Technical Arts Related To Alchemy In Old Egypt scholars, found its way to Europe, and. arabian mathematicians, physicians, alchemists, were held in high esteem as http://www.levity.com/alchemy/islam07.html
Alexandria Egypt And Early Alchemists Arab scholars, found its way to Europe, and arabian mathematicians, physicians, alchemists, were held in high esteem as http://www.spiritsongs.org/Alchemy_Article_Alexandria_Egypt_and_Early_Alchemists
Extractions: When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 33 B.C. and his general Ptolemy became King of Egypt, the Greek city of Alexandria was founded, and soon became not only the most important city of Egypt, but through the foundation of schools and the accumulation of libraries became the acknowledged center of the intellectual world. The collection of manuscripts is estimated at from 400,00 to 500,000 works. Scholars from all parts of the then civilized world thronged there to take advantage of its books and its teachers. The culture which developed was a blending of Greek, Egyptian, Chaldean, Hebrew and Persian influences. Greek philosophy, Egyptian arts, Chaldean and Persian mysticism met and gave rise to strange combinations not always conducive to improvement upon the relative clarity of the Greek foundation.
Famous Mathematicians During the Middle Ages, Europe made very little progress in mathematics, but therewere many arabian mathematicians who contributed significantly to algebra http://www.habsboys.org.uk/Departments/Maths/GG Maths/famous.html
Extractions: Below are a few famous mathematicians! Leonardo Fibonacci Fibonacci was born in 1170 and died around 1240. He was an Italian mathematician, known also as Leonardo da Pisa. He worked on algebra and extended the material then known in geometry and trigonometry. The sequence of numbers 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, formed by adding consecutive members, is named for him. The sequence occurs in a number of places, including in the spiral arrangement of seeds on the face of certain types of sunflowers. It is also found in higher mathematics. To top Pythagoras To top Euclid Euclid was a Greek mathematician. Little is known of his life other than the fact that he taught at Alexandria and grew up during the late 4 century BC. He made a vast contribution to geometry. He is famous for his Elements, a presentation in thirteen books of the geometry and other mathematics known in his day. The first six books cover elementary plane geometry. The other books of the Elements treat the theory of numbers and certain problems in and solid geometry, including the five regular polyhedra. The great contribution of Euclid was his use of a deductive system for the presentation of mathematics. To top Al-Khwarizmi Al-Khwarizmi was an Arabian mathematician of the court of Mamun in Baghdad. His treatises on Hindu arithmetic and on algebra made him famous. He gave algebra its name, and the word algorithm has been derived from his name. Much of the mathematical knowledge of medieval Europe was derived from Latin translations of his works. During the Middle Ages, Europe made very little progress in mathematics, but there were many Arabian mathematicians who contributed significantly to algebra and calculus.
Famous Mathematicians in mathematics, but there were many arabian mathematicians who contributed significantly to algebra and calculus. http://www.habsboys.org.uk/Departments/Maths/GG%20Maths/famous.html
Extractions: Below are a few famous mathematicians! Leonardo Fibonacci Fibonacci was born in 1170 and died around 1240. He was an Italian mathematician, known also as Leonardo da Pisa. He worked on algebra and extended the material then known in geometry and trigonometry. The sequence of numbers 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, formed by adding consecutive members, is named for him. The sequence occurs in a number of places, including in the spiral arrangement of seeds on the face of certain types of sunflowers. It is also found in higher mathematics. To top Pythagoras To top Euclid Euclid was a Greek mathematician. Little is known of his life other than the fact that he taught at Alexandria and grew up during the late 4 century BC. He made a vast contribution to geometry. He is famous for his Elements, a presentation in thirteen books of the geometry and other mathematics known in his day. The first six books cover elementary plane geometry. The other books of the Elements treat the theory of numbers and certain problems in and solid geometry, including the five regular polyhedra. The great contribution of Euclid was his use of a deductive system for the presentation of mathematics. To top Al-Khwarizmi Al-Khwarizmi was an Arabian mathematician of the court of Mamun in Baghdad. His treatises on Hindu arithmetic and on algebra made him famous. He gave algebra its name, and the word algorithm has been derived from his name. Much of the mathematical knowledge of medieval Europe was derived from Latin translations of his works. During the Middle Ages, Europe made very little progress in mathematics, but there were many Arabian mathematicians who contributed significantly to algebra and calculus.
YaleGlobal Online Magazine Zero reached Baghdad by 773 AD and would be developed in the Middle East byarabian mathematicians who would base their numbers on the Indian system. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/about/zero.jsp
New Book! - Hinged Dissections: Swinging & Twisting of relationships such as the Pythagorean theorem, dissections have had a surprisinglyrich history, reaching back to arabian mathematicians a millennium ago http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/gnf/book2.html
Extractions: by Greg Frederickson Cambridge University Press , 2002, ISBN 0-521-81192-9 (hardcover). A geometric dissection is a cutting of a geometric figure into pieces that we can rearrange to form another figure. As visual demonstrations of relationships such as the Pythagorean theorem, dissections have had a surprisingly rich history, reaching back to Arabian mathematicians a millennium ago and Greek mathematicians more than two millennia ago. As mathematical puzzles they enjoyed great popularity a century ago, in newspaper and magazine columns written by the American Sam Loyd and the Englishman Henry Ernest Dudeney. Loyd and Dudeney set as a goal the minimization of the number of pieces. Their puzzles charmed and challenged readers, especially when Dudeney introduced an intriguing variation in his 1907 book The Canterbury Puzzles . After presenting the remarkable 4-piece solution for the dissection of an equilateral triangle to a square, Dudeney wrote: I add an illustration showing the puzzle in a rather curious practical form, as it was made in polished mahogany with brass hinges for use by certain audiences. It will be seen that the four pieces form a sort of chain, and that when they are closed up in one direction they form a triangle, and when closed in the other direction they form a square. This hinged model, has captivated readers ever since. There is something irresistible about the idea of swinging hinged pieces one way to form one figure, and another way to form another figure. You do not really need a physical model to enjoy this property. Once you have examined this figure, you will be swinging mental images of the pieces around in your mind.
Mahabharat: Proof From The Bhagavat Puraan arabian mathematicians and astronomers had, as a well established fact of history,acquired most of their knowledge of algebra, arithmatic and astronomy from http://www.hindunet.org/hindu_history/ancient/mahabharat/mahab_sarasvat.html
Extractions: Mahabharat: An Astronomical Proof from the Bhagavat Puraan By Dr. Satya Prakash Saraswat Reproduced without permission. Fortunately, many works of the Vedic and Puranic tradition contain a sufficient number of clues in the form of astronomical observations which can be used to determine the approximate date of Mahabharata and thus establish the historical authenticity of the events described in this great epic. Notable among these works are the Parashar Sanghita, the Bhagvat Puran, Shakalya Sanghita, and the Mahabharat itself. Aryabhatta, one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers of India in the fifth century AD, examined the astronomical evidence described in the Mahabharata in his great work known as the "Aryabhattiya". According to the positions of the planets recorded in the Mahabharata, its approximate date was calculated by Aryabhatta to be 3100 BC implying that the great war described in the Mahabharata was fought approximately 5000 years ago, as most Hindus have always believed. Exhibit 1 Approximate Positions of the Saptarshis (August 1990) Between the current location of the Saptarishis and the position mentioned in the Bhagvat, i.e., the Magha nakshatra, twenty three lunar mansions intervene, from Anuradha to Ashlesha, if the direction of movement opposite to the commonly accepted interpretation of the predictions made in the Bhagvat is followed (Exhibit 2). This direction of movement is equally likely since no records are available to establish the exact direction the saptarshis have historically followed.
ClayGate 510 : Mathematics to Europe, named these stars Merak and Dubhe. arabian mathematicians and astronomers had, as a well established fact of http://library.bendigo.latrobe.edu.au/irs/WEBCAT/510.htm
NRICH Mathematics Enrichment Club (keynote.html) In the ninth century, arabian mathematicians invented some of the earliest codebreaking techniques, and in more recent http://www.nrich.maths.org.uk/conference/imect2/keynote_printable.shtml
Extractions: Mathematics Enrichment (in alphabetical order) John D. Barrow is Professor of Mathematical Sciences and Director of the Millennium Mathematics Project at Cambridge. His research interests are in cosmology, general relativity, and particle physics. He is the author of many books about science and mathematics and their wider historical and cultural implications, including 'Pi in the Sky', 'Theories of Everything','Between Inner Space and Outer Space', and later this year, 'The Book of Nothing'. He is a frequent lecturer to audiences of all sorts and has given lectures at 10 Downing Street, Windsor Castle, The Vatican Palace, and the Venice Film Festival. He also gave the 1999 RSA Christmas Lecture for Children on Mathematics. Professor Henry Beker is Chairman and Founder of Baltimore Technologies plc Henry's background includes degrees in mathematics and electronic engineering and a PhD in mathematics. He has worked in both Academia and Industry. He joined Racal as a mathematician in 1977 and by the time he left Racal in 1988 he had held a variety of posts including Director of the Racal Research Centre and finally Managing Director of the global Racal Guardata group of companies. Henry has been visiting Professor of IT at Royal Holloway, University of London since the mid 80s's and was President of the Institute of Mathematics for 1998-99.
Extractions: Week of Jan. 25, 2003; Vol. 163, No. 4 Ivars Peterson In recreational mathematics, a geometric dissection involves cutting a geometric figure into pieces that you can reassemble into another figure. For example, it's possible to slice a square into four angular pieces that can be rearranged into an equilateral triangle. The same four pieces can be assembled into a square or an equilateral triangle. Such puzzles have been around for thousands of years. The problem of dissecting two equal squares to form one larger square using four pieces dates back to at least the time of the Greek philosopher Plato (427 BC BC ). In the 10th century, Arabian mathematicians described several dissections in their commentaries on Euclid's Elements . The 18th-century Chinese scholar Tai Chen presented an elegant dissection for approximating the value of pithe ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Others worked out dissection proofs of the Pythagorean theorem. In the 19th century, dissection puzzles were an immensely popular staple of magazine and newspaper columns by puzzlists San Loyd in the United States and Henry E. Dudeney in England. Dissections can get quite elaborate: A seven-pointed star becomes two heptagons; a dodecagon turns into three identical squares; and so on. You can also add constraints. For example, the pieces can be attached to one another by hinges. In the square-triangle dissection, the hinged pieces form a sort of chain. When closed in one direction, the pieces settle snugly into a square; when closed in the other direction, they fold into a triangle. (For an animated version of this dissection, see
Carl Eberly's Time Machine . As we wait for the end, I am thinking about the ancient Hindu andarabian mathematicians who struggled with the number Zero. http://home.gate.net/~reberly2/sf/0-era6.htm
Extractions: ZERO = NOTHING This will be my last entry, as I am now at the end of our physical universe as we know it. The spacecraft is tired from this 118-billion year journey, tired of accelerating at 99.99+ percent the speed of light from one instant to the next. My android companion (Carl) and I are also tired. It is time to blink out. The ship and my android and I have learned so much along totally human; Carl chose to be almost totally synthetic. We weren't sure which form, if either, had the better chance of survival. I now know that "our universe" once an elaborate collection of trillions of galaxies has never been anything more than a tiny dot of particles and energy amid a vastly complex Master Universe that is endless from my perspective. The Master Universe is endowed with countless physical sub universes similar to our own, though their structures and properties have varied widely. Like all the other sub universes, the vortex of our sub universe accelerated for billions of years, but it's been slowing down during recent eons, the repelling forces of its entities ever weakening.
Carl Eberly's Time Machine and topic of nothing ( and perhaps expecting the world to end any moment), I wasthinking about the ancient Hindu and arabian mathematicians who struggled with http://home.gate.net/~reberly2/sf/bang-5.htm
Extractions: What got me started: In the magic year of 1969, I was stargazing at the telescope on what seemed the darkest night in years, and I was in awe of the vastness of the universe. My thoughts were drifting toward cosmological theory, and I was contemplating how the universe was born out of nothingness. Suddenly, then, I was struck by a profound question: What was nothing I sensed I was on to something big here. And the question kept buzzing my mind, mightily pressing me for the answer right then and there. Unfortunately, this occurred during an intense passion session with the beautiful heavens, and the astronomer guy does not seek diversion during such reverent moments. I brushed the thought aside, telling myself that the awesome true meaning of NOTHING could be found by shining a flashlight through my ears. But the question kept haunting me. Like it or not, something inside me deperately needed to know the answer. I wanted more than a simple dictionary-type definition; I wanted to know what the blazes nothing
NRICH Mathematics Enrichment Club (keynote.html) In the ninth century, arabian mathematicians invented some of the earliest codebreakingtechniques, and in more recent decades number theory has been at the http://www.nrich.maths.org.uk/conference/imect2/keynote.html
Extractions: (in alphabetical order) John D. Barrow is Professor of Mathematical Sciences and Director of the Millennium Mathematics Project at Cambridge. His research interests are in cosmology, general relativity, and particle physics. He is the author of many books about science and mathematics and their wider historical and cultural implications, including 'Pi in the Sky', 'Theories of Everything','Between Inner Space and Outer Space', and later this year, 'The Book of Nothing'. He is a frequent lecturer to audiences of all sorts and has given lectures at 10 Downing Street, Windsor Castle, The Vatican Palace, and the Venice Film Festival. He also gave the 1999 RSA Christmas Lecture for Children on Mathematics. Professor Henry Beker
Biographies, The Scientists: A List. His work, Elements , however, was found, the arabian mathematicians having carefullypreserved it for the rest of us, as western man struggled through his dark http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Science/Scients.htm
Extractions: Ampère, André Marie Ampère, a teacher at Paris, has his permanent place in the history of science because it was his name that was given to the unit by which we measure electrical current. He had, of course, an interest in electricity; in addition, Ampère made similar investigations as did Avogadro into the nature of matter in its gaseous state. Alfven, Hannes Olof Gosta What I know of Alfven is that he was born in Sweden in 1908; and, while at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in 1970, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics." I first bumped into Alfven when I picked up a small paperback book of his, which I very much enjoyed, Atom, Man, and the Universe, The Long Chain of Complications (San Francisco: Freeman, 1969). It was written simply and plainly for a general audience, and enables us "to view ourselves both as a part of the atomic microcosm and as part of the universe that dwarfs us." Archimedes (287-212 B.C.).
Decimal Arithmetic - FAQ 2 arabian mathematicians made many contributions (including the concept of the decimalfractions as an extension of the notation), and the written European form http://www2.hursley.ibm.com/decimal/decifaq2.html
Extractions: Decimal Arithmetic FAQ What are Normal numbers, Subnormal numbers, E max etc. These terms are derived or extrapolated from the IEEE 754 and 854 standards, and describe the various kinds of numbers that can be represented in a given computer encoding: The answers in Part 5 of the FAQ explain in more detail the meaning of some of the terms described here: Overflow threshold If a calculation results in a number whose magnitude is greater than or equal to the overflow threshold it is considered to have overflowed. Under IEEE 854 rules the result will then be either infinity or the largest representable number (depending on the rounding mode). Underflow threshold If a calculation results in a non-zero number whose magnitude would be less than the underflow threshold it is considered to have underflowed. The result will then sometimes be a subnormal number (see below), but it may be rounded down to zero or up to the threshold value. Normal numbers Any representable number which is greater than or equal to the underflow threshold and less than the overflow threshold is considered to be a normal number Largest normal number The magnitude of the largest normal number.
G F FitzGerald, Trinity College Dublin abstract scientific man I do know that telegraphy owes a great deal to Euclid andother pure geometers, to the Greek and arabian mathematicians who invented http://www.tcd.ie/Physics/History/GFFG-JMDC/science.html
Extractions: To gain some impression of the intellectual and social environment in which FitzGerald was working in the last quarter of the 19th century, and to gauge his achievement, we must understand that this was the time of the electromagnetic revolution when human life was being irrevocably transformed by the ability to deliver energy and transfer information at the flick of a switch. The tyranny of dawn and dusk, barely mitigated by 2 watt candles and gaslight was shattered by Edison's incandescent bulbs. Telegraph cables spanned continents and crossed the ocean floors conveying intercontinental chatter for a shilling a word at the speed of light . Electric tramways were introduced from the Giant's Causeway to the streets of Belfast and Dublin. Industry used electric furnaces, electric motors and electrolytic plating vats. X-rays, demonstrated at church fairs, were making their way into hospitals for medical diagnosis. In FitzGerald's memorable words, "We are harnessing the all-prevading ether to the chariot of human progress and using the thunderbolt of Jove to advance the material progress of mankind."
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Balthasar Boncompagni It is supposed to be a translation of the famous treatise on arithmeticof Alkhwarizmi, the most illustrious of the arabian mathematicians. http://www.knight.org/advent/cathen/02654a.htm
Tackler An Honest Comment/question - Www.ezboard.com arabian mathematicians are NOT Africans. Just as what Boutros Ghali ofEgypt was never openly celebrated as the first UN SecretaryGeneral. http://pub15.ezboard.com/f1lifefrm1.showMessage?topicID=468.topic
Math Lair - Arabic Math History Europe. 750 AD arabian mathematicians adopt what we now call theArabic number system. This system was imported from India. 820 http://www.stormloader.com/ajy/arab.html
Extractions: View a note on these timelines When the Arabs conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, they inherited much of the Greco-Roman mathematical heritage and did a good job of preserving it. While the Arab civilisation declined in the second millennium of the Christian Era due to waves of Turkish and Mongol invaders (and fundamentalist Moroccan invaders in Spain), their enthusiasm for mathematics survived long enough to be passed to Christian Spain and from there to Italy and the rest of Europe. 750 A.D. Arabian mathematicians adopt what we now call the Arabic number system . This system was imported from India. 820 A.D. Al Khowarizmi (his name is where the English word "algorithm" (see glossary ) comes from) makes significant advances in algebra. 875 A.D. Thabit ibn Qurra writes his Book on the Determination of Amicable Numbers 1000 A.D. Alhazen states that light travels from visible objects to the eyes, not vice versa. This discovery is a significant step towards the theory of perspective. 1100 A.D.
Pascal Triangle But historically this name is not correct because formula (2) was wellknown by the arabian mathematicians long before Newton. The http://www.goldenmuseum.com/0901Triangle_engl.html
Extractions: Pascal Triangle In our daily life we use widely the mathematics branch called combinatorial analysis . This one studies so-called finite sets . The set consisting of n elements is called n -element one. However we can chose k elements from n -element set. Each k -element part of the n -element set is called combination from given n elements by k . One of the problems of combinatorial analysis is to find a number of combinations of n elements by k . Usually this number is marked as Let us calculate Let us begin from . But what means the 0-element set? It means that the set has not elements. This set is called an "empty" set. It is clear that there exists only one combination of n elements by 0, that is Let us consider a set consisting of 3 elements: a pencil, a pen and a lasting. Let us calculate for this case. It is clear that Let us calculate . It is clear there exist only3 1-element parts for this case, that is For the case k = 2 also there exist only 3 2-element parts, that is At least for the case k = 3 there exists only 1 3-element part, that is But how match is a number of all possible parts of n -element set. For our example we have: