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         Oil Spills:     more books (100)
  1. Industrial Pollution: Oil Spills, Toxicity and Risk Assessment
  2. Aboveground Oil Storage Tanks by Terrance I. Norton, 2009-01
  3. Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, & Effects by National Research Council, 1985-12
  4. Oil Spill Dispersants Mechanisms of Action & Laboratory Tests by Clayton, Payne, 1993-04-10
  5. Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea by National Research Council (U. S.), 1989-03
  6. The Economics of a Disaster: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill by Bruce M. Owen, David A. Argue, et all 1995-10-30
  7. THE EXTRAORDINARY AND THE EVERYDAY IN EXPLANATIONS OF VULNERABILITY TO AN OIL SPILL.: An article from: The Geographical Review by Kirstin Dow, 1999-01-01
  8. Oil Spill! (Event-Based Science Series) by Russell G. Wright, 1995-02
  9. Proceedings of the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill Symposium: Held at Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2-5 February 1993 (American Fisheries Society)
  10. The U.s. Army Corps of Engineers Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill by Janet A. McDonnell, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 2005-05-04
  11. Darkened Waters: A Review of the History, Science, and Technology Associated With the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Cleanup by Nancy Lord, 1992-04
  12. Oil Pollution and the Public Interest: A Study of the Santa Barbara Oil Spill by A. E. Hash, 1972-10
  13. Black tides: The Alaska oil spill by Brian O'Donoghue, 1989
  14. Oil Spills: Management and Legislative Implications : Proceedings of the Conference by Malcolm L. Spaulding, 1990-10

61. Oil Spills Pollute Indefinitely And Invisibly, Study Says
oil spills Pollute Indefinitely and Invisibly, Study Says Evidence from the BuzzardsBay disaster suggests the effects of oil spills could be indefinite.
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Oil Spills Pollute Indefinitely and Invisibly, Study Says John Pickrell
for National Geographic News
November 22, 2002
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The Prestige oil tanker, carrying 20 million gallons (76 million liters) of fuel oil, sank off the northern coast of Spain earlier this week, releasing at least 800,000 gallons (3 million liters) of oil into the waters of an extremely rich fishing region. A report published earlier this month shows that in sensitive near-shore environments, the effects of an oil spill can be seen even decades later. The findings come from a study of the aftermath of an accident that occurred in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, on a foggy morning in September 1969. A Boston-bound barge entering the Cape Cod Canal ran aground on rocks, spilling 175,000 gallons (700,000 liters) of diesel fuel into the bay. A worker cleans oil from a Spanish beach after oil tanker Prestige split in two and sank off the coast on November 19, 2002.

62. EVI Indicator 33 - Hazardous Spills
Notes oil spills pose a serious threat to ecosystems and loss of marinecoastal species. Possible data sources Environment, conservation. Indicator Web/indicator_33.htm
Home Contact Sitemap EVI Data Home ... 54. Slides
Indicator 33: Hazardous Spills
Number of spills of oil and hazardous substances greater than 1000 litres (during the last five years on land, in rivers or within territorial waters) per square kilometre of land area
  • Indicator Key Name: Spills of hazardous substances. Main Proxy Factors: Pollution. Notes: Oil spills pose a serious threat to ecosystems and loss of marine coastal species. Possible data sources: Environment, conservation. Information required: Spills of oil and hazardous materials, five years data.
Please fill in the form and click the SEND button to submit data PDF Name Country E-mail This indicator is (tick all options relevant): Relevant to this country (the condition described is found in the country)
Not applicable to this country (the condition described cannot occur e.g. landlocked countries cannot have coastlines) Has a value of zero (the condition is possible but not present e.g. there are no volcanoes)

63. Oil Spills
oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tankerto leak oil into the ocean. What affects do oil spills have on animals?
Imagine yourself as a killer whale. You are swimming around when you decide to stick your head out of the water to take a breath. As you are taking a breath, you see a large stream of thick black oil heading your way. You go back under water only to find other animals dying one by one because the oil is damaging their bodies. This is the way some animals must die in the ocean. They die because of an oil spill occurring in their habitat What’s an oil spill? Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. There are a few more ways an oil spill can occur. Equipment breaking down may cause an oil spill. If the equipment breaks down, the tanker may get stuck on shallow land. When they start to drive the tanker again, they can put a hole in the tanker causing it to leak oil. When countries are at war, one country may decide to dump gallons of oil into the other country’s oceans. Terrorists may cause an oil spill because they will dump oil into a country’s ocean. Many terrorists will do this because they are trying to get the country’s attention, or they are trying to make a point to a country. Illegal dumpers are people that will dump crude oil into the oceans because they do not want to spend money on decomposing their waste oil. Because they won’t spend money on breaking up the oil (decomposing it) they will dump oil into the oceans, which is illegal.

64. ThinkQuest Library Of Entries
The table above shows the largest oil spills on record since 1967. Mostof the oil spills occurred in the late 1970s or early 1980s.
Welcome to the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge of Entries
The web site you have requested, The Environment: A Global Challenge , is one of over 4000 student created entries in our Library. Before using our Library, please be sure that you have read and agreed to our To learn more about ThinkQuest. You can browse other ThinkQuest Library Entries To proceed to The Environment: A Global Challenge click here Back to the Previous Page The Site you have Requested ...
The Environment: A Global Challenge
click here to view this site
A ThinkQuest Internet Challenge 1999 Entry
Click image for the Site Awards Received
  • Platinum
Languages : Site Desciption "The Environment: A Global Challenge" is a comprehensive site providing information on many aspects of the environment. There are 400 articles in twelve content sections [ Current Events, Economics, Environmental Problems, Health Concerns, History, Organizations, Science, Statistics and World Outlook]. Articles are interlinked and multimedia and links to outside information often accompany the text. Integrated into each content section and spread out through various other sections are many interactive features, such as simulations, interviews, streaming multimedia, a scientific experimentation center, and systems for adding links and new content enable visitors to experience what they are learning about. Educators can easily and instantly involve their entire class in the site by creating accounts in our Classroom Connection database.
Students Michael Kantonsschule Pfäffikon/Nuolen

65. Oil Spills
Go back. oil spills. oil spills at sea decrease the oxygen level in thewater and cause grave harm to the creatures living in the sea.
Explor e Play and learn Network Surf Go back O il spills Bioremediation is a method that is now being use to put a check to the damage done by this oil spill. For more information on Oil spills link to

66. Mangrove Conservation In Singapore: Oil Spills
oil spills In October 1997, the oil tanker Evoikos, and the very largecrude carrier Orapin Global, collided in the Singapore Straits.
CONTENTS Flora index Fauna index
Mangrove conservation in Singapore Peter K L Ng and N Sivasothi (editors) Oil spills

In October 1997, the oil tanker Evoikos , and the very large crude carrier Orapin Global , collided in the Singapore Straits. In what was the worst oil spill in Singapore's history, 25,000 tonnes of oil from the Evoikos was spewed into the sea. Luckily, the Orapin Global was empty. Mangrove
in Singapore
Coastal Cleanup

Oil spills
Moribund trees

Endangered Epiphytes


This was a grim reminder of the heavy shipping traffic that ploughs through Singapore waters. Despite a carefully managed traffic system, mistakes happen, as it did here, despite the 8 km visibility that day, which is considered normal. The ecological impact cannot be fully known despite the cleanup effort which was aided by the accumulation of oil on mangrove tree-trunks in nearby islands, particularly Pulau Semakau. The damaged Evoikos anchored near Raffles Lighthouse served as a conspicuous warning, months later, of the need to be vigilant.

67. Farallones: Oil Spills
oil spills in the Gulf of the Farallones. oil spills are a threat towildlife, including sand crabs, in the Gulf of the Farallones.
Natural History of Sand Crabs Oil Spills Monitoring Data Entry ... Farallones Home Oil Spills in the Gulf of the Farallones
Oil spills are a threat to wildlife, including sand crabs, in the Gulf of the Farallones. On October 31, 1984, explosions on the Tanker Vessel PUERTO RICAN resulted in a major oil spill in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast of San Francisco, California. At approximately 3:24 am, the tanker experienced two major explosions. The vessel was about 20 km (12 miles) west of the Golden Gate Bridge and just outside of the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (then called the Point Reyes-Farallon Islands National Marine Sanctuary). Initially it was carrying 100,000 barrels (4.3 million gallons) of oil (lube oil, lube oil additives, and bunker oil). At least 1.47 million gallons of oil were released into the Sanctuary over a two-week period. In addition, the tanker's stern sunk with 365,500 gallons of bunker fuel that leaked for several years afterward. The stern still poses the threat of pollution today.

68. Oil Spills
oil spills. Prediction and simulation of the trajectory and weatheringof oil spills are essential to the development of pollution
Oil Spills
Prediction and simulation of the trajectory and weathering of oil spills are essential to the development of pollution response and contingency plans, as well as to the evaluation of environmental impact assessments. In order to predict the behaviour of the oil products spilled in coastal zones, an oil weathering model was developed, which predicts the evolution and behaviour of the processes (transport, spreading and behaviour) and properties of the oil product spilled in water. Some pollution response methods are also integrated in the model.
Implementation - Oil Module
Oil density and viscosity, and many different processes are included in oil module, such as oil spreading, evaporation, dispersion, sedimentation, dissolution, emulsification, oil beaching and removal techniques. Different alternative methods were coded for the prediction of some processes like oil spreading, evaporation, dispersion, sedimentation and emulsification. Therefore, when using the model, there is more than one way of simulating the same process, depending, for example, on the characteristics of the computational mesh or on the magnitude of the spill. The oil weathering module (OWM) uses mainly the 3D hydrodynamics and 3D lagrangian transport modules. The hydrodynamic module simulates the velocity field necessary for the lagrangian module to calculate oil trajectories. These oil trajectories are computed assuming that oil can be idealized as a large number of particles that independently move in water. Water properties and atmospheric conditions are introduced in lagrangian module and used by oil module for determination of oil processes and properties. Excepting spreading and oil-beaching, all weathering processes and properties are assumed uniform for all tracers, like water properties and atmospheric conditions, which are considered equal to these environmental conditions determined in accident origin.

69. The Environmental Literacy Council - Oil Spills
oil spills. Large oil spills are fortunately infrequent and laws and regulationshave been put in place to help prevent inadvertent spills and accidents.
Home About ELC Site Map Contact Us ... Food
Oil Spills
Oil and water don't mix, and spilled oil can present a serious environmental hazard. Large oil spills are fortunately infrequent and laws and regulations have been put in place to help prevent inadvertent spills and accidents. Environmental Protection Agency: Oil Spill Program
Designed to respond to spills and prevent future incidences, the program website includes current laws and regulations and a discussion of techniques used to address significant oil spills Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2702 to 2761)
The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 established a fund to clean up oil spills and set regulations for storage facilities and transport vessels. To heighten regional preparation and response to spills, the Act also developed Area Contigency Plans. Printer Friendly Version Send this Page to a Friend Related Pages Fossil Fuels

Geopolitics of Oil

Oil Reserves
Prestige Oil Spill

This page was last updated on December 2, 2002.
Please send questions and comments to

70. CNN - Small Oil Spills Add Up To Environmental Hazard - April 29, 1996
Small oil spills add up to environmental hazard. And since Valdez ran aground, smalleroil barges have been responsible for two of the three worst US spills.
Small oil spills add up to environmental hazard
April 29, 1996
Web posted at: 3:30 p.m. EDT From Correspondent Bruce Burkhardt (CNN) Images of birds covered in crude oil, their wings tarred to their bodies, standing on beaches blanketed with black ooze have become almost commonplace. Environmentalists, however, say the impact on the environment of major spills from oil tankers is just a drop in the barrel compared to oil spilled every day. "What people don't think about is what happens at an oil refinery," said Brent Blackwelder with Friends of the Earth. Pipelines routinely leak and break, he said. ( 128K AIFF sound or 128K WAV sound Pipeline spills reported to the U.S. Department of Transportation average 12 million gallons of petroleum products a year. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, by comparison, spewed out 11 million gallons. Furthermore, the Environmental Protection Agency says that more than a quarter of the nations' one million underground gasoline and oil tanks leak. And since Valdez ran aground, smaller oil barges have been responsible for two of the three worst U.S. spills. The General Accounting Office says an average of 16,000 small oil spills seep into waterways each year half of them during loading or unloading operations. In more recent years, the GAO estimates that

71. Protocol Concerning Cooperation In Combating Oil Spills In The Wider Caribbean R
Summary of Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating oil spills in the WiderCaribbean Region is available from the UNEP Register of International
This data access service is provided by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), which operates the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators (ENTRI) Full Text File
The full text of this treaty was provided by the Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre (ACRC) Summary of "Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region" is available from the UNEP Register of International Treaties and Other Agreements in the Field of the Environment See the ENTRI query system for information about the status of this treaty. See the ENTRI thematic guide for more information about the relationships between environmental treaties, national resource indicators, and remotely sensed data. ENTRI data providers make every effort to ensure the accuracy, reliability, and completeness of the texts and other information included in this collection; however, neither CIESIN nor the ENTRI data providers verify or guarantee the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the contents of ENTRI. If you encounter an error, please notify us by e-mail to

72. IDL Tracks Oil Spills
IDL Application Helps Coast Guard Identify and Track oil spills inthe Mediterranean Sea. ESRIN Spearheads Effort to Reduce Marine
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Proliant Webserver IDL Application Helps Coast Guard Identify and
Track Oil Spills in the Mediterranean Sea ESRIN Spearheads Effort to Reduce Marine Pollution with OSM-d Application Oil spill disasters like the Exxon Valdez, Braer, and the Gulf War fires have made us aware of the dire consequences oil spills have on coastal ecosystems, shoreline communities, and even global economies. Every day, thousands of gallons of oil are either dumped or spilled into the earth's water. With the help of IDL®, ESRIN, the European Space Agency's Centre in Frascati, Italy, is spearheading an effort to better track oil spills and minimize marine pollution in the Mediterranean sea. Solution Snapshot Business Problem
Coast Guard efforts to identify and prosecute marine polluters are hampered by its inability to quickly gather data and accurately identify ships, especially at night. Solution An IDL application developed at ESRIN, an arm of the European Space Agency, that uses ERS radar data to accurately track and monitor oil pollution in the Mediterranean sea. Benefits:
  • Oil spills can be monitored 24 hours a day
  • Ships are more easily identified and tracked
  • Coast Guard receives timely reports while ship is still in area
Technology Serves Environmental Purpose Dr. Andrea Petrocchi at ESRIN has developed an IDL application, called the Oil Spill Monitoring ESRIN Demonstrator (OSM-d), that uses ERS data to quickly identify and track oil spills in the Mediterranean sea. In one case, the ERS data processed by IDL and subsequent technical report were instrumental in the legal prosecution of a polluter in France.

73. The Axe Online : 12.13.02
Commentary oil spills . PDF file here After the sinking of anotheroil tanker, the laws need revision The oil tanker Prestige
Click Here! Contents News Commentary Expression Movies Calender Archive Contact The Axe
Oil spills PDF file here

After the sinking of another oil tanker, the laws need revision
The oil tanker Prestige that sank about 133 miles off the coast of Spain on Nov. 19 has spilled approximately 1.6 million of its total 20 million gallon payload of heavy fuel oil. This spill, in one day, sent twice the amount of oil into the oceans as the Alaskan Exxon Valdez disaster did. The spill could have been prevented if Spain, Portugal or France had allowed the ship to dock in one of their ports in order to contain and repair the already damaged craft.
The Prestige was towed out to sea after the permission to dock into one of the nearby coastal ports was refused. Then it traveled through Spanish waters towards Portuguese coasts. Soon after it had entered Portuguese waters, it got caught in rough waters and strong wind and it broke apart and sank. The fact that three European governments denied an already leaking tanker passage into their ports should provide another example of a wholly preventable disaster that will now lead to economic and ecological hardships. The coastal areas the oil has contaminated will disrupt the communities that depend heavily on fishing, tourism and economic stability.

74. Bioremediation Of Oil Spills
Science Education Science articles that you can understand, Bioremediation ofoil spills. Posted by Timothy Paustian, 9/7/00 at 31553 PM. by Ali Senn.$15

Science Education

Science articles that you can understand
Bioremediation of Oil Spills
Posted by Timothy Paustian , 9/7/00 at 3:15:53 PM. by Ali Senn Wednesday, August 4, 1999 Bioremediation is a method used to treat environments polluted with organic or inorganic substances. Research has been conducted on the possible uses of bioremediation since the 1940s. Bioremediation was used in the 1970s for the in situ (in place) clean up of fuel contaminated soil and groundwater. It has since developed into a popular method of pollution remediation and has expanded to such areas as sludges, surface waters and process waters contaminated with pesticides, metals, crude oil, and industrial solvents. Bioremediation continues to be a heavily researched topic and is endorsed by government groups, such as the EPA. Following such success stories as the treatment of crude-oil contamination on the Alaskan shoreline after the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989, its popularity is expected to grow.
Bioremediation is the process of using organisms to convert hazardous pollutants into less toxic compounds. It involves the manipulation of the process of molecular degradation of compounds through biological activity. Several aspects of bioremediation make it an appealing choice. One advantage is the use of natural processes. Bacteria and fungi already work to break down practically all hydrocarbon contamination in the natural environment. Another advantage of bioremediation over other methods is that it transforms pollutants instead of simply moving them from one media to another. For example, in the past some polluted soils were buried in landfills in which case the pollutant was not destroyed only transferred and the problem was only delayed. A final and often most convincing factor is cost. Relative to other methods of pollutant removal, bioremediation is the cheapest.

75. Oil Spills
Protecting the Oceans from oil spills. (NAPS)When it comes to thesource of offshore oil spills, there are a lot of misperceptions.
What Are Signature 0il Spills? The U.S. Coast Guard, one of the agencies responsible for investigating oil spills, can actually fingerprint the oil from spills, analyzing to identify the source of the oil. Samples of the spilled oil are taken and compared to samples taken from ships/tankers that come into port for an exact match. Protecting the Oceans from Oil Spills (NAPS)When it comes to the source of offshore oil spills, there are a lot of misperceptions. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS) offers a number of facts about this important issue. Fallacy: Offshore oil and gas development is responsible for most of the petroleum pollution found in the earth's oceans. Fact: Worldwide, the vast majority of petroleum pollution in the ocean is caused by marine transportation (45 percent) and municipal/industrial waste and street runoff (36 percent). Fact: Over the past 20 years, less than 0.001 percent of the oil produced from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf has been spilled from offshore oil production facilities. Through its regulatory program, MMS is working toward keeping this statistic as low as possible. Fact: Offshore facilities and pipelines account for only 3 percent of the volume of oil spilled in U.S. waters.

76. A Catalogue Of Petroleum Oil Spills In Nigeria's Niger Delta
June-July, 2001

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77. Impact Of Oil Spills In Nigeria's Niger Delta
Urhobo Historical Society
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78. Oil Spills
The oil spills on the Danube River. oil spills, dozens of kilometerslong, are completely covering the surface of the Danube River.
Save the Danube oil spills toxic substances acid rains ozone layer the "greenhouse" effect ... defoliation T he oil spills on the Danube River O il spills, dozens of kilometers long, are completely covering the surface of the Danube River. They are entering waters of Romania and Bulgaria heading towards The Black Sea.
O ne litre of oil contaminates one million liters of water completely.
S pilled oil does not stay on the surface only. Some particles float in the water, while heavier ones sink to the bottom of the river thus creating complete pollution. Spilled oil creates thin layer that glues to fish gills causing suffocation and mass mortality; it prevents oxygen
exchange between air and water and reduces light penetration, which ends the photosynthesis in the water. Food for fish and all other living species living in the water vanishes. The drastic reduction of oxygen prevents self-purifying of the river.
O il components are deposited on the riverbed. Oil is biodegradable, but the duration of this process is still unknown.

79. Oil Spills
Links Botany home EECB home PCSU Technical Reports ... Society Memberships OIL SPILLS David Cameron Duffy When I arrived in Alaska, I was virtually the only biologist who had not worked on the spill of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound. As a neutral party, I was asked to put together a coalition of research projects to study why some seabirds did not appear to be recovering from the spill. With generous funding of over $14 million dollars from the state and federal trustees handling the recovery, we were able to look at food fish, foraging birds and reproduction at colonies in the Sound and nearby Cook Inlet for six years. Analysis of the data is still underway. The project formed the basis for ongoing long-term monitoring that will give us the science to manage Alaska’s inshore waters in a sustainable way. APEX Research Project Click on the links below to view papers by subject El Nino Hurricanes Lyme disease Changes in prey population ... Seabirds

80. Environmental Organization WebDirectory - PollutionOil Spills
WebDirectory Write us Add URL Search Info. Pollutionoil spills. shortcutto Products and Services, Spill Control Association of America

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