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41. Omniseek: Lifestyle: /Lifestyle/Social Sciences/Anthropology/Enculturated Apes
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The course will focus on three types of primates (i) monkeys, (ii) apes,and (iii) enculturated apes . Both naturalistic and experimental
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Center for Cognitive Science University at Buffalo, State University of New York FIRST INTERNATIONAL
Michael Tomasello Time: MWF 9:00-10:40 A.M. Description:
This course is designed to acquaint cognitive scientists with the basic theoretical approaches and empirical findings of research into nonhuman primate cognition. In the past 15 years, many new facts have been discovered about the cognitive abilities of nonhuman primates, especially monkeys and apes. These new facts have come from detailed field studies, from experimental work with captive animals, and from research with apes who have been raised in human-like cultural environments with exposure to cultural artifacts such as tools and language. Many of the new findings have come as a result of the discovery that most of the intellectual resources of primates are used to deal not with the physical environment, but with the social environment. The course will focus on three types of primates: (i) monkeys, (ii) apes, and (iii) "enculturated apes". Both naturalistic and experimental work will be reviewed, and cross-species comparisons will be emphasized. In terms of content, the focus will be on two main sets of issues:

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47. Enculturated Apes Top Science Social Sciences
Language in apes How Much Do They Know and How Much Should We Teach Them Introductoryoverview of ape language research, its history and its practice.

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49. Primate-Science Review Copies Received
by other animalswill note parallels here with the way linguists shifted the criteriafor what counts as language precisely as enculturated apes were shown
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50. COGNITION STUDIES (including Tool Use And Language) 1998-1999: Part I (Authors A
(Abstract) Bering JM; Bjorklund DF; Ragan P Deferred imitation of objectrelatedactions in young, enculturated great apes. AMERICAN
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51. Reaching Into Thought - Cambridge University Press
Simon says The development of imitation in an enculturated orangutan H. Lyn Miles Selfawarenessand self-knowledge in humans, apes and monkeys Daniel Hart and
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Reaching into Thought
The Minds of the Great Apes
Edited by Anne E. Russon, Kim A. Bard, Sue Taylor Parker
Hardback In stock What special qualities of mind set the great apes apart from other nonhuman primates, and indeed from ourselves? In this book, field and laboratory researchers show that the great apes have high level abilities in both social and ecological domains, including tool use, pretense, self-awareness, deception, consolation, teaching and culture itself. Great apes are also shown to be capable of thinking at symbolic levels, traditionally considered to be uniquely human. Here, the mechanisms involved in building these abilities - especially the lengthy developmental and ‘enculturation’ processes - are emphasized, showing how new discoveries are changing views on how primates and human intelligence evolved. This book is for anyone interested in current research and theoretical views of great ape cognition.
‘… excellent chapters … based on both captive and field experiments.’ Craig B. Stanford, The Quarterly Review of Biology

52. SRB Review 9 (2)
intent of communication, but that it does not necessarily demonstrate a cognitivedifference between apes, monkeys and other'enculturated' (home reared
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This review appeared in Volume 9 (2) of The Semiotic Review of Books.
Mindful Apes
by Anne Zeller
Reaching Into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. Ed. by. Anne E. Russon, Kim A. Bard and Sue Taylor Parker, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1996. pp 464. ISBN 0521 47168 Chapter 4 compares aspects of social intelligence between apes and monkeys, in this case macaques. The research observes a particular level of social skill in post conflict situations, based on activities of a third party. The two third party behaviours investigated are third party mediated reconciliation and consolation of the loser. The varying levels of these behaviours seen between chimpanzees and macaques may partly rest on social constraints which in the more hierarchically organized macaques may interfere with loser support. In addition the argument is put forward that for chimpanzee consolation is really a more intellectually oriented event in that it involves the idea of comprehending the upset mental state of the recipient of consolation without sharing the emotion and thus becoming involved in the conflict. This ability differs from third party intervention, which is seen in macaques, because of the mental aspect of seeing yourself in another's situation. In conclusion Russon argued that the learning involved was not necessarily the main function of the imitation. Rather, by replicating non specific behaviour of favoured demonstrators, such as placing grave markers or sharpening blow gun darts they were participating in the demonstrators social circle. Interpersonal goals are seen in human infants who play peekaboo or replicate the posture and words of others. These interpersonal goals may well reflect the social bases which have been argued to underlay intellectual capabilities in apes. This level of understanding the possible goals of orangutans is quite different from the experimentally induced physically matched, goal directed behaviour regarded as true imitation in many lab situations.

53. The Communication Continuum
He reduces their natural communication to hoots and shrieks (p.342), and dismissesthe accomplishments of the enculturated apes used in research programs
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This review appeared in Volume 7 (3) of the Semiotic Review of Books.
The Communication Continuum
Barbara J. King
The Evolution of Communication. By Marc D. Hauser. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996, xiii, 760 pp. ISBN 0-262-08250-0 The evolution of language is a hot topic. New books on the subject garner attention in the popular media, and their authors are sought for appearance on televised documentaries. Currently, the dominant view is that language evolved wholly within the hominid (human ancestral) lineage, whether beginning early in that lineage at millions of years ago (Pinker 1994) or only more recently with our own species (Bickerton 1995, Noble and Davidson 1996). Human language is thus sharply different from all types of animal communication. The contrasting, minority position (Savage-Rumbaugh et al. 1993, King 1994, Armstrong et al 1995) allows deeper roots for language and precursors to features of human language in animal communication systems. Variations on these two views have been repeated for centuries. Theorists in the first group seize any new scrap of information about the unique properties of human language to bolster their discontinuity view, whereas theorists in the second group search for data from the animal world to bolster their continuity view. The whole enterprise thus begins to resemble an endless ping-pong match with back-and-forth debate but little productive dialogue.

54. Registration 2000
and President of ApeNet, a consortium of foundations and celebrities founded byBritish musician Peter Gabriel to support enculturated apes and foster great
Sacramento, California Special Guest Speakers Jane Goodall, Ph.D. Penny Patterson, Ph.D. Robert W. Shumaker, Ph.D. Lyn Miles, Ph.D. ... Christina Ellis, M.E.S. Lyn with Chantek
H. Lyn Miles, Ph.D. Anthropology, University of Connecticut Back to Conference Page Return to the ChimpanZoo Index

55. Access 10,000 + Universities And Colleges At - (campus And Dist
Science@ (532). Anteaters@ (2); Anthropology@ (814); apes, enculturated@(16); Apiculture@ (175); Applied Anthropology@ (15); Aquatic


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  • 56. UTC Professor Meets McCartney
    UTC campus, beginning in 1978. The goal of the foundation is to create a cultureand conservation center where Chantek and other enculturated apes would reside
    Dr. Lyn Miles, seated, with Paul McCartney, right. Professor Meets Beatle Miles is also president of the Chantek Foundation, named in honor of the orangutan Miles raised as "my cross-foster son on the UTC campus, beginning in 1978." The goal of the foundation is to create a culture and conservation center where Chantek and other enculturated apes would reside, and use tools, computers, art and sign language. "The Community Foundation of Chattanooga can receive tax-exempt donations to the Chantek Foundation, while its nonprofit status is pending," Miles said. Chantek currently resides at Zoo Atlanta, where Miles serves as a senior research fellow.
    "When I met McCartney, I presented him with a cocoa bean rattle assembled by
    Chantek who uses it in his music and art studies with me. I also presented Ms. Mills with a found art assemblage, a brass and wood macramé wall hanging, constructed by Chantek," Miles said.
    ‘During the first encore, McCartney pointed to our group and said ‘this one’s for you,’ and he and his band members walked around the stage like monkeys!" Miles said.

    57. Florida Atlantic University, Department Of Psychology. Graduate
    Deferred imitation in juvenile humanreared great apes Can it provide some cluesto Generalization of imitation in enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    58. EDWARDS, D. (1994): Imitation And Artifice In Apes, Humans, And Machines
    it comes to the manufacture of agents, whether humans, apes or computers in whichhuman infants are thought to become agentive, enculturated, languageusing and Artifice in Apes Hum
    Tento text je zde vyberove zpristupnen vyhradne pro individualni studijni ucely. Nesirte ho, prosim, dale.
    This text has been made available here for individual study purpose only. Please, do not distribute it further.
    EDWARDS, D. (1994): Imitation and artifice in apes, humans, and machines. American Behavioral Scientist
    Suggests that the issue of nonhuman agency may be resolved not through ontology but as a matter of social and descriptive practices. Analysis of behavioral scientist B.L. Whorf's paradox on the reflexive problems of description; Nonhumans capacity to render themselves in human language; Attribution/anthropomorphism quandary. Mrs. Johns. . . was delighted with her bird's new home. "You could tell he was really pleased, he ran about rounding up his hens."
    The Guardian, June 1, 1993 This snippet from a human interest story concerns a noisy cockerel, "Corky," recently relocated to a remote farmyard to avoid disturbing a neighbor who had won a court case to get the bird silenced. Other neighbors were reported to have joined Mrs. Johns in what the judge called "some sort of crusade on behalf of oppressed chickens" (Sharrock, 1993). Note the similarity between Mrs. Johns's reported reaction and that attributed to her cockerel, and the reason given for that attribution. Try substituting annoyed, anxious, unhappy or other negative feelings for "pleased" and see if the sentence is any less convincing. LOOKING IN THE MIRROR The most common trope for these concerns must be the "Mirror to Man." We study apes, "those amazing creatures that can teach us so much about ourselves" (Goodall, 1971, p. 14). "Discovery of extraterrestrial life would utterly transform our own view of ourselves as a species" (Professor Martin Rees, Director of Cambridge University's Institute of Astronomy, quoted in "SETIthe search," 1990). Technology in general may be seen as the Mirror (Woolgar, 1987, p. 312), or at least artificial intelligence (AI) may, and some projections of that enterprise produce reflections indistinguishable from the human original: "If machines do come to simulate all of our internal cognitive activities, to the last computational detail, to deny them the status of genuine persons would be nothing but a new form of racism" (Churchland, 1988, p. 120).

    59. Psychology 376* Brain, Cognition And Evolution (Winter 1999)
    contrasts between wildreared and enculturated apes (Savage-Rumbaugh video); enculturationcan lead to significant speech comprehension, including some grammar;
    Psychology 376*
    Brain, Cognition and Evolution (Winter 1999)
    Instructor: Prof. Merlin Donald
    Text: Donald, Origins of the Modern Mind (Harvard, 1991)
    Byrne, The Thinking Ape (Oxford, 1995)
    Lectures, seminars an"Objective":
    This course is designed to cover the evolution of human cognition in a focussed interdisciplinary framework. It aims at cultivating scholarly and analytical skills, and a broad perspective on the study of the human mind.
    Students are expected to pursue a selected topic from the course in a major seminar, and to expand on that topic in their term papers. Relevant material for seminars and papers may be drawn from a variety of fields, but must always be directly related to the central topic around which this course is organized, human cognition.
    The seminar will be worth roughly 40%, and the term paper will be worth roughly 60%. I also take into account class participation. I encourage students to speak up in class, and to take an active, critical attitude towards the material we are covering.
    Core references are contained in the three texts. Special readings will be assigned to students to support their specific seminar/paper topics: for instance, hominid evolution; language evolution; origins of symbols; comparisons between child and chimpanzee representation; comparisons of cognition in oral and literate cultures, and so on. I give this course a major chunk of my time, and I am available to advise students on their topics outside of class time.

    60. 1
    nonhuman behavior fall into, perhaps excluding Kohlerís findings of insight insome apes and the sophisticated behavior of a few human enculturated apes.
    The "patchiness" of a food supply has been found to correlate with brain size by Katherine Milton and others. Which of the following primate foods is most likely to be "patchy?" a- figs b- bark c- leaves d- all of these are equally patchy Some primates are particularly adept at "extractive foraging." What best describes that ability. a- finding fruits that are seasonal b- upon finding a good food source, having the ability to generalize that similar sources (e.g. tree, plant) is likely to have similar food. c- the ability to realize that food may be located in an object (e.g. nut) or substrate (roots, insects) even if it is not directly perceptible to the primate d- none of the above a-reflex b- secondary "circular" reaction (stage 3 "repeats chance movements") c- tertiary "circular" reaction (seeSCp.165 [144]) (stage 5 of 6 "experimentally discovers that one object, such as a stick, can be used to obtain another object") d- "insight" (stage 6 "mentally figures out how one object can be used to obtain another") a- 6 b-12 c- 24 d- 48 What is the least accurate statement about the Gua and Donald Kellogg film?

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