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         Schwarzenau Brethren:     more detail
  1. Religious Organizations Established in 1708: Church of the Brethren, Newington Green Unitarian Church, Schwarzenau Brethren
  2. Christian Groups With Universalist Beliefs: Schwarzenau Brethren, Universalist Church of America, Philadelphians, Primitive Baptist Universalist
  3. Church of the Brethren: Christian denomination, Schwarzenau Brethren, Alexander Mack, Radical Pietism, Anabaptist, Protestant Reformation, Church (building), ... Nonresistance, Pacifism, Believer's baptism
  4. The time so urgent: A chancel drama : the story of Alexander Mack and the founding of the Brethren (Schwarzenau, Germany, 1708) by Vernard Eller, 1958
  5. Origin of the Schwarzenau Brethren by Marcus Meier, 2008-06-30
  6. Schwarzenau yesterday and today,: Where the Brethren began in Europe by Lawrence W Shultz, 1954
  7. SCHWARZENAU YESTERDAY AND TODAY Where the Brethren Began in Europe: Told in Picture and Story by Lawrence W. Shultz, 1954

81. Philip Jacob Spener's Contribution To The Protestant Doctrine Of The Church VI
His Glaubensbekenntnis (published in 1743) is considered, a reliable credenda ofthe schwarzenau movement, which included the early German Baptist brethren.
What's New? Online Store About Xenos Home Groups ... Online Journal
Philip Jacob Spener's Contribution
to the Protestant Doctrine of the Church VI
by Dennis McCallum
The Radical Pietistic Revolt
As mentioned earlier, just as the effect of mystical theology is to impart a more "spiritualized" view of the nature of sanctification, in time, it would also tend to lead to a more "spiritual" or subjective understanding of the church. Indeed, as already seen, even Spener was well on the way to a re-introduction of the primitive church forms that would unavoidably undercut the foundations of institutional Lutheranism. His dual calls for the individual believers to divide the Scriptures, while not infringing on the prerogatives of the clergy were probably self-contradictory in practice. At least the clergy would make these calls mutually exclusive. Tappert says, It is hardly surprising that the initial enthusiasm for the Pia Desideria cooled somewhat when the implications of one or another of these planks in Spener's platform became clearer. Clergymen felt threatened in their status by the rise of the laity, professors of theology resented the brash incursion of outsiders into their academic preserve, and the complacent were disturbed by appeals or change and for departure from what was familiar, customary, and comfortable.204 In spite of his determination to abide within the confines of his own confession, Spener tended to resist the structural strongholds of the status quo. When his critics pushed the idea that the collegiate clergy alone had the authority to interpret sufficiently in the symbols, Spener observed that, ". . .one pope would be better than many popes."205

82. What Is A GBC?
Grace brethren churches are selfgoverned and owned As the new church began in schwarzenau,Germany, Mack and his followers were determined to follow their own
What is a GBC?
Grace Brethren churches were born with a passion to see people really live Christianity, not just on Sundays, but every day! When Alexander Mack and those with the same convictions began the first GBC in Germany in 1708, they applauded the Reformation, but also cheered for more! They wanted even more of a return to the Scriptures. They also desired more of an emphasis on personal salvation and the public identification of believers with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and their work of grace in salvation. They wanted a return to the biblical command to be baptized as a symbol of one's identification with Christ. With a belief in the integrity of God's Word, they searched the Bible for principles for daily living. "If the Bible teaches it, then let's do it," was their goal. Today, several hundred Grace Brethren congregations seek to have that same conservative stance in theology while being progressive in method and love. Sundays, and everyday. Love in Action Sunday is for us a very important day as we celebrate the resurrection of Jesus Christ. GBCs emphasize the sharing of the Good News of Jesus Christ and the building up of believers in our services of praise and worship. We find warm fellowship in Bible teaching classes. The important ministry of encouraging believers happens not only when our church meets as a body, but is lived out as we serve Christ and others throughout the week.

83. Alexander Mack
Alexander Mack is considered the founder of The brethren Movement, oftentimes called In1708, at schwarzenau, Germany, with seven other likeminded persons, he
The Christian Hall Of Fame
Canton Baptist Temple, 515 Whipple Ave NW, Canton, Ohio 44708-3699 USA
Original Oil Paintings of Remarkable Christians
Alexander Mack is considered the founder of The Brethren Movement, oftentimes called The Tunker Movement because of insistence upon trine (threefold) immersion as the proper mode of baptism. Following careful study of scripture, Mack found himself out of harmony with the three state churches of Germany because of their formality, laxity in practice, and failure to observe all the New Testament teachings. In 1708, at Schwarzenau, Germany, with seven other like-minded persons, he organized a new denomination with a Christo-Bible- centered emphasis. Persecution caused flight from Germany by way of the Netherlands, they followed others of like faith to America in 1729. Germantown, Pennsylvania, became their American headquarters. From Mack's initial efforts three main groups have emerged: The Church of the Brethren, The Old German Baptist Brethren and The Progressive Brethren Church which is officially recognized as the Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio) and the National Fellowship of Brethren Churches (Grace Brethren, Winona Lake, Indiana) whose motto is "The Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible."
This painting was authorized and produced by The Brethren Home Missions Council, Inc., Winona Lake, Indiana.

84. Paul Krupp, Potluck
historical events, which are part of the story of the church as it is known today Churchof the brethren. The year was 1708 in schwarzenau, Germany, a
October 13, 1983

Click PIX #1 - The first official building for the Brethren church in Fostoria was located at 327 Summet St., where Faith Tabernacle is today. That first church was an abandoned school dating back to the village of Risdon. The first ser- mon was preached by Samuel Loose on May 10, 1896. The first official pastor for the church as Stephen Bekebile, appointed in 1901. PIX #2 - The church building shown in the photo was the one the Church of the Brethren had constructed in 1910 on the site of the old school, and where they continued to worship until they moved to their present new church on Columbus Avenue in 1969. PIX #3 - Where first Brethren came from in Germany. PIX #4 - Where Brethren first settled in America. People the world over have guarded their religious beliefs tenaciously and have suffered severely in many ways to gain and keep religious liberty. It was the granting of freedom of worship by our founding fathers that drew many immigrants in this country in its early history, and The Brethren, from Germany, were among them.

85. Church History
The Church of the brethren originated in schwarzenau, Germany in the year 1708,when eight persons covenanted their faith in God by engaging in the rite of
East Fairview History HISTORY OF OUR CHURCH The Church of the Brethren originated in Schwarzenau, Germany in the year 1708, when eight persons covenanted their faith in God by engaging in the rite of Trine Immersion baptism in the Eder River. Choosing Alexander Mack as their leader, these pietists moved forward in their New Testament faith to face bitter persecution. After encountering so much hostility in Europe they chose the challenge and opportunities of the New World. With Peter Becker as their leader, a group of 120 persons endured the horrors of an ocean voyage and landed in Germantown (Philadelphia) in the year 1719. Pioneering westward through the Conestoga Valley the Brethren extended their mission and influence. In 1772, the White Oak group became the first organization of Brethren in this area. In 1868, part of this White Oak territory organized as the Chiques Congregation. In 1902, the Chiques Church divided into four separate congregations: Chiques, Elizabethtown, West Green Tree, and East Fairview. Prior to the organization of our present congregation, steps were taken at a counsel meeting in the Elizabethtown Church, March 13, 1893, to build a church at some point east of the original Chiques Church. Consequently, a committee composed of seven deacons decided on a plot of ground consisting of two acres donated by William Nauman. In 1894, a frame structure 50’ by 70’ by 14’ was erected at a cost of $3,000. This building was known as East Fairview.

Mack (16791735) is considered the founder of the brethren Movement, oftentimes In1708, at schwarzenau, Germany, with seven other likeminded persons, he
Alexander Mack 1679-1735 Alexander Mack (1679-1735) is considered the founder of the Brethren Movement, oftentimes called the Tunker Movement be- cause of insistance upon trine immersion as a proper mode of baptism. Following careful study of Scripture, Mack found himself out of harmony with the three state churches of Ger- many because of their formality, laxity in practice, and failure to observe all the New Testament teachings. In 1708, at Schwarzenau, Germany, with seven other likeminded persons, he organized a new denomination with a Christo-Bible-centered emphasis. Persecution caused flight from Germany by way of the Netherlands. They followed others of like faith to Amer- ica in 1729. Germantown, Pennsylvania, became their American head- quarters. From Mack's initial efforts, three main groups have emergedthe Church of the Brethren, the old German Baptist Brethren, and a progressive Brethren church, recognized as the Brethren Church, Ashland, Ohio, and the National Fellow- ship of Brethren Churches (Grace Brethren), Winona Lake, In- diana, whose motto is: The Bible, the whole Bible, and noth- ing but the Bible.

87. Listings Of The World Society Religion And Spirituality
For information on groups descended from or related to the SchwarzenauBrethren organized and led by Alexander Mack in Germany in 1708.

88. Church Of The Brethren History
In August 1708 five men and three women gathered at the Eder River in Schwarzenaufor baptism, an illegal This new group simply called themselves brethren. .
Brief History of the Church of the Brethren Eighteenth century Europe was a time of strong governmental control of the church and low tolerance for religious diversity. Nevertheless, there were religious dissenters who lived their faith in spite of the threat of persecution. Some of these dissenters found refuge in the town of Schwarzenau, Germany. Among them was Alexander Mack, a miller who had been influenced by both Pietism and Anabaptism. In August 1708 five men and three women gathered at the Eder River in Schwarzenau for baptism, an illegal act since all had been baptized as infants. They understood this baptism as an outward symbol of their new faith and as a commitment to living that faith in community. An anonymous member of the group first baptized Mack. He, in turn, baptized the other seven. This new group simply called themselves "brethren." Though the early Brethren shared many beliefs with other Protestants, issues which separated them from the state churches included discipleship and obedience, reinstitution of the New Testament church, church discipline, biblicism, and nonresistance. They also shared their faith enthusiastically with others, sending evangelists to other parts of Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Due to growing persecution and economic hardship, Brethren began emigrating to North America in 1719 under the leadership of Peter Becker. Most Brethren left Europe by 1740, including Mack, who brought a group over in 1729. The first congregation in the New World was organized at Germantown, Pa., in 1723. Soon after its formation, the Germantown congregation sent missionaries to rural areas around Philadelphia. These missionaries preached, baptized, and started new congregations.

89. Toys
It features historic Anabaptist sites and the original hometowns of the first Brethrenand includes contact with members of the schwarzenau Heritage Society
2106. The Amish: A People of Preservation by John L. Ruth
This award-winning documentary on Amish faith and life, revised in 1996. The sound track on this video has excerpts of rarely recorded Amish preaching and singing.
(54 minutes. Ruth, 1996. $19.95)
(60 minutes. Mennonite Information Ctr., 1999. $19.95)
2144. The Battle of Brandywine
This engaging video on the Brandywine Valley, Pa., and the pivotal Revolutionary War battle traces the history leading up to the battle, from the Quaker farmsteads to the battle itself. It also puts the Battle of Brandywine in the context of the Revolutionary War.
(15 minutes. Pa. Hist. and Museum Comm., 1997. $12.00)
1861. Brethren Heritage Tour: Switzerland, France, Germany, the Netherlands
Video of a European tour led by Dr. Donald F. and Hedda Durnbaugh in 1995, designed for members of the Brethren Church, Church of the Brethren, Dunkard Brethren, Grace Brethren, and Old German Baptist Brethren. It features historic Anabaptist sites and the original hometowns of the first Brethren and includes contact with members of the Schwarzenau Heritage Society and Mennonites in Krefeld and Surhuister- veen. The significance of these historical sites is explained.
(45 minutes. Brethren Encyclopedia, 1996. $29.00)

90. Beaver Creek Church Of The Brethren, Virginia
About Us, Beaver Creek Church of the brethren What does it mean to be brethren? InSchwarzenau, Germany, in the year 1708, eight people began a new church.

Christ in our

Daily Lives
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About Us
Beaver Creek Church of the Brethren
What does it mean to be Brethren? What do we stand for? How are we different from other Christian denominations? First and foremost we desire to continue the work of Jesus, peacefully, simply, together.
In Schwarzenau, Germany, in the year 1708, eight people began a new church. They dared to follow their consciences and the Bible and made a break with the official German state church. This group wanted to be more like the followers of the Jesus they read about in the Bible. They desired to follow these Bible based ideals:
Peace ¥ Temperance ¥ Simple Life ¥ Brotherhood ¥ Moral Life
For these people and the ones who soon joined them, this led to conflict and persecution with the established church and many of its doctrines. Eventually this persecution drove many Brethren to the New World and the relative religious freedom in America. Starting in Pennsylvania and spreading downward into the Shenandoah Valley, the German Baptist Brethren or Dunkers (from their ÒDunkingÓ baptisms) were among the early settlers.
We no longer hold our services in German; nor do we have women sit on one side of the church and men on the other; or officially dress plain; however, all Brethren hold that the New Testament is their creed and seek to follow the same moral path as the original Brethren.

91. John6a
During his fiveyear stay in schwarzenau he joined the faith called German BaptistBrethren, also known as “Tunkers” or Dunkards , which is a nickname.
of "OPLINGER" compiled by John D. Watkins Son of Anna L. Oplinger (Watkins)
The name of "OPLINGER" is described as having been of Teutonic origin and derived from the name "Oberlechen". from the Alpine regions of Tyrol, Austria, near Innsbruck, bordering the town of Patsch, which lands belonged to the Counts at the time our ancestors lived there, as farmsteads in 1718. The surname is found on old records in the various forms of Oberlechen, Oberlecher, Oberleger, Upleger, Oblinger, Uplinger, Opplinger and Oplinger,the last mentioned being the most generally accepted form of today. In the early days when the world was less peopled, men had but one name, that being the name given when baptized; that applied to our ancestor, "Nicholaus". The name "Nicholaus" is one of the many Saint names which was used as a Christian name. It is originally Greek, and means "Victor of the People!" His name, Nioholaus, was shortened into a pet name (Claus), sometimes spelled (Klaus), to distinguish the Father from the Son, who was Nicholaus, Jr. Unfortunately, he could not write and his surname was recorded as it sounded including the different ways of spelling, as in Germany at that time. Although the language was German, there H were many dialects, which caused the different ways of spelling, but always the same "Nicholaus".

92. Byerly Line
when he arrived in 1752. At some point along the way he was baptized into the BrethrenChurch, a German Baptist sect organized in 1708 in schwarzenau, Bavaria
Byerly Family Line Joseph Byerly, 1730? - 1803 Born: Died: Pleasant Valley, Rockingham County, VA Married: Martha Byerly Born: Died: Children: Catherine Byerly (1765-1845) (m. Abraham Miller) Joseph Byerly (1766-1837) (m. Kathren Landes 11/8/96) David Byerly (1768-1813) John Byerly (2/10/1770-7/2/1831) Magdalena Byerly (1771-?) (m. Christian Landes 9/2/97) Jacob Byerly (1775-1843) (m. Magdeline Landes 4/7/99) Ann Elizabeth Byerly (1776-1867)(m. Michael Cline 6/2/98) Christina Byerly (1779-?) (m. John Early) Joseph Beyrer was probably a German farmer who came to North America during the eighteenth-century Palatinate migration. According to John F. Byerly,"The immigrant, Joseph Beyrer, a.k.a. Byerly, arrived in Philadelphia from Rotterdam on the ship "Louisa" Cravens vs.Lanahan Census of 1810 lists Joseph and his son John as still residing in Rockingham County. The name appears as "Bierer" suggesting the old German pronunciation was still strong. The Brethren were pacifists and consequently Joseph does not appear in military bounty or land records from the period (indeed there are instances where Byerlys were fined substantial sums for refusing to march). Nothing is known of Martha Byerly. If you have any information on Joseph and/or Martha Byerly, I'd really like to hear from you. Sources: Donald F. Durnbaugh, The Brethren in Colonial America ; Martin Grove Brumbaugh

93. -
Official homepage of the Church of the brethren. Christian denomination founded atSchwarzenau, Germany, in 1708 and now has more than 140,000 members in North,040All,


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95. Page Title
Heritage of the Lord's Supper Eucharist. Anabaptized Pietism The SchwarzenauBrethren. In The Dilemma of Anabaptist Piety Strengthening or Straining the
Publications and Papers
"The Background and Development of Thought and Practice in the German Baptist Brethren (Dunker) and
The Brethren (Progressive) Churches (c. 1650-1979)." Ph.D. dissertation, Fuller Theological
Seminary, 1980.
"The Life and Thought of Gottfried Arnold," Brethren Life and Thought 26 (Summer 1981): 135-151.
"Gottfried Arnold's View of the Christian Life," Brethren Life and Thought 26 (Autumn 1981):237-246.
"Remove not the Ancient Landmarks," Messenger 130 (August 1981):29-31.
"Keeping Pace with the Times," Messenger 131 (July 1982): 27-29.
A monthly series of articles on Brethren doctrine in The Brethren Evangelist , August 1982-July/August 1984.
"ProgressivismA Definition," Ashland Theological Journal 15 (Fall 1982): 36-50.
"The Ecclesiology of Gottfried Arnold," Brethren Life and Thought 28 (Spring 1983):91-100. Eighteen articles in The Brethren Encyclopedia . Philadelphia, PA, and Oak Brook, IL: The Brethren Encyclopedia, 1983-1984. "The Brethren Church: 1883-1983," The Brethren Evangelist 105 (August 1983): 14-18.

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97. AnsMe Directory - Society > Religion And Spirituality > Christianity > Denominat
For information on groups descended from or related to the SchwarzenauBrethren organized and led by Alexander Mack in Germany in 1708.
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Brethren Groups

Basic, non-theological outline of all the religious groups using the word Brethren in their denominational label.
Dunkard Brethren Church

History, beliefs, and church locations of this small group. Churches are predominantly in the Midwest. Honors to Alexander Mack Interpretation of the life and thought of Alexander Mack, founder of the Brethren Church, Church of the Brethren, Grace Brethren, and other Brethren groups.

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