and comments of any other kind. Miodrag Maloviæ
SIMPLE UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Welcome to my Web Page. It is dedicated to expressing a concept which I believe will go a long way to providing a simpler understanding of nature than the current somewhat unconnected theories. The following summary discusses the concept in general. It is referred to as a concept rather than a theory since it is a collection of thoughts on the subject as opposed to a complete dissertation. Click on any link to reveal further discussions. The concept presented here attempts to bridge these various disciplines in a relatively simple and straightforward manner. Mathematics is kept to basically an algebra level with the approach being directed more towards a physical model rather than a mathematical model. The concept is predicated upon the following assumptions:

11. A Unified Field Theory 31/
A mathematical description of nature based on the geometry of SpaceTime. General Relativity,Energy-Stre Category Science Physics Alternative......A Unified field theory 31/10/99 by Peter Hickman Email In this paper, the extension of Riemann
A Unified Field Theory
by Peter Hickman
In this paper, the extension of Riemann geometry to include an asymmetric metric tensor is presented. A new co-variant derivative is derived, and used in the commutator of two co-variant derivatives of a vector. This leads to two equations which describe spin 1 bosons. The energy-stress tensor arises as a contraction of the curvature tensor, its divergence enables the number of dimensions of Space-Time to be determined. A weak field approximation gives potential equations for both massless and massive bosons, the wave-function peaks with E(2)=172GeV, De-Broglies equation is derived and is modified by gravity, and the cosmological term is calculated and agrees with current observations.
Web Site has moved to : Last Update 30th July 2002

12. Quantum Field Theory
A set of lectures is in POSTSCRIPT format outlining advanced quantum mechanics and basic quantum electrod Category Science Physics Quantum field theory Courses...... Dr. Wolfgang Lücke. Relativistic Quantum field theory. SS 1998. 2.1.2. Fock Space,41. 2.1.3. The Free Field, 44. 2.2. Wightman Theory for Neutral Scalar Fields, 49.
Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
SS 1998
Title Page, Preface and Table of Contents [ ps 1. General Quantum Theory [ ps 1.1. Basic Logical Structure 1.1.1. Classical Logic and General Notions 1.1.2. Quantum Logic 1.1.3. Quantum Reasoning 1.1.4. Symmetries and Dynamics 1.2. Orthodox Quantum Mechanics 1.2.1. Logic and Observables 1.2.2. Symmetries and Dynamics 1.2.3. Algebras of Bounded Observables 1.2.4. State Functionals Algebraic Formulation of General Quantum Theory 1.3.1. Partial States 1.3.2. GNS-Representation 1.3.3. Canonical Quantization 1.3.4. Spontaneously Broken Symmetries 2. Massive Scalar Fields [ ps 2.1. Free Neutral Scalar Fields 2.1.1. 1-Particle Space 2.1.2. Fock Space 2.1.3. The Free Field 2.2. Wightman Theory for Neutral Scalar Fields 2.2.1. Wightman Axioms 2.2.2. Remarks on the Choice of the Space of Test Functions 2.2.3. Mathematical Tools 2.2.4. Some Standard Results 2.2.5. PCT Theorem 2.3. S-Matrix for Self-Interacting Neutral Scalar Fields 2.3.1. General Scattering Theory 2.3.2. Asymptotic Condition for Massive Neutral Scalar Particles 2.3.3. Evaluation of the Asymptotic Condition

13. Super G-String Field Theory (figures To Appear)
A sequel to the original paper on g-string theory.Category Recreation Humor Science Physics...... SUPER GSTRING field theory*. picturef. 4. BRST. field theory formulationscan be straightforwardly derived by the use of BRST\ref{13} methods.
in Superstrings, cosmology, composite structures, eds. S.J. Gates, Jr. and R.N. Mohapatra, Proc. of Maryland Workshop, March 11-18, 1987 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1987) 585-593. Universally of Marineland Alimentary Gastronomy Universe of Murray Gell-Mann Elementary My Dear Watson Unified Theory of My Elementary Pa
V. Gates, Empty Kangaroo, M. Roachcock, and W.C. Gall
Compartment of Physiques and Astrology
Universally of Marineland, Car Park, MD
ABSTRACT In conclusion, this is a major new paper by the pioneers in the field, so you're going to have to read the rest of the paper whether you understand it or not, or at least convince other people that you did by memorizing all the catch phrases. If you're a faculty member, just get one of your students to read it for you. If you don't have any students, probably nobody talks to you anyway, so forget it. If you are a student, good luck. *Work not supported. In fact, they told us specifically not to do it. Uniformity of Modern Elementary Particle Physics Unintelligibility of Many Elementary Particle Physicists Universal City of Movieland Alimony Pa Nonabel was I ere I saw Lebanon - Yang and Mills
The best things in life are interacting - T Ching
Science is golden - Phenomanon.


15. Quantum Field Theory Program At IAS
199697 Quantum field theory program at IAS. Dan Freed has prepared an introductoryaccount of supersymmetry and classical field theory, published as
1996-97 Quantum Field Theory program at IAS
A program in Quantum Field Theory for mathematicians was held at the Institute for Advanced study during the academic year 1996-97. The participants and lecturers produced lecture notes and problem sets (and some solutions to problems) throughout the year, which are stored here. This web site is in its final form as of January 21, 1999; the intention is to leave it in place indefinitely.
Following the conclusion of the program, much of the material on this web site has been re-organized, supplemented, and polished. It is being published as: Quantum Fields and Strings: A Course For Mathematicians (P. Deligne, P. Etingof, D.S. Freed, L. Jeffrey, D. Kazhdan, J. Morgan, D.R. Morrison and E. Witten, eds.,), 2 vols., American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1999. Dan Freed has prepared an introductory account of supersymmetry and classical field theory, published as:

16. Quantum Field Theory Program At IAS: Fall Term
A one semester course on Quantum field theory taught at a graduate level. Contains all of the lecture Category Science Physics Quantum field theory Courses......Quantum field theory program at IAS Fall Term. Fall term lecture notes.David Kazhdan, Quantum field theory (notes by Roman Bezrukavnikov)
Quantum Field Theory program at IAS: Fall Term
The basic weekly schedule during the fall term was: lectures on Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10:30-12:30 and 2:00-4:00; problem sessions on Wednesdays at 3:00, and discussion sessions on Monday evenings at 8:00.
Fall term lecture notes

17. Conformal Field Theory And Supersymmetry
MSRI, Berkeley, CA, USA; 1526 April 2002.Category Science Physics Mathematical Physics Events Past Events......Calendar. Conformal field theory and Supersymmetry. April 15, 2002 toApril 26, 2002. Conformal field theory and Supersymmetry Schedule.
Conformal Field Theory and Supersymmetry
April 15, 2002 to April 26, 2002
Organized by: G. Felder, D. Freed, E. Frenkel, V. Kac, T. Miwa, I. Penkov, V. Serganova, I. Singer and G. Zuckerman Week 1: "Infinite-dimensional Algebras, Conformal Field Theory and Integrable Systems"
Some of the most spectacular applications of representation theory of infinite-dimensional algebras are related to recent developments in mathematical physics.
Physicists have recently begun to study perturbations of conformal field theories in the hopes of using the rich structure of CFT for understanding more general integrable quantum field theories. The study of conformal field theory in dimensions greater than two is also under way, and surprising connections have been found between these theories and string theory (AdS/CFT correspondence).
Infinite-dimensional algebras have also been used in the recent years in the theory of exactly solved models. It turned out that quantum deformations of the enveloping algebras of the affine Kac-Moody algebras, the Virasoro algebra, and the W-algebras may be realized as dynamical symmetry algebras of various lattice models, and hence their representation theory has important applications. Infinite-dimensional Lie algebras also play a central role in the study of integrable systems, such as those associated to the KdV equation and other soliton hierarchies. These integrable systems appear in the study of the Gromov-Witten invariants of algebraic manifolds. The Virasoro conjecture, in particular, indicates the relevance of infinite-dimensional algebras in this area.

18. Topics In Nonequilibrium Field Theory
Nonequilibrium field theory covers a variety of topics such as transport theory of quantum fields, Category Science Physics Quantum Mechanics Quantum field theory......1998 Annual Report High Energy and Nuclear Physics Topics in Nonequilibriumfield theory. S. Habib, L. Bettencourt, G. Lythe, and
1998 Annual Report
High Energy and Nuclear Physics
Topics in Nonequilibrium Field Theory
S. Habib, L. Bettencourt, G. Lythe, and C. Molina-Paris, Los Alamos National Laboratory
H. Mabuchi, California Institute of Technology
K. Shizume, University of Tsukuba
B. Sundaram, City University of New York
Research Objectives
Nonequilibrium field theory covers a variety of topics such as transport theory of quantum fields, nonequilibrium phase transitions, the nucleation and transport of topological defects and other nonlinear coherent structures, as well as fundamental issues such as the quantum-classical transition and the coherent control of quantum systems. Specific examples of current interest involving nonequilibrium dynamics of field theories include electroweak baryogenesis and topological transition rates, post-inflationary reheating in the early universe, and chiral condensates and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in heavy-ion collisions. Due to advances in high-performance computing, quantitative attacks are now possible on a host of outstanding, but until recently quite intractable, problems in quantum field theories under nonequilibrium conditions. We are studying selected problems in the areas of baryon number violation, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider physics, nonequilibrium phase transitions, quantum transport, and cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), all of which share common features from the perspective of nonequilibrium quantum field theory.
Computational Approach
We use several computational techniques in our research effort. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous mean-field dynamics codes solve for the evolution of a mean field self-consistently coupled to quantum fluctuations. These codes exist for Landau-Ginzburg theories, QED and scalar QED, and the linear sigma model. Applications include dynamics of phase transitions, disoriented chiral condensates, and soliton transport.

19. Http://
Source for free ebook by Jerry E. Bayles. Also related links and free graphics programs.Category Science Physics Alternative Unified Theories......Source of free book, ELECTROGRAVITATION AS AUNIFIED field theory, by Jerry E. Bayles.
Free e-book, (see bullet list below), provides in-depth mathematical proofs. Also, a UFO is back-engineered.
NEW! Paper on energy-space energy extraction via authors rotating standing wave mass-field. (In Adobe PDF format.)

ALSO NEW! Mathcad users may download ebook and Energy Conversion Mathcad format files in self extracting zipped *.exe format.
Science Information Websites
Hubble Pictures (NASA)
Dr Chris Ford

Bohm Implicate Order

The Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Molecule Modeling Software
Bob Lazars Virtual Theater

Virtual Theater: Tesla, High Voltage Stuff, etc.
Unmuseum (UFO's, etc.) Warp to JLN Labs Home Page. (E-Grav Experiments.) ... This is about ufos aliens ufo sightings alien... (More to come later!) VISIT MY MAIN WEBSITE! LE FastCounter Jerry E. Bayles AOL Website

20. Crystal Field Theory (CFT).
A short tutorial on crystal field theory.Category Science Chemistry Inorganic......
Introduction to the Crystal Field Theory (CFT)
Adapted from Dr. Robert Lancashire, Chemistry Dept., Univ. of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica In the ionic CFT, it is assumed that the ions are simple point charges . When applied to alkali metal ions containing a symmetric sphere of charge, calculations of energies are generally quite successful. The approach taken uses classical potential energy equations that take into account the attractive and repulsive interactions between charged particles (that is, Coulomb's Law interactions). Bond Energy is proportional to q * q /r where q and q are the charges of the interacting ion and r is the distance separating them. This leads to the correct prediction that large cations of low charge, such as K+ and Na+, should form few coordination compounds. For transition metal cations that contain varying numbers of d electrons in orbitals that are NOT spherically symmetric, however, the situation is quite different. The shape and occupation of these d-orbitals then becomes important in an accurate description of the bond energy and properties of the transition metal compound. To be able to understand and use CFT then, it is essential to have a clear picture of the shapes (angular dependence functions) of the d-orbitals.

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