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         Otters Sea:     more books (100)
  1. Sea Otters (Zoobooks Series) by Beth Wagner Brust, 2000-06
  2. Otter in the Cove. by Miska Miles, 1974-05
  3. Sea Otters (Naturebooks) by Peter Murray, 2001-01
  4. Sea Otter by Julian May, 1980-03
  5. Sea Otters (Jane Goodall's Animal World) by Ruth Ashby, 1990-03
  6. Seldovia Sam and the Sea Otter Rescue by Susan Woodward Springer, 2003-08-01
  7. Sea Otter, River Otter (The Wonder Series) by Sandra Chisholm Robinson, 1993-05-01
  8. Sea Otter Inlet by Celia Godkin, 2001-04-18
  9. The Quest of the Sea Otter. a Romance for Youth by Sabra Conner, 1927
  10. Sea Otters and the China Trade, by Robert Kingery. Buell, 1968-06
  11. Sea otter in eastern north Pacific waters (Pacific search books) by Alice Seed, 1972
  12. Jason and the Sea Otter by Joe Barber-Starkey, 1997-01-01
  13. Sea Otters (Blastoff! Readers: Oceans Alive) by Anne Wendorff, 2008-09
  14. The California Sea Otter: Saved or Doomed? by John Woolfenden, 1985-05

41. ADF&G's Wildlife Notebook Series: Sea Otter
In 1867, when Russian exploitation had greatly reduced the numbers of sea otters,Alaska was sold to the United States. sea otters became alarmingly scarce.
Notebook Home Search Contact Us
Sea Otter
The sea otter Enhydra lutris ) lives in shallow water areas along the shores of the North Pacific. Its range once extended from southern California north then west through the Aleutian Islands, to the Kamchatka Peninsula, and south to the northern islands of Japan. In 1742, Vitus Bering's men returned with sea otter pelts from the historic voyage of discovery of Alaska. Interest in these rich furs initiated an era of exploitation which almost wiped out the sea otter. The early Russian settling of Alaska was largely a result of the sea otter industry. In 1867, when Russian exploitation had greatly reduced the numbers of sea otters, Alaska was sold to the United States. The few conservation measures that had been instituted by the Russians in their final years of occupation were dropped by the Americans, and hunting intensified. Sea otters became alarmingly scarce. Finally in 1911, when so few animals were left that it was no longer profitable to hunt them (in many areas they were completely exterminated), sea otters were given full protection under the Fur Seal Treaty. The treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan. In 1960, the state of Alaska assumed management authority for sea otters. The management program conducted by the state included the successful reintroduction of sea otters to unoccupied habitat in Southeast Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington. The Marine Mammal Protection Act transferred management authority to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1972. Recovery of the Alaska sea otter population has been dramatic. Perhaps as few as 2,000 total animals existed in 1911, but by the mid-1970s the Alaska population numbered between 110,000 and 160,000. Most of the sea otter habitat in Alaska has now been repopulated. The principal exception is Southeast Alaska where numbers are increasing rapidly and otters are moving into new areas. Smaller populations exist in the Commander and Kurile islands, British Columbia, Washington, and California.

42. Sea Otter Home
Biology. sea otter floating in a bed of kelp. History. Group of sea otters. CurrentResearch. Available Literature. Remnant population of sea otters. Map of Range.
Sea Otter The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the agency responsible for maintaining a healthy population of sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) in Alaska. Sea otters are the largest member of the weasel family and the smallest marine mammal. They are conspicuous members of near shore ecosystems of the North Pacific, ranging from the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula south through Prince William Sound and southeast Alaska. Because they have the densest fur of any mammal, sea otters were nearly extirpated during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries due to over-hunting for their fur. The Marine Mammal Protection Act now prohibits a commercial harvest and allows only coastal Alaska Natives to hunt sea otters for subsistence and creation of handicrafts. Sea otters made a dramatic comeback from near extinction and now occupy most of their former range in Alaska. The goals of the Marine Mammals Management Office are to maintain the Alaska sea otter population within its optimum sustainable population range, to maintain healthy habitats for sea otters, and to conserve and manage sea otters to ensure that there will be opportunities for a variety of human uses, including native subsistence hunting and wildlife viewing. Toward this end, Marine Mammals Management works with a variety of user groups in Alaska including Alaska Native groups, tourism, and fishing industries. The Marine Mammals Management Office monitors the size, status and trends of the sea otter population and collects life history data to ensure a healthy, viable population of sea otters in Alaska.

43. Sea Otter Biology
sea otter floating.sea otters are a member of the weasel family (Mustelidae)and live in the nearshore waters along the North Pacific ocean.
Northern Sea Otter ( Enhydra lutris A brief summary of sea otter information is available by clicking here . You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this file.
Sea otters are a member of the weasel family (Mustelidae) and live in the near-shore waters along the North Pacific ocean. Sea otters are the smallest marine mammal and are most closely related to river otters. Sea otters have adapted to their marine environment in several ways. Their teeth are designed for crushing hard-shelled Sea otters normally live between 15 and 20 years. Female sea otters will have their first pups around the age of 2 to 5 years and will breed annually until age 20. Males become sexually mature around 4 to 6 years of age but may not hold a breeding ground until several years later. Sea otters mate year round and pups may be born in any season, however, in Alaska, most pups are born in late spring. Sea otters will generally have only one pup during each breeding cycle. The pups usually stay with the mother for 3 - 6 months. It is estimated that 90% of the world's sea otter population is found in the coastal waters of Alaska. The current population in Alaska is estimated at 100,000 animals.

44. Pictures Of Sea Otters, Sea Life Pictures, Sea Animal Pictures, Sea Life Photogr
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45. OceanInfo: Sea Otters, Enhydra Lutris
Based on morphological differences in color, body and skull sizes, three subspeciesof sea otters have been proposed historically El lutris Linn., the


The biology of animals that have been traditionally hunted are usually well known. Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Enhydra lutris , the sea otter, was heavily exploited by man, prized universally for its exceptionally warm, sheik and tremendously valuable pelt. Subsequently, in order to maximize harvest yield, the human predatory machine studied sea otter biology intently. This cute, furry, charismatic species was so well hunted that it was extirpated along most of its historical range in North America. A second wave of study in sea otter biology was initiated at the beginning of the twentieth century in efforts to prevent the animal's extinction. Recent studies of E. lutris appear to emerge from all areas of science. Currently, numerous scientific papers are being published on many different scales in the disciplines of physiology, ecology, behaviour, pathology, and conservation of this animal. The resources utilized in the synthesis of this page represent a very minute fraction of the myriad of past and current publications dedicated to Enhydra lutris Systematics
The sea otter ( Enhydra lutris , Linnaeus 1758) is the only member of the genus Enhydra (Fig.1). It is the largest member of the family Mustelidae which includes approximately 70 species; the otter is also the smallest marine mammal and is the only one in the order Carnivora. Based on morphological differences in color, body and skull sizes, three sub-species of sea otters have been proposed historically:

46. OceanLink Answers To Seal, Sea Otter And Manatee Questions
ASK A SCIENTIST ANSWERS TO seals, sea Lions, sea otters,Walrus,. Manatees DugongsQUESTIONS. Index to Questions. BACK TO seaL INDEX OR ANSWER FILE. sea otters.
ASK A SCIENTIST ANSWERS TO Seals, Sea Lions, Sea Otters,Walrus,
QUESTIONS Index to Questions Seal appetites
Seal information

Frequencies Heard by Seals

Harbour Seals and Fisheries
Freshwater Harbour Seals

Sea Lion Vocalizations
Sea Lion Breeding Grounds
Seal cells
Harbour Seal Seasons

Whales vs. Seals
SEA OTTERS Sea Otter Distribution in B.C.
Sea Otter Diet
Sea Otter Feeding Habits
Sea Otter Drink Declining Sea Otter Populations Sea Otter Reproduction Sea Otter Life Expectancy ... Migrating Manatees WALRUS Walrus evolution Seal Appetites Q: How much do seals eat a day, and how long do they live? A: There are so many different seal species in the world that its difficult to say what they can eat in a day. The harbour seals at the Vancouver aquarium eat an average of 8.1 percent of their body weight each day. That's a lot of food! If a 100 pound human had to eat eight percent of his weight each day it would mean consuming about eight pounds of food. The average lifespan of all pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) is about 15-25 years. Seals (received November 12 from ? on Vancouver Island)

47. The Marine Mammal Center
of The Marine Mammal Center is to rescue and humanely treat ill, injured, or orphanedmarine mammals including seals, sea lions, sea otters, dolphins and whales
our group programs
marine mammal information


sea lions at PIER 39
Sea Otters
Enhydra lutris

meaning of scientific name: otter DESCRIPTION: Sea otters are members of the weasel or mustelid family. Like other members of this family, they have very thick fur. In fact, at 850,000 to one million hairs per square inch, they have the thickest fur of any mammal. Their fur actually consists of two layers, an undercoat and longer guard hairs. This system traps a layer of air next to their skin so their skin does not get wet. Sea otters are usually dark brown, often with lighter guard hairs. Alaskan sea otters tend to have lighter fur on their heads. Sea otters are the smallest marine mammal. Adult females weigh 35-60 pounds (16-27 kg); males reach up to 90 pounds (40 kg). Alaskan sea otters are bigger with males weighing up to 100 pounds (45 kg). RANGE/HABITAT: Sea otters once ranged from Mexico to Alaska and even to Japan. Currently, the California population numbers around 2,000 and is found from Half Moon Bay to Morro Bay. There is a much larger population in Alaska, and sea otters are still found in Russia. Sea otters inhabit shallow coastal areas and prefer places with kelp. The kelp acts as an anchor that the sea otters use to wrap themselves in when they are resting.

48. California Sea Otters
California sea otters. Counts made since 1983 have increased at about 5%6%per year. In spring 1993, 2,239 California sea otters were counted. Fig. t/noframe/c262.htm

49. Sea Otters In The North Pacific Ocean
sea otters in the North Pacific Ocean. Today more than 100,000 sea ottersoccur throughout about 75% of their original range (Fig. 1b). t/noframe/s043.htm

50. Vancouver Aquarium - AquaFacts Sea Otters I Enhydra Lutris /i
AquaFacts sea otters Enhydra lutris. Where do sea otters live? How manysea otters are there? British Columbia 2,500 to 3,000 sea otters.

51. Sea Otter Campaign For The Los Cerritos Wetlands MPA
Wetlands are favorite places for sea otters to hang out. sea otters canfind abundant food sources, especially clams, in cleanedup wetlands.
Sea Otter Campaign
join or renew ONLINE
(code 0447)
2010 Campaign
Restore at least 20% of Ocean, Coast and Watershed resources by 2010/2020 "Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure,
than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much,
because they live in the gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat"

Theodore Roosevelt, 1899
Bring Back the Southern Sea Otter
Campaign to bring the Southern Sea Otter back to
Marine Protected Areas on the west coast of North America New: Proposal for GIS mapping of MPA
Fish and Wildlife Draft Recovery Plan, and Citizen's response
Join our list serv, send and receive Getting Around Sea Otter Campaign Intro to the Draft Recovery Plan Part 2 of the Draft Recovery Plan Citizens response to the FWS Draft Recovery plan Marine Protected Areas Create MPAs Research, Science Campaign/What you can do Coast Watcher screen Sea Otter links/resources Sign up/groups/messages/chat TBT, the bottom paint linked to Otter deaths See a short video about Kelp and Sea Otters note: these rollover pics by Art Wolfe. Order a Sea Otter screen saver, see the links page

52. ThinkQuest Library Of Entries
Welcome to the ThinkQuest Junior of Entries
The web site you have requested, Sea Otters, California's Threatened Treasure , is one of over 4000 student created entries in our Library. Before using our Library, please be sure that you have read and agreed to our To learn more about ThinkQuest. You can browse other ThinkQuest Library Entries To proceed to Sea Otters, California's Threatened Treasure click here Back to the Previous Page The Site you have Requested ...
Sea Otters, California's Threatened Treasure
click here to view this site
A ThinkQuest Junior 2001 Entry
Click image for the Site Awards Received
  • Platinum
Site Desciption Southern Sea Otters California's Threatened Treasure. Historical information concerning, native habitat, population counts, range, and the near extinction due to hunting and pollution. Explain the lifecycle of these otter including reproduction, diet, social life, and physical attributes. Our site will highlight three special Southern Sea Otters from the California Monterey Bay Aquarium. Aquarium's role in research and preservation of Sea Otters and their local environment. California Sea Otters are currently on the U.S. Threatened Species list, this web site will examine causes for declining numbers, statistical information, the role of pollution, and disease and other resources. Cover how conservation groups team with public agencies to save sick or injured sea otters.

53. Sea Otters!
sea otters. Southern sea Otter Facts. Scientific Name Enhydra lutris, or Enhydralutris nereis. In the year 1920 sea otters were believed to be extinct. Senses
Sea Otters
Southern Sea Otter Facts Scientific Name: Enhydra lutris, or Enhydra lutris nereis Physical Characteristics: Males are usually four feet long and weigh around 65 pounds while the females may be only 45 pounds. Teeth: Otters are adapted to life in the ocean and only rarely will they come to land. They have extremely strong canine teeth so that they can tear their food and have large flat molars for dealing with hard shells and for opening small clams. Diet: Otters use their forepaws or tools to dislodge prey from rocky areas. Otters must eat the equivalent of 20 to 25 percent of their body weight each day in order to maintain a high level of internal heat production. Otters eat almost anything they can haul to thge surface. Their diet may include crabs, clams, sea urchins, sea stars, or their favorite, abolone. One interesting fact about a sea otter's diet is that they seem to learn what is good to eat from their mother. This is why there can be a group of otters in an area with each otter preferning different foods. One may like crabs while the other likes to eat sea urchins or abolone. I have sen otters gathering a grab-bag of critters for supper though. I once saw one gathering sea stars like this one along with small crabs. Ears: Otters have small external ears and can hear very well. Their ears are protected by a small flap just indside the ear to prevent water from getting in the ear canal.

54. Defenders Of Wildlife - Wildlife - Sea Otters
CONSERVING sea OTTER POPULATIONS WORLDWIDE. sea otters. Only three lutris).Southern sea otters are found only in California. Northern
Select Wolves Dolphins Bears Birds Sea Otters Polar Bears Manatees Bison
Sea Otters in California
Sea Otters in Alaska Sea Otters in Washington Sea Otter Range Maps ... Adopt A Sea Otter
Only three subspecies of sea otter are found in the world: the southern, or California, sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis ), the northern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris kenyoni ) and the Russian sea otter ( Enhydra lutris lutris ). Southern sea otters are found only in California. Northern sea otters are found in Washington, Alaska and Canada. Russian sea otters are found in Russia and there are a few in Japan.

55. Defenders Of Wildlife - Wildlife - Sea Otters - California
This area is referred to as the parent range. Because these sea otters livedso close to oil tanker traffic, a major goal of the recovery plan was to
Select Wolves Dolphins Bears Birds Sea Otters Polar Bears Manatees Bison
Sea Otter Video Offshore Oil Drilling Sea Otters and Fisheries Gear Sea Otter Comment Letters ... Main Sea Otter Page
CALIFORNIA The southern, or California, sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis ) is listed as a threatened species under the federal Endangered Species Act and is also protected under California state law and by the Marine Mammal Protection Act. the designated management zone.

56. Where Have All The Sea Otters Gone?
Sketch an Aleutian coastal ecosystem food web showing the relationships amongorcas, sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp.

This Week's Current
The Classroom Flyer Life Science Biology ... Sports June 15, 2000 Where Have All the Sea Otters Gone? A Remarkable Comeback Few animals can captivate aquarium visitors like sea otters. Their playful antics and impressive dives are guaranteed to delight the crowds. What makes the future of these fun-loving mammals so uncertain? Until the 1700s, sea otters thrived in the cool waters of the North Pacific Ocean. An estimated 150,000 to 300,000 were found in an arc stretching from northern Japan, across southern Alaska, and down the North American coast to Baja, California. Prized for their furs, sea otters were hunted to the brink of extinction by the beginning of the twentieth century. By the time the International Fur Seal Treaty of 1911 put an end to the mass slaughter, only about 1,000 to 2,000 sea otters remained worldwide.
  • By what percentage has the sea otter population decreased along this section of Alaska's coast?

A Murder Mystery
Who or what has been killing the otters? The researchers tested several possibilities. Did they die from some unknown disease? Did toxins kill them? Did they starve? All of these hypotheses seemed reasonable. All proved wrong.

57. Stuffed Otters : Sea Otter : Sea Life : All Plush : Stuffed Plush Animals
All Plush carries several types of otters. sea Otter is one item thatcan be found under sea Life. Made by Purrfection. Home Stuffed
Stuffed Animals

58. More About Sea Otters
Without sea otters, sea urchins can become so numerous that they mow downkelp forests where fish and shellfish live, leaving a barren sea floor.
Home Dolphin Humpback Whale Manatee ... Dolphin Log A SEA OTTER'S LIFE AT SEA The otter's teeth are flat and tough, to crack shells. Its front paws pick upand pick apartcrabs, sea urchins, clams and other crustaceans to eat.
Otters are one of the very few mammals that use tools regularly. An otter will carry a rock in a pocket of skin under its arm. When it brings a crab, for example, back to the surface of the water, the sea otter rolls over on its back, places the rock on its stomach and smacks the crab against it to crack open the shell. Then it can get at the delicious meat inside. It's not just for dining that an otter spends time lounging on the surface of the ocean. A mother sea otter lies on her back, holding her pup with her forepaws while it feeds or naps. She keeps her baby very close, feeding and teaching it for 6-8 months. When it is about two months old, it begins to dive for food, too. Otters often sleep in kelp beds, rolling themselves in pieces of this giant sea weed to keep from floating away. They rest while floating in groups, or "rafts" of three or four individuals. Sometimes the rafts can link up hundreds of otters, especially in areas where there are no kelp beds.
Because of hunting, Sea otters were nearly extinct at the end of the nineteenth century. Today there are probably about 100,000 otters in the northern waters from Alaska to Russia. Another 500 or so live further south in Alaska, 100 along the coast of the US-Canada border and about 2,000 in California's waters. Although they are protected from hunting now, a recent, new threat to sea otters seems to come from a change in the feeding habits of orcas. In Alaska, researchers have seen orcas preying on otters, instead of their usual diet of seals or sea lions.

Photographers Specializing in otters, sea The following photographershave listed this term in their stocklist as a specialty. Click

60. CM Magazine: Sea Otters.
sea otters. Bobbie Kalman. Niagaraon-the Lake, ON Crabtree Publishing Company,l997. *** /4. excerpt What are sea otters? sea otters are mammals.
CM . . . . Volume VI Number 12 . . . . February 18, 2000 Sea Otters. Bobbie Kalman.
Niagara-on-the Lake, ON: Crabtree Publishing Company, l997.
ISBN 0-86505-734-6 (pbk.), ISBN 0-86505-634-X (cl.). Grades K-3 / Ages 4-8.
Review by Jennifer Johnson. excerpt:
What are sea otters? Sea otters are mammals. They are warm-blooded. A mammal's body temperature stays the same in both warm and cold surroundings. Mammals have fur or hair. A baby mammal feeds on its mother's milk. Sea otters are marine mammals. They live only in salt water. Dolphins and whales are also marine mammals. Sea Otters will just have to be seen to be sold to young readers. The attractive design, the engaging photographs of the ultra-cute otters themselves and the extra visual features of drawings scattered throughout make this an attractive package. Colours recall the sea with blues, purples and greens set as a frame to each photograph. The borders are wide and enhanced by the addition of the extra drawings, mostly bubbles, which add to the feeling of the wet and wonderful ocean life experienced by the otters. The visual appeal of this book will attract children; the information will satisfy the adult who is the more likely critic of content. Kalman has used a formalized approach to the subject, including a list of contents under the title, "What is in this book?" Topics include: The otter family tree; A sea otter's body; and Where do sea otters live? The book covers a range of natural history information and concludes with environmental awareness and protection of the sea otter. Kalman ends

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