Medioevo In Rete - Personaggi Bhaskara (11141185). gherard of cremona (1114-1187). Ibn Yahya al-Maghribi Al-Samawal (1130-1180) http://indice.medioevo.ws/Personaggi/Matematici.htm
Linkkejä Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi. gherard of cremona. Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci http://cc.oulu.fi/~pulkkine/linkit.html
THABIT IBN QURRA some of his books were translated into Latin by gherard of cremona. In recent centuries, a number of his books have http://members.tripod.com/~wzzz/QURRA.html
Extractions: Get Five DVDs for $.49 each. Join now. Tell me when this page is updated THABIT IBN QURRA (836-901 A.D.) Thabit Ibn Qurra Ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani was born in the year 836 A.D. at Harran (present Turkey). As the name indicates he was basically a member of the Sabian sect, but the great Muslim mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Ibn Shakir, impressed by his knowledge of languages, and realising his potential for a scientific career, selected him to join the scientific group at Baghdad that was being patronised by the Abbasid Caliphs. There, he studied under the famous Banu Musa brothers. It was in this setting that Thabit contributed to several branches of science, notably mathematics, astronomy and mechanics, in addition to translating a large number of works from Greek to Arabic. Later, he was patronised by the Abbasid Caliph al-M'utadid. After a long career of scholarship, Thabit died at Baghdad in 901 A.D. Thabit's major contribution lies in mathematics and astronomy. He was instrumental in extending the concept of traditional geometry to geometrical algebra and proposed several theories that led to the development of non-Euclidean geometry, spherical trigonometry, integral calculus and real numbers. He criticised a number of theorems of Euclid's elements and proposed important improvements. He applied arithmetical terminology to geometrical quantities, and studied several aspects of conic sections, notably those of parabola and ellipse. A number of his computations aimed at determining the surfaces and volumes of different types of bodies and constitute, in fact, the processes of integral calculus, as developed later.
Ahmed Biography of Ahmed ibn Yusuf (835912) proportion and it was translated into Latin by gherard of cremona. The book is largely a commentary on, and expansion http://sfabel.tripod.com/mathematik/database/Ahmed.html
Extractions: Previous (Alphabetically) Next Welcome page Ahmed ibn Yusuf wrote on ratio and proportion and it was translated into Latin by Gherard of Cremona. The book is largely a commentary on, and expansion of, Book 5 of Euclid 's Elements Ahmed ibn Yusuf also gave methods to solve tax problems which appear in Fibonacci 's Liber Abaci . He was also quoted by Bradwardine Jordanus and Pacioli References (2 books/articles) Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index
Gherard gherard of cremona. Born 1114 in Cremona, Italy Died 1187 in Toledo, Spain. Gherardof Cremona's name is often written as Gerard or sometimes Gerhard. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Gherard.html
Extractions: Gherard of Cremona 's name is often written as Gerard or sometimes Gerhard. After being educated in Italy, he realised that European education was narrow and that he decided that he would try to make the riches of Arabic science available to European scholars through Latin translations of the major works in Arabic. For this reason Gherard went to Toledo in Spain where his intention was to learn Arabic so he could read Ptolemy 's Almagest since no Latin translations existed at that time. Although we do not have detailed information of the date when Gherard went to Spain, he was certainly there by 1144. He remained there for most of the rest of his life and although he does not appear to have gathered a school around him, he certainly appears to have had quite a lot of assistance. He may have employed helpers who assisted him in the copying and checking of manuscripts and other chores associated with the great translation industry that he started. In all over a period of forty years, Gherard translated around eighty works from Arabic to Latin. The complete list of works which he translated is given in [1]. Some of these translations were of Arabic works while others were of Greek works which had been translated into Arabic. Often however, the works were a mixture in the sense that they were Arabic commentaries on Greek works.
Gherard Biography of Gherard (11141187) gherard of cremona. Born 1114 in Cremona, Italy. Died 1187 in Toledo, Spain http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Gherard.html
Extractions: Gherard of Cremona 's name is often written as Gerard or sometimes Gerhard. After being educated in Italy, he realised that European education was narrow and that he decided that he would try to make the riches of Arabic science available to European scholars through Latin translations of the major works in Arabic. For this reason Gherard went to Toledo in Spain where his intention was to learn Arabic so he could read Ptolemy 's Almagest since no Latin translations existed at that time. Although we do not have detailed information of the date when Gherard went to Spain, he was certainly there by 1144. He remained there for most of the rest of his life and although he does not appear to have gathered a school around him, he certainly appears to have had quite a lot of assistance. He may have employed helpers who assisted him in the copying and checking of manuscripts and other chores associated with the great translation industry that he started. In all over a period of forty years, Gherard translated around eighty works from Arabic to Latin. The complete list of works which he translated is given in [1]. Some of these translations were of Arabic works while others were of Greek works which had been translated into Arabic. Often however, the works were a mixture in the sense that they were Arabic commentaries on Greek works.
Chronology For 1100 To 1300 from Arabic. 1144 gherard of cremona begins translating Arabic works(and Arabic translations of Greek works) into Latin. 1149 Al http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Chronology/1100_1300.html
References For Gherard Gerson, Levi ben (268). gherard of cremona (668). Ghetaldi, Marino (235) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/References/Gherard.html
Untitled II, p. 233. gherard of cremona Born 1114 in Cremona, Italy Died 1187in Toledo, Spain. Gherard's name is sometimes written as Gerard. http://www.math.tamu.edu/~don.allen/history/mideval/mideval.html
Extractions: century The Europeans learned Arabic in the 12 century. All mathematics and astronomy was written in Arabic. By the end of the 12 century the best mathematics was done in Christian Italy. During this century there was a spate of translations of Arabic works to Latin. Later Example. Elements in Arabic Latin in 1142 by Adelard of Bath (ca. 1075-1160). He also translated Al-Khwarizmi's astronomical tables (Arabic Latin) in 1126 and in 1155 translated Ptolemy's Almgest (Greek Latin) (The world background at this time was the crusades.) Gherard of Cremona Died: 1187 in Toledo, Spain Gherard's name is sometimes written as Gerard. He went to Toledo, Spain to learn Arabic so he could read Ptolemy's Almagest since no Latin translations existed at that time. He remained there for the rest of his life. Gherard made translations of Ptolemy (1175) and of Euclid from Arabic. Some of these translations from Arabic became more popular than the (often earlier) translations from Greek. In making translations of other Arabic work he translated the Arabic word for sine into the Latin sinus, from where our
Biography-center - Letter G Getty, Francis E. whitemountainart.com/Biographies/bio_feg.htm; gherard of cremona,wwwhistory.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Gherard.html; http://www.biography-center.com/g.html
Extractions: random biography ! Any language Arabic Bulgarian Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Turkish 523 biographies
- Great Books - contribution. He was known as Alkindus in Latin and a large number ofhis books were translated into Latin by gherard of cremona. His http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_716.asp
Extractions: Sometimes called pre-eminently "The Philosopher of the Arabs " flourished in the 9th century, the exact dates of his birth and death being unknown. He was born in Kufa, where his father was governor under the Caliphs Mahdi and Harun al-RashId. His latter studies were made in Bagdad, where he remained, occupying according to some a government position. In the orthodox reaction under Motawakkil, when all philosophy was suspect, his library was confiscated, but he himself seems to have escaped. His writings - like those of other Arabian philosophers - are encyclopaedic and are concerned with most of the sciences; they are said to have numbered over two hundred, but fewer than twenty are extant. Some of these were known in the middle ages, for Kindi is placed by Roger Bacon in the first rank after Ptolemy as a writer on optics. His work De Somniorum Visione was translated by Gerard of Cremona and another was published as De medicinarum compositarum gradibus investigandis Libellus (Strassburg, 1531). He was one of the earliest translators and commentators of
Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math According to some sources, sinus first appears in Latin in a translationof the Algebra of alKhowarizmi by gherard of cremona (1114-1187). http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/54053.html
Extractions: Associated Topics Dr. Math Home Search Dr. Math Date: 12/14/97 at 03:42:57 From: Frank Becker Subject: How the Trig Functions got their names I can guess why three of the trig functions are called cosine, cotangent, and cosecant. But why were the other three named the sine, the tangent, and the secant? Does the choice of the words tangent and secant have anything to do with the ordinary geometric meaning of these words? Date: 12/14/97 at 05:59:08 From: Doctor Luis Subject: Re: How the Trig Functions got their names Have you tried a dictionary? (you'd be surprised to know the number of things you can find out by using one). Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary suggests the following etymologies: sine : Medieval Latin "sinus" from the Latin word for "curve" tangent: Latin "tangent-, tangens" from present participle of "tangere" (to touch) secant : New Latin "secant-, secans" from Latin present participle of "secare" (to cut) Webster's II International has, for sine: Latin sinus, a bend, gulf, bosom of a garment, used as translation of Arabic jayb, bosom of a garment, sine (in the latter sense from Sanskrit Jiva, bowstring, chord of an arc, sine). For more etymological information, see Jeff Miller's "Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: (S) http://members.aol.com/jeff570/s.html
- Great Books - some of his books were translated into Latin by gherard of cremona. In recent centuries, a number of his books have http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_968.asp
Extractions: Thabit Ibn Qurra Ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani was born in the year 836 A.D. at Harran (present Turkey). As the name indicates he was basically a member of the Sabian sect, but the great Muslim mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Ibn Shakir, impressed by his knowledge of languages, and realising his potential for a scientific career, selected him to join the scientific group at Baghdad that was being patronised by the Abbasid Caliphs. There, he studied under the famous Banu Musa brothers. It was in this setting that Thabit contributed to several branches of science, notably mathematics, astronomy and mechanics, in addition to translating a large number of works from Greek to Arabic. Later, he was patronised by the Abbasid Caliph al-M'utadid. After a long career of scholarship, Thabit died at Baghdad in 901 A.D. Thabit's major contribution lies in mathematics and astronomy. He was instrumental in extending the concept of traditional geometry to geometrical algebra and proposed several theories that led to the development of non-Euclidean geometry, spherical trigonometry, integral calculus and real numbers. He criticised a number of theorems of Euclid's elements and proposed important improvements. He applied arithmetical terminology to geometrical quantities, and studied several aspects of conic sections, notably those of parabola and ellipse. A number of his computations aimed at determining the surfaces and volumes of different types of bodies and constitute, in fact, the processes of integral calculus, as developed later.
Enigma Galgano - Medioevo In Rete - Personaggi - Matematici Del XII Secolo Translate this page 6) Bhaskara (1114-1185). 7) gherard of cremona (1114-1187). 8) Ibn Yahya al-MaghribiAl-Samawal (1130-1180). 9) Sharaf al-Din al-Muzaffar al-Tusi (1135-1213). http://web.infinito.it/utenti/e/enigmagalgano/Medioevo_in_Rete/personaggi/matema
Mathem_abbrev Friedrich Gelfand, Israil Geminus Gemma Frisius, Regnier Genocchi, Angelo, Gerardof Cremona Gerhard of Cremona Germain, Sophie gherard of cremona Gibbs, Josiah http://www.pbcc.cc.fl.us/faculty/domnitcj/mgf1107/mathrep1.htm
Extractions: Mathematician Report Index Below is a list of mathematicians. You may choose from this list or report on a mathematician not listed here. In either case, you must discuss with me the mathematician you have chosen prior to starting your report. No two students may write a report on the same mathematician. I would advise you to go to the library before choosing your topic as there might not be much information on the mathematician you have chosen. Also, you should determine the topic early in the term so that you can "lock-in" your report topic!! The report must include: 1. The name of the mathematician. 2. The years the mathematician was alive. 3. A biography. 4. The mathematician's major contribution(s) to mathematics and an explanation of the importance. 5. A historical perspective during the time the mathematician was alive.
ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI AlTasrif was first translated by gherard of cremona into Latin in theMiddle Ages. It was followed by several other editors in Europe. http://www.ummah.org.uk/history/scholars/ZAHRAWI.html
Euclid's Other Works It is probable that gherard of cremona (11141187) translated this edition intoLatin, and the work became well known because of this to the scholars of the http://www.math.sfu.ca/histmath/Europe/Euclid300BC/OTHERWORKS.HTML
Extractions: Phaenomena / Data / Optica / Catoptrica / Sectio Canonis / On Divisions / Pseudaria / Surface-Loci Title Page to L. Berggren's and R. Thomas's translation of Euclid's Phaenomena PHAENOMENA This is Euclidís astronomical work and is still available today. The Phaenomena is a book containing 18 propositions dealing with spherical geometry. It was perhaps written shortly after Autolycusís Moving Sphere , on the same subject, and another work entitled Spaerica , possibly compiled by Eudoxus . The Phaenomena deals with geometrical proofs of propositions which are established by observation, primarily dealing with the rising and setting of stars together or one after another, in a given order. It also contains ten propositions related to the problem of determining the length of daylight on a given day at a given locality. DATA The focus of the Data is concerned with the first six books of the Elements ; it is often considered a supplement. This is a collection of geometrical theorems and ninety-six exercises (many editions contain a different number of exercises, usually in agreement around 94) intended to allow the reader to gain a better knowledge of solving problems. The Data is considered appropriate to one of the goals of Greek mathematics, namely, the solution of new problems. This manual contains propositions concerning certain given or determined magnitudes, and from this other magnitudes can also be determined.
OPE-MAT - Historique Translate this page Fabri, Honoré Francoeur, Louis Germain, Sophie Fagnano, Giulio Frank, Philippgherard of cremona Fagnano, Giovanni Franklin, Philip Ghetaldi, Marino Fano http://www.gci.ulaval.ca/PIIP/math-app/Historique/mat.htm
Extractions: Abel , Niels Akhiezer , Naum Anthemius of Tralles Abraham bar Hiyya al'Battani , Abu Allah Antiphon the Sophist Abraham, Max al'Biruni , Abu Arrayhan Apollonius of Perga Abu Kamil Shuja al'Haitam , Abu Ali Appell , Paul Abu'l-Wafa al'Buzjani al'Kashi , Ghiyath Arago , Francois Ackermann , Wilhelm al'Khwarizmi , Abu Arbogast , Louis Adams , John Couch Albert of Saxony Arbuthnot , John Adelard of Bath Albert , Abraham Archimedes of Syracuse Adler , August Alberti , Leone Battista Archytas of Tarentum Adrain , Robert Albertus Magnus, Saint Argand , Jean Aepinus , Franz Alcuin of York Aristaeus the Elder Agnesi , Maria Alekandrov , Pavel Aristarchus of Samos Ahmed ibn Yusuf Alexander , James Aristotle Ahmes Arnauld , Antoine Aida Yasuaki Amsler , Jacob Aronhold , Siegfried Aiken , Howard Anaxagoras of Clazomenae Artin , Emil Airy , George Anderson , Oskar Aryabhata the Elder Aitken , Alexander Angeli , Stefano degli Atwood , George Ajima , Chokuyen Anstice , Robert Richard Avicenna , Abu Ali Babbage , Charles Betti , Enrico Bossut , Charles Bachet Beurling , Arne Bouguer , Pierre Bachmann , Paul Boulliau , Ismael Bacon , Roger Bhaskara Bouquet , Jean Backus , John Bianchi , Luigi Bour , Edmond Baer , Reinhold Bieberbach , Ludwig Bourgainville , Louis Baire Billy , Jacques de Boutroux , Pierre Baker , Henry Binet , Jacques Bowditch , Nathaniel Ball , W W Rouse Biot , Jean-Baptiste Bowen , Rufus Balmer , Johann Birkhoff , George Boyle , Robert Banach , Stefan Bjerknes, Carl
Virtual Encyclopedia Of Mathematics karl friedrich gelfond aleksandr osipovich gellibrand henry geminus gentzen gerhardgergonne joseph diaz germain sophie gherard of cremona ghetaldi marino http://www.lacim.uqam.ca/~plouffe/Simon/supermath.html