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1. Space FAQ 04/13 - Calculations
cs.unc.edu Keywords Frequently Asked Questions Archivename space/math Last-modified Massof Sun 3.986e14 m^3/s^2 (4e14) Gravitational constant times mass
http://isc.faqs.org/faqs/space/math/

Extractions: From: leech@cs.unc.edu (Jon Leech) Newsgroups: sci.space.tech sci.space.science sci.astro sci.answers ... comp.graphics FAQ) to convert them to your preferred format. For more information on the format and other software to read and write it, see the sci.astro.fits FAQ. NEARBY STAR/GALAXY COORDINATES To generate 3D coordinates of astronomical objects, first obtain an astronomical database which specifies right ascension, declination, and parallax for the objects. Convert parallax into distance using the formula in part 6 of the FAQ, convert RA and declination to coordinates on a unit sphere (see some of the references on planetary positions and spherical trignometry earlier in this section for details on this), and scale this by the distance. Two databases useful for this purpose are the Yale Bright Star catalog (sources listed in FAQ section 3) or "The Catalogue of Stars within 25 parsecs of the Sun", in ftp://ftp.cs.unc.edu/pub/users/leech/FAQ/ (files stars.data and stars.doc) A potentially useful book along these lines is: "Proximity Zero, A Writer's Guide to the Nearest 200 Stars (A 40-Lightyear Radius)" Terry Kepner ISBN # 0-926895-02-8 Available from the author for \$14.95 + \$2.90 shipping (\$5 outside US): Terry Kepner PO Box 481 Petersborough, NH 03458 NEXT: FAQ #5/13 - References on specific areas By Archive-name By Author By Category By Newsgroup ... Help

2. Shack's Logic And Math Problems
Both pigeons fly at constant speeds, although different from each other. Thegrass grows at a constant rate and each cow eats at a constant rate.
http://www.thewizardofodds.com/math/group9.html

Extractions: A large tank has a steadily flowing intake and 10 outlet valves, the latter being all of the same size. With 10 outlets open, it takes two and one half hours to empty the tank; with 6 outlets open it takes five and one half hours to empty the tank. After the tank is empty and with all 10 outlets closed, how long will it take to fill the tank? (answer) (solution) A courier pigeon departs Las Vegas for Reno at the same time as another courier pigeon departs Reno for Las Vegas. Both pigeons fly at constant speeds, although different from each other. They cross paths 2x miles from Las Vegas. After each arrives at their destination they immediately turn around, going back and forth without breaks. They cross paths the second time x miles from Reno. Where will they cross paths the third time?

3. Most Frequently Linked Pages In The MathSearch Index
mathSoft constants, www.mathsoft.com/asolve/constant/constant.html.Princeton University mathematics Department, www.math.princeton.edu/.

Extractions: As the the MathSearch index is compiled, the robot which generates it keeps count of off-domain cross-links, that is, how many times a given indexed page is referred to by a link in an indexed page on a server in a different domain. The pages with the most links leading to them are those most frequently recommended by the authors of all the pages in the index, excluding recommendations by authors and local colleagues for their own pages. These most linked pages form a list of English-language reference pages on mathematics and statistics, which have been popularly selected by mathematicians and statisticians who author Web pages. Below is a list of the 60 most frequently linked pages in the index, each with its HTML title and its URL. Title URL AMS Website www.ams.org/ MathSciNet Home Page www.ams.org/mathscinet/ Mathematical Association of America: MAA Online www.maa.org/ Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics www.siam.org/ MSRI Home Page www.msri.org/

4. Mu Alpha Theta Math Log Math Paths - Spring 2002
Would there be a Kaprekar constant for threefigure numbers? for five-figurenumbers? math Paths are suggested math topics for further exploration.
http://www.mualphatheta.org/Mathematical_Log/Issues/0402/MAO_Mathematical_Log_Ma

Extractions: by Don Allen, National Aboriginal Career Symposium, Ottawa, Canada The numbers that we deal with in this simple investigation are the ten digits, to 9. Choose one such number. Choose a second, which need not be different. Obtain a new number by adding the first two numbers, and recording only the ones digit of the sum. Thus, for 8, 9, we have 8, 9, 7, ..., the start of an unending sequence. Obtain a "next" number by similarly combining the final two. The sequence becomes 8, 9, 7, 6, 3, 9, 2, 1...Continue. Predict what may happen, and investigate to see if you are right. Try, at leisure, a triple of starting digits instead of a pair. How, otherwise, might the procedure be modified to produce different, but interesting, results.

5. ThinkQuest Library Of Entries
with the advent of powerful calculators, are used extensively in advanced math courses wherethere are pairs of numbers in which the ratio is constant, we have
http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/alg2/frace.html

Extractions: The web site you have requested, Math for Morons like Us , is one of over 4000 student created entries in our Library. Before using our Library, please be sure that you have read and agreed to our To learn more about ThinkQuest. You can browse other ThinkQuest Library Entries To proceed to Math for Morons like Us click here Back to the Previous Page The Site you have Requested ... click here to view this site Click image for the Site Languages : Site Desciption Have you ever been stuck on math? If it was a question on algebra, geometry, or calculus, you might want to check out this site. It's all here from pre-algebra to calculus. You'll find tutorials, sample problems, and quizzes. There's even a question submittal section, if you're still stuck. A formula database gives quick access and explanations to all those tricky formulas. Languages: English.

6. Links Of The Week Archive
http//pauillac.inria.fr/algo/bsolve/constant/constant.html Interactive mathematicsMiscellany and Puzzles Can math be fun? Can math be useful?

Extractions: This math site has interactive Java-based lessons in mathematics. The courses include theoretical concepts, hands-on examples with animated graphics and formulas, problem-solving lessons, and customizable real time tests. Topics covered are Algebra II, College Algebra, Trigonometry, and Pre-Calculus. All you need to run the software is an up-to-date web browser supporting Java/JavaScript and a mouse. The programs runs on Windows, Linux, Mac, and possibly other platforms. The classes are designed for individual learning, home schooling, and to enhance high school and college courses. The courses work equally well offline from the hard drive or CDs, on the local network, and on the Internet. The designers of these courses also design customized instructional software packages, online tutorials, distance learning courses, and web-based training and testing applications. http://www.mathaid.com

7. Derivative Formulas
5. constant Times a Function Rule Give math Flashcard Drills On Computer \$14.95Save all the time you'd spend with flashcards or worksheets, but provide the

8. Ideal Gases Under Constant Volume, Constant Pressure, Constant Temperature, & Ad
Ideal Gases under constant Volume, constant Pressure, constant Temperature, Adiabatic Conditions. Note dV. constant Volume Process.
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/Numbers/Math/Mathematical_Thinking/ideal_gases_

Extractions: Proficiency Tests Mathematical Thinking in Physics Aeronauts 2000 CONTENTS Introduction Fermi's Piano Tuner Problem How Old is Old? If the Terrestrial Poles were to Melt... ... A Note on the Centrifugal and Coriolis Accelerations as Pseudo Accelerations - PDF File On Expansion of the Universe - PDF File Note to the student: The following section is a reduction of college notes I made in introductory thermodynamics. It does not read as easily as the preceding sections. I include it here because, for me, it represented a significant unification of the ideas presented in the text and during lecture. The first year college student will certainly find it useful. The equation of state for an ideal gas is pV = RT where p is gas pressure, V is volume, is the number of moles, R is the universal gas constant (= 8.3144 j/( o K mole)), and T is the absolute temperature. The first law of thermodynamics, the conservation of energy, may be written in differential form as dq = du + p dV where dq is a thermal energy input to the gas, du is a change in the internal energy of the gas, and p dV is the work done by the gas in expanding through the change in volume dV.

9. Math::BigInt - Arbitrary Size Integer Math Package
Autocreating constants. After use MathBigInt 'constant' all the integerdecimal constants in the given scope are converted to MathBigInt .
http://www.perl.com/doc/manual/html/lib/Math/BigInt.html

Extractions: Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package All basic math operations are overloaded if you declare your big integers as \$i = new Math::BigInt '123 456 789 123 456 789'; Actual math is done in an internal format consisting of an array whose first element is the sign (/^[+-]\$/) and whose remaining elements are base 100000 digits with the least significant digit first. The string 'NaN' is used to represent the result when input arguments are not numbers, as well as the result of dividing by zero. '+0' canonical zero value ' -123 123 123' canonical value '-123123123' '1 23 456 7890' canonical value '+1234567890' After use Math::BigInt ':constant' all the integer decimal constants in the given scope are converted to Math::BigInt . This conversion happens at compile time. In particular perl -MMath::BigInt=:constant -e 'print 2**100' print the integer value of . Note that without convertion of constants the expression 2**100 will be calculatted as floating point number. The current version of this module is a preliminary version of the real thing that is currently (as of perl5.002) under development.

10. Math Skills - Algebraic Manipulation
math Skills Review Algebraic Manipulation. As long as you do the same mathematicaloperation (eg add a constant, subtract a constant, multiply by a constant
http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/fyp/mathrev/mr-algeb.html

Extractions: Algebraic Manipulation The key to solving simple algebraic equations containing a single unknown (e.g. x + 6 = 10) is to realize that the equation is an equality. As long as you do the same mathematical operation (e.g. add a constant, subtract a constant, multiply by a constant, and divide by a constant) to both sides of the equation, the equality is still an equality. This includes squaring both sides of the equation or taking the square root of both sides of the equation. Fundamental Laws: Example 1 To solve for x, it is necessary to subtract 6 from both sides of the equation Example 2 To solve for x, you need to add 6 to both sides of the equation and then divide both sides by 2. Example 3 To isolate x, you need to (1) multiply through by 6, (2) subtract 2 from both sides, and (3) divide both sides by 5. Example 4 To solve for x this time, you need to (1) multiply both sides of the equation by 4 and 3 to cancel out the denominator in line 2,

11. TCAEP.co.uk: Welcome To TCAEP.co.uk
Expanding reference resource for science, math and astronomy
http://www.tcaep.co.uk/

12. ASPN : Exslt : Uche Ogbuji - Re: [exslt] Math:constant() And Math:random()
http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Mail/Message/exslt/1188798

Extractions: May 3 2002 4:11AM messages near this date [exslt] Randomizing a node-list long (Was: ... > > Sounds good, but how about adding an optional "seed" argument? That Seeded RNGs are very widely used in simulation, and in testing scenarios, among other cases. +1 for optional seed argument, where that seed is used independently of any other factors. Agreed. There are all sorts of distributions we can implement once we have a basic RNG. Uche Ogbuji Fourthought, Inc. uche.ogbuji@NO-SPAM.fourthought.com http://fourthought.com http://4Suite.org http://uche.ogbuji.net Track chair, XML/Web Services One (San Jose, Boston): http://www.xmlconference.com/

13. Xalan-Java 2: Class ExsltMath
static double, constant(java.lang.String name, double precision) The mathconstantfunction returns the specified constant to a set precision.
http://xml.apache.org/xalan-j/apidocs/org/apache/xalan/lib/ExsltMath.html

Extractions: Class ExsltMath org.apache.xalan.lib.ExsltBase org.apache.xalan.lib.ExsltMath This class contains EXSLT math extension functions. It is accessed by specifying a namespace URI as follows: xmlns:math="http://exslt.org/math" The documentation for each function has been copied from the relevant EXSLT Implementer page. Constructor Summary ExsltMath

14. Star Construction Of Shapes Of Constant Width
Star Construction of Shapes of constant Width. The Reuleaux triangle isthe simplest (after the circle) example of shapes of constant width.
http://www.cut-the-knot.com/Curriculum/Geometry/CWStar.shtml

Extractions: Recommend this site The Reuleaux triangle is the simplest (after the circle) example of shapes of constant width. The applet below shows how to construct other, less regular, shapes of constant with by starting with star polygons. Start with an equilateral, but not necessary equiangular star. Proceed as in the case of the Reuleaux triangle. Specifically, use vertices of the star as centers to draw circular arcs of the radius equal to the side of the star. The arcs should connect pairs of adjacent vertices. If we think of the arcs as bridging between the sides (or their extensions), we could draw arcs of a radius augmented by some positive quantity a. This creates gaps at the vertices of the star that could be filled with arcs of radius a. Vertices of the star are draggable. The foregoing constructions will produce shapes of constant with as long as all sides cross each other and the number of vertices is odd Alexander Bogomolny The number of vertices in the star construction of shape of constant width is always odd. Indeed, mark a vertex and the opposite arc. Count the number of vertices and arcs between the marked vertex and the marked arc. To the left of the marked vertex there will be, say, LV vertices and LA arcs. To the right of it there will be RV vertices and RA arcs. Since every arc follows a vertex and vice versa

15. Experimental Mathematics: Volume 8 (1999)
Postscript) New Representations for the Madelung constant Richard E.Crandall Abstract in Postscript or DVI Full text (Postscript)
http://www.expmath.org/expmath/volumes/8/8.html

16. Math Trek : Catching Flies, Science News Online, Oct. 12, 2002
air. In another experiment, the target fly was pulled at a constantspeed along a horizontal glass plate suspended above the fish.
http://www.sciencenews.org/20021012/mathtrek.asp

Extractions: Week of Oct. 12, 2002; Vol. 162, No. 15 Ivars Peterson Archerfish and baseball outfielders appear to use different strategies to snag a projectile. Archerfish ( Toxotes jaculatrix ) are famous for their unusual way of hunting insect prey. Upon spying an insect on a twig or a piece of foliage hanging above the water surface, the fish shoots it down using a strong, accurately aimed jet of water. Once dislodged by a shot, the insect tumbles down, following a roughly parabolic path. Archerfish typically swim around in shooting parties. Often, more than one fish spits at the same target. And, when a bedraggled insect hits the water surface, it's first come, first served. So, it's to a shooter's advantage to be able to predict a waterlogged insect's landing place and get to it as rapidly as possible. Experiments now suggest that an archerfish needs just a quick glance to judge where the dislodged prey will later hit the water and promptly moves in that direction well before the insect splashes down. "In contrast to other known examples of three-dimensional target interception in man and animals, archerfish can head straight to the predicted point of catch without the need for any further visual feedback," biologist Stefan Schuster and his collaborators at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität-Freiburg in Germany report in the November Journal of Experimental Biology

17. Graphics For Complex Analysis -- Douglas N. Arnold
The most common method of visualizing a complex map is to show the image under themap of a set of curves, eg, a set of line segments of constant real and/or
http://www.ima.umn.edu/~arnold/complex.html

Extractions: (animated GIF version) GRAPHICS FOR COMPLEX ANALYSIS Douglas N. Arnold This is a collection of graphical demonstrations of concepts in complex analysis which I developed for a course I gave on that subject during the spring semester of 1997. (For graphical demonstrations of calculus concepts see my page on Graphics for the calculus classroom .) Please send any feedback concerning this page to me by email The most common method of visualizing a complex map is to show the image under the map of a set of curves, e.g., a set of line segments of constant real and/or imaginary part (a Cartesian grid), or a set of concentric circles and spokes (a polar grid). A weakness of this approach is that it can be difficult or impossible to infer which points of the original curves are mapped to which points of the final images. The graphics on this page use two techniques to overcome this problem. First, most are animated so that the original curves are continuously deformed into the image curves, and the eye can follow which points move where. Second, I use colors to distinguish different points and curves. Viewing instructions.

18. [exslt] Math:constant() And Math:random()
exslt mathconstant() and mathrandom(). Previous message exslt mathconstant()and mathrandom(); Next message exslt mathconstant() and mathrandom();
http://lists.fourthought.com/pipermail/exslt/2002-April/000454.html

Extractions: Sun, 28 Apr 2002 11:46:50 +0100 OK, so the signature would be: node-set math:random(number length?, number seed?, number min?, number max?) random numbers (default 1), as seeded from seed (default 1(?) any comments on whether the same seed should always give you the same random sequence?), between a minimum (default 0) and maximum (default 0). Or perhaps the min/max arguments should be before the seed? Which is most likely to be defaulted? In case one always wants to get a complete sequence, without trying to continue it afterwards, \$seed is never going to be remembered and passed to a continuation call. In this case \$seed will always be defaulted. as the next seed, will be probably rare. I suspect that the most common use will be sorting a node set into random order. I think that the simplest way of doing this with <xsl:for-each select="\$node-set">

19. Kennedy Space Center - Page Unavailable
Find a collection of standard constants and equations used in space science and astrophysics. Provides assistance for calculation interpretation.
http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/facts/faq04.html

20. Mathsoft Constants - Mathcad Library
Constants associated with Functional Iteration. Gauss' lemniscateconstant. Constants associated with Geometry. 