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61. History Today - Andromeda History Encyclopedia
name given by the Greeks to the indigenous peoples of east Leone West African republic,settled by mende and Temne and home of the Shona and Ndebele peoples.

62. Sierra Leone
Religions Islam 40%, Christian 35%, indigenous 20%. to have been the earliest inhabitantsof Sierra Leone, followed by the mende and Temne peoples in the

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Sierra Leone
Infoplease Atlas: Sierra Leone Republic of Sierra Leone President: Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (1998) Area: 27,699 sq mi (71,740 sq km) Population (2003 est.): 5,732,681, (growth rate: 2.3%); birth rate: 43.9/1000; infant mortality rate: 146.9/1000; density per sq mi: 207 Capital and largest city (1994 est.): Freetown, 1,300,000 Monetary unit: Leone Languages: English (official), Mende, Temne, Krio Ethnicity/race: 18 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 39%), Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1% Religions: Islam 40%, Christian 35%, Indigenous 20% Literacy rate: Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2001 est.): $2.7 billion; per capita $500.

the history of the Black preColumbian indigenous African-Americans A number of otherBlack Negroid peoples mentioned in or Xi, who were of mende, West African
Buddha with Black Negroid racial features from SE Asia
Black Negro-Australoid male from India: Carvings portraying ancient Blacks from India.
Artwork from Black Shang Dynasty China 2200 B.C. to 1100 B.C. showing persons with Negroid features
Obelisk in area that was part of Axumite Empire of Ethiopia
Ancient churches carved in solid rock in Lailebella, Ethiopia
Carved head of Ethiopian noble from Aksum, Ethiopia
Black Negroid Indians (Black Negroid Aboriginals of North America) living among the Mongoloid Indians during the 1730's. Illinois during the
The presence of Blacks throughout the Americas before Columbus, before the Christian era and even before some Mongoloid American Tribes is a fact that has been kept hidden. See the essay "Black Civiliza of Ancient America," or get the book, "A History of the African-Olmecs," for more detailed facts, pub. by 1stBooks Library,
Map of Territory of Black African-Americans (Descendants of Prehistoric African Mound Builders...The "Black Giants" of the Mississippi, South West, South and Midwest)
One of the most hidden aspects of American history is the history of the Black pre-Columbian indigenous African-Americans of the U.S., Canada, Mexico/Central America and the Caribbean. This map shows the territory of three of the Great Black African-American natons that existed into the late 1800's, including one, the Washitaw of Louisiana who still continue to exist and is recognized as an independant Black African-Ameriçan nation by the United Nations and many others (see

64. Sculture Info
In preparing their rice farms, the mende often uncover The ndako gboya appears tobe indigenous; a spirit of sculptural tradition among peoples inhabiting the
Home african art statues african art masks African Art objects ... Outside Africa Art antiques [ sculpture info ] african-art-buying-tips.htm bookmarks Stolen-art News African Art Auctions Fairs Exhibitions ... About You
Sculptures and associated arts
This page was made with the help from Britannica , follow the link for more related articles but they aren't free as in the past anymore.
Although wood is the best-known medium of African sculpture, many others are employed: copper alloys, iron, ivory, pottery, unfired clay, and, infrequently, stone. Unfired clay is and probably always was the most widely used medium in the whole continent, but, partly because it is so fragile and therefore difficult to collect, it has been largely ignored in the literature.
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Small Daima clay figures. Neolitic period.

65. The Probert Encyclopaedia - People And Peoples (M-P)
People and peoples (MP). Despite Madagascar's proximity to africa, Malagasy containsonly a small number mende The mende are a west african people living in the
The Probert Encyclopaedia
Online Edition
People and Peoples (M-P)
M.G. Ramachandran
M.G. Ramachandran is an actor
M.J. Montfajon
M.J. Montfajon is an actor
M.K. Harris
M.K. Harris is an actor
Mabel Albertson
Mabel Albertson was an actress. She was born in 1901 and died in 1982.
Mabel Colcord
Mabel Colcord is an actress.
Mabel King Mabel King is an actress. Mabel Normand Mabel Normand was an actress. She was born in 1894 and died in 1930. Mabel Paige Mabel Paige was an actress. She was born in 1879 and died in 1954. Mac Davis Mac Davis is an actor Macaulay Culkin Macaulay Culkin is an actor . He was born in 1980. Macbeth Macbeth was King of Scotland from 1040 to 1057. MacDonald Carey MacDonald Carey is an actor . He was born in 1913. Machiko Kyo Machiko Kyo is an actress. She was born in 1924. Mack Swain Mack Swain was an actor . He was born in 1876 and died in 1935. MacKenzie Phillips MacKenzie Phillips is an actor . He was born in 1960. MacLean Stevenson MacLean Stevenson is an actor Macusis The Macusis are a South American indian tribe still found in Guyana Madame SulTeWan Madame SulTeWan is an actress.

66. 1Up Info > Nigeria > The Northern Area | Nigerian Information Resource
traders in all major cities of West africa, linked socially language groupings indicatedhistorical relations to mendespeaking peoples farther west.
You are here 1Up Info Nigeria
People ... News Search 1Up Info
The Northern Area
The best known of the northern peoples, often spoken of as coterminous with the north, are the Hausa. The term refers also to a language spoken indigenously by savanna peoples spread across the far north from Nigeria's western boundary eastward to Borno State and into much of the territory of southern Niger. The core area lies in the region in the north and northwest where about 30 percent of all Hausa could be found. It also includes a common set of cultural practices and, with some notable exceptions, Islamic emirates that originally comprised a series of centralized governments and their surrounding subject towns and villages. These precolonial emirates were still major features of local government in 1990. Each had a central citadel town that housed its ruling group of nobles and royalty served as the administrative, judicial, and military organization of these states. Traditionally, the major towns were also trading centers; some such as Kano, Zaria, or Katsina were urban conglomerations with populations of 25,000 to 100,000 in the nineteenth century. They had central markets, special wards for foreign traders, complex organizations of craft specialists, and religious leaders and organizations. They administered a hinterland of subject settlements through a hierarchy of officials, and they interacted with other states and ethnic groups in the region by links of warfare, raiding, trade, tribute, and alliances.

67. South America
indicate a West African Mandinka (mende) presence in Olmec terracotta figurines ofNegroid peoples of ancient are parts of separate, indigenous groups living
The fist civilization of ancient America is called the Olmec. It was located along the Mexican Gulf Coast and began more than three thousand years ago. The most significant and widely acknowledged sculptural representations of African people in the Western Hemisphere (the "NewWorld") were sculpted by the Olmecs. The Olmec developed the first civilization of the Americas. At least seventeen monumental basalt stone heads, each weighing ten to forty tons, have been unearthed in Olmec sites along the Mexican Gulf Coast. One of the first European-American scientists to comment on the Olmec heads, archaeologist Mathew Stirling, described their facial features as "amazingly Negroid." Although major aspects of Olmec culture and history remain vaque, enough has been recovered to demonstrate a significant African presence in the Americas many centures before the advent of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Some scientists have even concluded that the Olmecs may have originally been an African settler-colony. Others are convinced that the African presence among the Olmecs was confined to a small and highly-influential elite community. Native legends of the Americas abound with the exploits of early Black people. In the Southwest Indian story of the Emergence, a story that is as important in the region as the Book of Genesis is to Christians, the First World is called the Black World!

68. The_recontextualization
purist interpretations have represented indigenous cultural traditions that openscommunication between peoples and cultures Glasgow (Art of the mende The Guy




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The recontextualization of culture in UK museums
Anthropology Today Vol. 8, No. 5, October 1992, pp. 11-16
(c) Royal Anthropological Institute
Until recently, local museums have done little to dispel this chilling, but to some intensely compelling and romantic image of arrested time and decay. There are few other areas where the effects of lethargy and neglect have been more acutely felt than in ethnography displays, where under-capitalization, lack of specialized expertise and problems of contextualization have threatened the preservation of materials and compromised the commitment of serious curators to provide appropriate settings for their collections. The Marischal Museum, Aberdeen, combines excellent visual presentation with a challenging comparative approach to anthropological themes.
Many of the country's estimated 378 ethnographic collection remain in storage.

69. Resources / Land
GENDER AND RESOURCE USE AMONG THE mende OF GOLA declaration on the rights of indigenouspeoples (SubCommission OF LAND AND PROPERTY IN EASTERN africa Diana Lee
Caucus HomePage Site Map Introduction Schedule of Meetings ... Resources
Sustainable Agriculture


Indigenous Peoples

CSD NGO Steering Committee
CSD NGO Women's Caucus
Resources: Land Resources
We are constantly gathering useful resources, references, networking information, etc. Please let us know which other references should be included! Reports, Books, Articles Web-Sites Discussion Groups Reports, Books, Articles RAINFOREST RELATIONS: GENDER AND RESOURCE USE AMONG THE MENDE OF GOLA, SIERRA LEONE
Melissa Leach
Edinburgh University Press 1994 272pp ISBN 7486 0493 6 £39.50
hardback - International African Library 13. Published in association with the International African This book brings forest dwellers' own differentiated perspectives to current rainforest debates. After reviewing changing conservation agendas, and gender and environment approaches, it draws on detailed fieldwork to examine the importance of forest resources to local economy and society, and how dynamic gender relations condition women's and men's different environmental relations. It shows that neither an understanding of forest use and change, nor adequate conservation policies, can be achieved without a concern for gender.
This book can also be ordered online from at the following url:

70. The 1996 CIA World Factbook Page On Sierra Leone
can read and write in English, mende, Temne, or on English law and customary lawsindigenous to local the February 1996 elections; National peoples Party (NPP
From: The CIA's THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1996 Factbook 1996 Home Gov Docs Home Libraries Home UM-St. Louis Home
Sierra Leone
Location: 8 30 N, 11 30 W Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
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Description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue
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Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W
Map references: Africa
total area: 71,740 sq km
land area: 71,620 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total: 958 km
border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km Coastline: 402 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation International disputes: none Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

71. Ethnog02
in women's spaces gender relations in mende rice farming Deborah Bird Rose 1999 Indigenousecologies and an Reprinted in EP Skinner (ed.) peoples and Cultures
A Selected Bibliography for Anthropology 1 For any required item not available in libraries, first consult Dr Charsley. JUMP
to Ethnographic film generally
K.G. Heider 1976 Ethnographic Film . Austin: University of Texas Press A.B. Weiner 1978 Epistemology and ethnographic reality, American Anthropologist M. Eaton (ed.) 1979 Anthropology - Reality - Cinema. The films of Jean Rouch . London: BFI I. Jarvie 1983 The problem of the ethnographic real, Current Anthropology Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking . Gottingen: Edition Herodot T. Asch 1988 Collaboration in ethnographic filmmaking. In J.R. Rollwagen (ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking . Chur: Harwood S. Freudenthal 1988 What to tell and how to show it: issues in anthropological filmmaking. In Rollwagen op. cit. 'Disappearing World': Television and Anthropology . London: Boxtree A. Ostor 1990 Whither ethnographic film? American Anthropologist Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines Film as Ethnography . Manchester: MUP op.cit.

72. Sierra Leone Facts & Figures
KARIMU, chairman; Sierra Leone peoples Party or Religions Muslim 60%, indigenousbeliefs 30 Languages English (official,), mende (principal vernacular in the
iSL- Navigator
SIERRA LEONE is an independent nation in western Africa, bounded on the north and east by Guinea, on the southeast by Liberia, and on the southwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Sierra Leone is Freetown, Other major towns include Bo, in the South, Makeni in the North, and Kenema and Koidu in the East. GOVERNMENT


GOVERNMENT Sierra Leone is governed under a 1991 constitution that provides for a multiparty democratic system and human rights guarantees. A president is both head of state and head of government. The president is popularly elected to a five-year term and may serve no more than two consecutive terms. Legislative authority rests with the single-chamber House of Representatives, which has 68 members elected by popular vote and 12 paramount chiefs chosen by district tribal councils. Representatives serve five-year terms. The constitution was suspended from 1992 to 1996 and from mid-1997 to early 1998 following military coups.
Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form: Sierra Leone Data code: SL Government type:

73. Sierra Leone (01/02)
Party (DCP), National Unity Party (NUP), peoples Democratic Party PEOPLE The indigenouspopulation is made up of 18 The Temne in the north and the mende in the
[Print Friendly Version]
Bureau of African Affairs
January 2002
Background Note: Sierra Leone

Republic of Sierra Leone
Area: 72,325 sq. km. (29,925 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than South Carolina.
Cities: Capital Freetown (est. 550,000). Provincial Capitals Southern Province Bo; Eastern Province, Kenema; Northern Province, Makeni.
Terrain: Three areasmangrove swamps and beaches along the coast, wooded hills along the immediate interior, and a mountainous plateau in the interior. People
Nationality: Noun and adjective Sierra Leonean(s).
Population (2001 est., no census since 1989): 4.5 million. Annual growth rate (1990 est.): 2.4%. Ethnic groups: Temne 30%, Mende 30%, Krio 1%, balance spread over 15 other tribal groups, and a small Lebanese community. Religions: (est.) Muslim 60%, Christian 30%, animist 10%. Languages: English, Krio, Temne, Mende, and 15 other indigenous languages. Education: (2000) Literacy Health: Life expectancy 38 yrs. Access to safe water54%. Infant mortality rate Under five mortality Work force: Agriculture industry services Government Type: Republic with a democratically elected President and Parliament.

74. Africans Art
15,000 members of the Bidjogo peoples inhabit some manage to preserve many indigenoustraits. African People Yoruba mende Bamana Kongo Yaka Chokwe

75. Africans Art
must consider both perspectives the indigenous as well the cultures of other peoplesonly by from a longstanding Western, imperialistic involvement in africa.

the mende language and used the mende script. actual descendants of precolumbian African/Negriticpeoples of the to 100 was a war against indigenous people of

77. Untitled
The mende of Sierra Leone A West African Warren and Oswald Weiner (eds.), Indigenousknowledge systems of Tanout Arrondissement, Niger , Nomadic peoples 11,26
Allen, Christopher. 1978. "Sierra Leone", in J.Dunn (ed.) West African States: Failure and Promise, pp.189-210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Banton, Michael. 1957. West African city; a study of tribal life in Freetown. London: Oxford University Press for the IAI.
Baxter, P.T.W. 1975. "Some consequences of sedentarization for social relationships", in T.Monod (ed.) Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, pp.206-228. London: Oxford University Press for IAI.
Baxter, P.T.W. 1984. "Butter for barley and barley for cash: petty transactions and small transformations in an Arssi market", in Sven Rubenson (ed.) Proceedings of the seventh international conference of Ethiopian societies; University of Lund, 26-29 April 1982. Addis Abeba: Institute of Ethiopian studies.
Bjeren, Gunilla. 1985. Migration to Shashemene; Ethnicity, gender and occupation in urban Ethiopia, Uppsala: Scandanavian Institute of African Studies.
Blench, Roger. 1985. "Pastoral labour and stock alienation in the sub-humid and arid zones of West Africa", ODI Pastoral Development Network Paper19e.

78. Untitled
of writing from trade with Semiticspeaking peoples and then A survey of the indigenousscripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone Vai, mende, Loma, Kpelle
Languages in Contact: Implications for Literacy
H. Russell Bernard, University of Florida
In: Literacy: And International Handbook, edited by Daniel Wagner, Richard Venetzky, and Brian Street. Westview Press, 1999. This is not the final copy-edited version. Not for quotation. Use the printed version for quotation.
Historically, literacy has spread through contact between peoples who spoke written languages and those who did not. Contact results from trade, religious proselytizing, and schooling, the last often in cases of conquest and occupation. Three thousand years ago there were an estimated half million bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states all independent political units (Carneiro 1968). Today, there are about 6000 languages spoken in around 200 countries. Languages are thus now in contact more than ever.
The Spread of Writing
Writing was invented independently at least twice. Some scholars hold that all early writing systems in the Old World derive from a single invention (around 3200 BCE) that was spread by culture contact. The writing of the ancient Indus civilization, around 2500 BCE, for example, may have been stimulated by contact with traders from the Middle East. Others argue that writing was invented independently in what is today Iraq, Egypt, India, and China.

79. Spotlight On Teaching
groups such as the Ibibio, Oromo, Edo and mende. implicit in the tradition, usingindigenous categories and to learn more about the Yoruba and Dogon peoples.
Spotlight on Teaching Volume 1, Number 2 May 1993 © American Academy of Religion 1993, 2002
More Bones Than Flesh: Teaching African Religion in Nigeria and the United States
Jacob K. Olupona
University of California, Davis
For the past ten years or so, I have been involved in teaching, among other courses, African traditional religion, in Nigerian universities, especially at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe. In the last two years, I have offered this same course in four colleges and universities in the United States. My teaching and research experiences in these two countries have been quite different though mutually beneficial. They form the subject of this paper. To begin with, I examine the syllabus and general course content, before turning to my teaching methods and approaches. There I consider various textual and audio-visual materials and discuss the course requirements and students' assessment of the course. My primary intention in the course is to provide a general overview of the traditional religions of Sub-Saharan African peoples with a focus on four main regions: west, east, central, and southern Africa. In addition, we focus on well-studied ethnic groups such as the Yoruba, Zulu, Bambara, Asante, Igbo, Nuer, Ewe, Xhosa and Dinka and less considered groups such as the Ibibio, Oromo, Edo and Mende. It is important to emphasize to the students that case studies of specific ethnic religions are preferred to general overviews. In the course, both approaches are utilized in order to do justice to both the breadth and depth of African religions. I use the same standard syllabus for Nigeria and the U.S. The topics and themes, which are revised and updated every semester, are generally similar.

80. West Africa - EthnoBass
English Major ethnic groups indigenous African tribes 95 tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende30%, other

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