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         Archaeoastronomy:     more books (103)
  1. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy by David H. Kelley, Eugene F. Milone, 2004-11-19
  2. Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy: From Giza to Easter Island by Giulio Magli, 2009-04-28
  3. Archaeoastronomy in the Americas (Ballena Press Anthropological Papers)
  4. Archaeoastronomy in the Old World by D. C. Heggie, 2009-12-17
  5. Ethnoastronomy & Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, V. 385)
  6. Archaeoastronomy in the New World: American Primitive Astronomy
  7. Archaeoastronomy of southeast Colorado and the Oklahoma Panhandle by William R McGlone, 1999
  8. African Cultural Astronomy: Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa (Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings)
  9. East-Asian Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of China, Japan and Korea (Earth Space Institute Book Series) by Zhenoao Xu, W. Pankenier, et all 2000-11-17
  10. Archaeoastronomy: Skywatching in the Native American Southwest (Plateau (Flagstaff, Ariz. : 1939), Vol. 63, No. 2,) by Ronald McCoy, 1994-03
  11. The Petroglyph Calendar: An Archaeoastronomy Adventure by Hubert A. Jr. Allen, 2001-03-01
  12. Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian American
  13. Archaeoastronomy and the Roots of Science (Aaas Selected Symposium, 71)
  14. World Archaeoastronomy: Selected Papers from the 2nd Oxford International Conference on Archaeoastronomy Held at Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, 13-17 January 1986

1. Archaeoastronomy Looks At Equinox, Solsltice And Cross-quarter Events Throughout
A source of information and products about solar alignments and ancient astronomical observatories Category Science Anomalies and Alternative Science......archaeoastronomy spotlights the dawn of human history.
Archaeoastronomy spotlights the dawn of human history
earthclock seasons almanacs countdowns usa ... video 2003's seasonal cusp moments shown in Universal Time / Greenwich Mean Time
Saturday, March 22, 2003, 05:52 PM is your local time Earth is THE master clock upon which human-made timepieces ultimately take their measure. Our planet circles the Sun in a regular rhythm every 365 days 5 hours and 48 minutes, deviating less than a second from one year to the next. Rather than striking the hours in a day, as does a typical clock, the Earth proceeds through 8 significant thresholds in its annual circuit. Together, we pass through orbital milestones that mark the beginning, midpoint and end of each of our seasons. Equinoxes Solstices and Cross-Quarters are moments shared planet-wide, defined by the Earth's tilt and spatial location on the ecliptic relative to the Sun.
To ancient civilizations fascinated and entertained by the apparent rhythmic motion of the heavens, the ability to fix these cusps just to the nearest day was highly-prized, even sacred knowledge. With today's science much better precision is at hand in calculating these moments.

2. Journal For The History Of Astronomy
Academic journal for history of astronomy and archaeoastronomy published by Science History Publications Category Science Social Sciences archaeoastronomy Journals......archaeoastronomy From 2003 archaeoastronomy will no longer published as a separatejournal but articles on the subject will now appear in enlarged issues of
From 2003 Archaeoastronomy will no longer published as a separate journal but articles on the subject will now appear in enlarged issues of Journal for the History of Astronomy Contents Sample Issue Download EDITOR
M. A. HOSKIN, Churchill College, Cambridge, England, CB3 0DS
Associate Editor of Archaeoastronomy Supplement: C. L. N. Ruggles (Leicester)
Associate Editor and Reviews Editor of JHA: OWEN GINGERICH, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., 02138, USA
Associate Editor of JHA: J. A. BENNETT (Oxford)
ANTHONY F. AVENI (Colgate), David H. DeVorkin (National Air and Space Museum, Washington), JERZY DOBRZYCKI (Polish Academy of Sciences), DOUGLAS C. HEGGIE (Edinburgh), DAVID A. KING (Frankfurt), JOHN LANKFORD (Kansas State), G. E. R. Lloyd (Cambridge), J. D. NORTH (Groningen), DAVID PINGREE (Brown), F. RICHARD STEPHENSON (Durham), NOEL M. SWERDLOW (Chicago), ALBERT VAN H ELDEN ( Rice) EDITORIAL POLICY
Archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy seek to investigate astronomical practice and celestial lore in human societies past and present. Such data are of considerable interest to archaeologists and anthropologists as well as to astronomers and historians of science. It follows that while many research articles in the two disciplines will be concerned with the hard evidence for, and the technicalities of, astronomical observations, others will be concerned more with the cultural context. With this balance in mind the editor of Archaeoastronomy wishes to encourage, alongside the sort of article already well familiar to its readers, the submission of contributions that are more concerned with the cultural context of celestial observations.

3. Cloudbait Observatory Archaeoastronomy
View images and descriptions of some ancient astronomical sites from Egypt and India. Also find related links. archaeoastronomy. We can assume that people have been observing the stars for as long as we have had minds enough to
Archaeoastronomy We can assume that people have been observing the stars for as long as we have had minds enough to wonder. Throughout most of history there have been two reasons that people looked to the heavens: as a tool for predicting seasonal events such as planting and harvest times, and as a source of spiritual guidance and mythological explanation. Rare elements of true science have occasionally shown up, for example in ancient Greece, but it is only in the last few hundred years that we can really say that astronomy has become a science in the modern sense. Sadly, we still live in a world of irrational people who are prepared to believe in astrology and other nonsense. For these people, I have only sympathy that they have given up the very essence of what makes us human: our ability to reason. For our ancestors, who didn't know better, I give credit for the observations and discoveries that were made and which contributed to our knowledge today. When I travel, I always enjoy visiting sites with some historic astronomical significance, and I share here some of those places.
American Indian
Mayan Chris L Peterson

A hub page with links to all ancient astronomy related articles by James Q. Jacobs. Bibliography. by James Q. Jacobs. Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy. THE ARYABHATIYA OF ARYABHATA
gateway to the stars and Rose's portal to the mystical

5. The Official Web Site Of The Center For Archaeoastronomy And ISAAC
Founded in 1978 at the University of Maryland to advance research, education and public awareness Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy......archaeoastronomy The Official Web Site of theCenter for archaeoastronomy and ISAAC.
Center for Archaeoastronomy Main Page NEWS Find Out More What is Archaeoastronomy? More About the Center for Archaeoastronomy More About ISAAC Publications of the Center ... Lost Codex Used Book Sale Outside Links Archaeoastronomy Archaeology Astronomy History of Science ... Museums
We at the Center for Archaeoastronomy mourn the loss of the crew of Space Shuttle Columbia who gave their lives for the pursuit of scientific knowledge. This is the official website of the Center for Archaeoastronomy and ISAAC, the International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture We are a source of peer-reviewed scientific and editorial materials in archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, archaeology and the history of science. We have published these materials in our journal, Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture and in our , essays from which are now available to read on this website. News, alerts, and upcoming conferences Last Update: Feb 04, 2003 Lost Codex Used Book Sale Rare and hard to find books on archaeoastronomy and related subjects
Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.

6. A Brief Introduction To Archaeoastronomy
A Brief Introduction to archaeoastronomy. Stephen McCluskey's web site containssample syllabi of his courses in archaeoastronomy and history.
Center for Archaeoastronomy Main Page NEWS Find Out More What is Archaeoastronomy? More About the Center for Archaeoastronomy More About ISAAC Publications of the Center ... Lost Codex Used Book Sale Outside Links Archaeoastronomy Archaeology Astronomy History of Science ... Museums
A Brief Introduction to Archaeoastronomy
The study of the astronomical practices, celestial lore, mythologies, religions and world-views of all ancient cultures we call archaeoastronomy . We like to describe archaeoastronomy, in essence, as the "anthropology of astronomy", to distinguish it from the "history of astronomy". You may already know that many of the great monuments and ceremonial constructions of early civilizations were astronomically aligned. The accurate cardinal orientation of the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt or the Venus alignment of the magnificent Maya Palace of the Governor at Uxmal in Yucatan are outstanding examples. We learn much about the development of science and cosmological thought from the study of both the ancient astronomies and surviving indigenous traditions around the world. With its roots in the Stonehenge discoveries of the 1960s, archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy (the study of contemporary native astronomies) have blossomed into active interdisciplinary fields that are providing new perspectives for the history of our species' interaction with the cosmos.

7. History Of Astronomy: Topics: Archaeoastronomy, Ancient Astronomy And Ethnoastro
History of Astronomy Topics archaeoastronomy, Ancient Astronomy and Ethnoastronomy Wolfgang R. Dick. Created 22 Nov 1995. Latest update 18 June 2002
History of Astronomy Topics
History of Astronomy: Topics: Archaeoastronomy, Ancient Astronomy and Ethnoastronomy
Deutsche Fassung

8. Science History Publications Ltd
Publisher of academic journals in history of science,history of astronomy and archaeoastronomy.
Sample Issues Contributor's style sheet Subscriptions Links ... E-mail Science History Publications Ltd is an academic publishing company established in 1971 and based in Cambridge, England. We specialize in journals in the fields of history of science, history of astronomy and archaeoastronomy. Science History Publications Ltd
16 Rutherford Road
UK Tel. +44 1223 710969
Fax. +44 1223 565532

Links to all ancient astronomy related articles by James Q. Jacobs. Covers many cultures. Includes a bibliography and photos.
by James Q. Jacobs
Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy THE ARYABHATIYA OF ARYABHATA
The oldest exact astronomic constant? Epoch 2000 is my Excel spreadsheet for calculating temporally variable
astronomic constants, obliquity of the ecliptic and illumination angles. ARCHAEOGEODESY PAGES MIAMI CIRCLE ARCHAEOGEODESY EKONK HILL PETROGLYPH SITE ASTRONOMY PAGES: Astronomy Formulas, Page One Astronomy Formulas, Page Two
SOURCES: This bibliography was used in writing portions of the above pages. Allen, C. W., Astrophysical Quantities , The Athlone Press, University of London, 1973. Cotter, Charles H., The Astronomical and Mathematical Foundations of Geography , American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York. Dragomir, V. C., D. N. Ghitau, M. S. Mihailescu, M. G. Rotaru

10. Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy By James Q. Jacobs
A review of prehispanic astronomic knowledge numeration, calendars, dates, stelae, codices and architect Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy Mayan......Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy. Aveni, Anthony F. 1981. archaeoastronomy in theMaya Region A Review of the Past Decade. archaeoastronomy, 3, pp. S2S16.
Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy
A Review of Contemporary Understandings
of Prehispanic Astronomic Knowledge.
© 1999 by James Q. Jacobs
Numeration Calendars Dates Stelae ... Bibliography
The Mesoamerican civilizations constructed numerous administrative and ceremonial centers and erected numerous monuments. These reflect astronomic knowledge and expertise in numeration and calendrics. This paper is an inquiry into the present level of knowledge of astronomy in prehistoric Mesoamerica and the level of prehistoric astronomic knowledge. Information comes from architectural relationships, stone monuments, codices and ethnohistorical manuscripts. The primary sources are the inscribed stone monuments and, in particular, the Dresden Codex. Ethnohistorical sources furnished useful keys for deciphering primary sources.
Early Discoveries Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan . Landa provided drawings with the corresponding month names, and the four glyphs that fall on the initial days of the months, the year bearers. He also provided a calendar with European months correlated with the Native calendar, the names of calendar cycles, and some other hieroglyphic symbols related to European alphabetic signs (Leon, 1994) This information led to understanding the sequence to read the glyphs and the decipherment of the Long Count notation. Brasseur de Bourbourg also identified the sun or kin glyph, the glyph associated with the day.

11. Archaeoastronomy At Mounds State Park By Donald R. Cochran
During the 1988 Ball State University field school at Mounds Park, it was discovered that two enclosures were aligned to sunset at the summer and winter solstice when viewed from the center of the Great Mound
Donald R. Cochran (Department of Anthropology, Ball State University)
During the 1988 Ball State University field school at Mounds Park, it was discovered that two enclosures were aligned to sunset at the summer and winter solstice when viewed from the center of the Great Mound. Additional depressions in the Great Mound embankment were found to be oriented toward due north and due west (sunset at the equinox) and to four locations to the east. The eastern alignments correlated with the rise of bright stars. The alignments through the Great Mound embankment also correlated with the post hole pattern previously recorded on the central platform of the Great Mound. In addition, a review of the distribution of similar enclosures in east central Indiana revealed that the sites were aligned to summer solstice sunrise and sunset. These discoveries have demonstrated aspects of site arrangement, regional organization, and expressions of Adena cosmology previously unrecognized.
[return to 1988 abstracts menu]
[continue to next] Last updated: July 23, 1996

12. The Gilded Butterfly
Megalithism and shamanism on Caprione's promontory recent studies. Lerici, Italy.
Some years ago, while studying the morphology of Oscan and Celtic toponyms on the Caprione, the most eastern promontory of the Liguria Riviera ( Oscan etymology kaprum = scapegoat ) we have discovered five holy megalithic ( literal meaning = big stones ) places, not reciprocally visible.
Using holism we performed geological analyses to demonstrate the presence of human work on creating these megalithic structures ( ) although these analyses cannot be used as a specific dating test they do show that there has been no recent anthropological action.
We have checked that the megalithic places are located near faults, fractures, dolines, and ancient water springs. While studying connections between geology and geobiology, we have laid out the five holy megalithic places in a Nautical Chart ( I.I.M., 1995

13. International Organisations For Archaeoastronomy / Cultural Astronomy
International organisations for archaeoastronomy / cultural astronomy
Clive Ruggles , Leicester University.
European Society for Astronomy in Culture (SEAC)
(SEAC) was formed in 1992, and holds annual meetings in late August/early September. These have been held in Strasbourg (1992), Smolyan, Bulgaria (1993), Bochum, Germany (1994), Sibiu, Romania (1995) and Salamanca, Spain (1996). The 1997 meeting will be held in Gdansk, Poland. The current officers of SEAC are: President, Clive Ruggles, UK; Secretary, Stanislaw Iwaniszewski, Poland; Treasurer, Wolfhard Schlosser, Germany. The other members of the Executive Committee are: Alexander Gurshtein (Russia), Carlos Jaschek (Spain), Eduardo Proverbio (Italy), Magdalena Stavinschi (Romania) and Alexey Stoev (Bulgaria). Further information may be obtained from Stanislaw Iwaniszewski, See also SEAC's home page
International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (ISAAC)
An Organizing Committee drawn from Europe and the Americas has recently established this new scholarly society for promoting the interdisciplinary study of astronomical practice within human societies and for furthering research into the cultural significance of astronomical knowledge. An international group of scholars from scientific and humanistic disciplines, with established reputations in this area, have been established as Founding Members and are currently considering their first nominations for Ordinary Membership. Archaeoastronomy forms only part of the society's name; it does not intend to focus narrowly on archaeological studies or on prehistory, but will provide a bridge among scholars who examine astronomy in its varied cultural contexts. It is hoped that the society will complement existing national and regional groups, scholarly publications and meetings by providing a representative institutional structure to ensure the continued growth of a shared area of scholarly research.

14. The Cosmic Mirror # 236
Report on the display of the Sky Disc of Nebra from The Cosmic Mirror 236.Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy...... Update 236 of Friday, April 19, 2002. archaeoastronomy sensation fromGermany? / Even worked. An archaeoastronomy sensation from Germany?
The Cosmic Mirror By Daniel Fischer Every page present in
Index ... The latest issue! Also check out Space Today Spacef. Now SpaceRef A German companion - only available here! Current mission news MGS latest pictures! Cassini Stardust (R)HESSI has completed the on-orbit checkout
while the first X-ray images of the Sun have been released and the new solar observatory satellite (see Update # 234 story 5) has been renamed the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager: Spectrum Astro GSFC and Berkeley Press Releases. Calmer space weather ahead: CfA Press Release CNN . Geomagnetic storms as earthquake-triggers? RP . Aurorae on March 23/24: SpaceWeather Update # 236 of Friday, April 19, 2002 Archaeoastronomy sensation from Germany? / Even young quasars shrouded in dust / Big bolide over Germany on famous orbit / Amino acids from interstellar ice / How the Leonids 2001 really worked
An archaeoastronomy sensation from Germany?
Until April 28 the disk and the related objects are now on display in Halle, Germany - before the return to the hands of science for restoration and detailled analysis. Metallurgical studies are already indicating that it is old and at least not a simple forgery. All results will eventually be published, probably more than a year from now, and then the disk, if found to be genuine, will be displayed permanently. Perhaps by then we will also have an idea what its original purpose may have been and how it fits into the history of mankind's desire to understand the Universe. (Based the official website and additional information from Prof. W. Schlosser, University of Bochum)

15. Archaeoastronomy
A section of Chaco Canyon National Historical Culture Park, NM, that has been occupied by both Anasazi Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy......archaeoastronomy. A section of Chaco Canyon National Historical CulturePark, NM, that has been occupied by both Anasazi and Navajo
Next: Fully Convective M Up: CURRENT RESEARCH Previous: ZAMS K-Dwarfs
A section of Chaco Canyon National Historical Culture Park, NM, that has been occupied by both Anasazi and Navajo peoples, is being surveyed for astronomically relevant features by Ambruster and A. Hull (OCA Applied Optics). Particularly evocative is the Navajo name for this area, which translates as sun moving across petroglyph . In December 1995, they confirmed a winter solstice alignment at an exceptionally rich early Navajo rock art site. Measurements from field work the previous summer had suggested that the winter solstice sun would rise in a formed by the visual intersection of a cliff on the distant southeastern horizon and a large foreground boulder containing two incised sun shields. This cliff, which is coincident with the winter solstice sunrise azimuth, is the most conspicuous horizon feature seen from this part of the canyon. Calculations further suggested that the sun would ascend along the ridge of the foreground boulder, which slopes upward at a angle from the horizontal. The actual sun at winter solstice performed as the measurements had implied, both in its rising position on the horizon, and in its slow march up the ridge of the boulder. It is not clear whether the important thing for the early Navajo observer was watching the morning sun ascend the boulder or, for the sake of eye comfort, keeping the rising sun just below the crest. However, the sky-related rock art (two sun shields, plus several drilled constellations) on the same panel with incised sacred (Yei) figures, strongly suggests the winter solstice sunrise was noted and commemorated here.

16. Earth Mysteries
archaeoastronomy at Stonehenge. Already in the 18th century the British antiquarian William Stukeley had noticed that
written and produced by
Chris Witcombe
Sweet Briar College
Archaeoastronomy at Stonehenge
Already in the 18th century the British antiquarian William Stukeley had noticed that the horseshoe of great trilithons and the horseshoe of 19 bluestones at Stonehenge opened up in the direction of the midsummer sunrise. It was quickly surmised that the monument must have been deliberately oriented and planned so that on midsummer's morning the sun rose directly over the Heel Stone and the first rays shone into the centre of the monument between the open arms of the horseshoe arrangement. View from the center of Stonehenge towards the Heel Stone , and a photograph of the sun rising over the Heel Stone This discovery has had tremendous impact on how Stonehenge has been interpreted. For Stukeley in the 18th century and Sir Norman Lockyer in the first years of the 20th century, this alignment implied a ritualistic connection with sun worship and it was generally concluded that Stonehenge was constructed as a temple to the sun. More recently, though, the astronomer Gerald Hawkins has argued that Stonehenge is not merely aligned with solar and lunar astronomical events, but can be used to predict other events such as eclipses. In other words, Stonehenge was more than a temple, it was an astronomical calculator.

17. Archeoastronomia Ligustica
Sito a cura di Mario Codeb² ed Henry De Santis con studi di archeoastronomia e megalitismo, principalmente in Liguria.
Archeoastronomia Ligustica
( Ligustic Archaeoastronomy)
Sito professionale in cui vengono esposti diversi studi di archeoastronomia e megalitismo in Liguria e fuori Liguria.
Se volete scriverci una e-mail.

English version

Deutsche Uebersetzung

I nostri articoli di archeoastronomia pubblicati

Genova, 08 marzo 2003
... Link utili
PAGINA DEGLI OSPITI Testi completi delle circolari dell'Associazione Ligure per lo Sviluppo degli Studi Archeoastronomici 2. Ciclo d'incontri sull'arte preistorica e tribale organizzato dal Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici. 3. Poster presentato da Enrico Calzolari,Davide Gori e Piero Barale al convegno "Archeoastronomia e sciamanismo nel Mediterraneo Centrale", tenutosi in Corsica dal 3 al 5 luglio 2002.
Alcuni nostri lavori
Ubicazione del sito Latitudine Longitudine quota mt.230 s.l.m.; Ubicazione del sito Latitudine Longitudine quota Isola di Bergeggi (Sv); mt.53 s.l.m.; Ubicazione del sito Latitudine Longitudine quota Bene Vagienna frazione Roncaglia (Cn);

18. Rundetaarn - Archaeoastronomy
Brief introductory article.
Archaeoastronomy in Denmark by Erling Poulsen Several prehistoric monuments are known from abroad with levels pointing in significant astronomical directions, in particular from the Middle East. However, these cultures had a written language which can tell us - in present day - about their science. No written language existed in Northern Europe, and we have to base our knowledge of the past on archaeological evidence as well as on the few existing accounts of journeys written by literary people.
Danish historians do not yet accept astronomical explanations to prehistoric findings; instead, they prefer other interpretations. In other countries the subject is more accepted . In England the subject was taken seriously after the interpretation of Stonehenge as a Sun-Moon observatory (Hawkins, 1963). Since then several stonemonuments have been explained in a similar way. In Germany the subject has been taken seriously for many years, and a few years ago many Swedish stonemonuments got an astronomical interpretation. The big difference in significance of the subject can be seen in a comparison of "The Big Danish Encyklopaedia" with the Swedish "Nationalencyklopaedin"; in the Swedish encyclopaedia 15 times as much is written about the subject as in the Danish encyclopaedia. In the book "The Gallic War" Caesar tells that the Teutonic people worship the Sun, fire and the Moon. The Suncarriage from Trundholm Moor shows that the Sun was worshiped about 1200 BC in Denmark. Our numerous rock carvings (1500-900 BC) show many signs of the Sun. A much later source, the arab al-Tartuschi (c. 950), tells that the people in Slesvig was worshipping the star Sirius

19. Archaeoastronomy
Dr. Cornelius Holtorf ponders the relationship of archaeoastronomy to the megaliths of Mecklenburg-Vorpom Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy......archaeoastronomy. Astronomical 1989). Comprehensive webpages about archaeoastronomyare maintained by The Center for archaeoastronomy;
Astronomical interpretations of megaliths Comprehensive web-pages about archaeoastronomy are maintained by
It is clear that archaeoastronomy is one very distinctive modern reception of megaliths . Astronomical interpretations of megaliths form part of the wider history culture and inform the cultural memory of our society. For Wolfgang Seidenspinner, archaeoastronomy can be seen as a modern equivalent to the old folktales about megaliths Often archaeoastronomers approach megaliths as ' denk-mals ' in the sense that the stones pose a riddle, or puzzle , to them, which needs to be solved. Many archaeoastronomers have considerable admiration for the achievements of the megaliths' builders, and sometimes they are perhaps also affected by a touch of nostalgia . More importantly, however, is the potential of megaliths for extensive quantitative

20. Archaeoastronomy In Gotland
There are about 3600 known grooves in stones in Gotland. The most important feature of the grooves Category Science Social Sciences Topics archaeoastronomy......På svenska tack archaeoastronomy. About the grooves in Gotland Thereare about 3600 known grooves in stones in Gotland. 700 are
About the grooves in Gotland
There are about 3600 known grooves in stones in Gotland. 700 are in the bedrock, which is limestone, and the rest in about 800 stones. The lenght of the grooves varies from about 0.5 to 1 metre. They are between 5 cm to 10 cm wide and 1 cm to 10 cm in depth.
They are shaped as though they were made by a tool fixed on a pendulum, the cross section of the lenght of each mark being in most cases part of a circle.
The most important feature of the grooves is alignment. A study of 1256 grooves showed that they are aligned with certain positions of the celestial bodies, apparently the sun or the moon.
Stone with grooves from Stumle, Alva, Gotland
Map of the island of Gotland
Here 32 grooves in the bedrock have been dated. Gregorian dates (day, month, and year) are used. One metre is shown for scale. North is shown by the arrow.
"The grooves of Gotland"
How were the grooves made?

Here are hyperlinks to some of the pages in the book about the grooves.
The book is in Swedish, but this is just the directions and maps and locations

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